Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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ways, some through the writings and speech of those who read classi-
cal Latin, a great many through mediaeval Latin, but far the greatest
number through the Romance languages, particularly French.

b. Some Latin words appear in English in their Latin forms,
though they may have passed through other forms and may now have
a different meaning; as "arbor" (II. 17), "census" (I. 29), "color"
(V. 14), "duplex" (II. 29), "senator" (II. 28), "victor" (I. 31), and
"omnibus," meaning originally for all, from the Dative Plural Mascu-
line of omnia (I. 1).

81. Many Latin Words appear in English with slight change of
spelling, as " cent " from centum (I. 37), " condition " from condicio
(I. 28) through a late spelling conditio ; " difficulty" from difflcultas

1 Classes in Caesar find it a useful exercise to make, on separate slips or
cards, a list of Latin words in each lesson having English derivatives, adding
the words derived from them. The Latin words from time to time can be
classified, in groups corresponding with the numbered paragraphs 80-85, the
words in each group being arranged in alphabetical order.

2 The editor is indebted to Professor O. F. Emerson, of Western Reserve
University, for helpful suggestions.



§83] Derivation of English Words 529

(II. 20), "fort" from fortis (I. 48), "future" from futurus (I. 10),
the Future Participle associated with sum ; " office " from omcium
(I. 40), "senate" from senatus (I. 3), and "victory" from victoria
(I. 53); "false" from falsus (VI. 20), and "pedal" from pedalis
(III. 13), which goes back to pes, Gen. pedis, foot (I. 25) ; " admire "
from admiror (I. 14), "ascend" from ascendo (I. 21), "accept"
from accipio (I. 14) through the Frequentative accepts, accept,
wmich is formed from acceptus (I. 48), Participle of accipio.

82. a. Some English Words have been formed from Latin Words
by Analogy of Latin or French Words already in the language. Ex-
amples are "magistracy" and "classical."

b. "Magistracy" goes back to magistratus (I. 4). From magis-
tratus came " magistrate," to which the suffix " -cy " was added from
Analogy to the English nouns of Latin origin ending in " -cy " J ; this
suffix represents the Latin termination -tia, as in "clemency," from
dementia (II. 14). With the addition of the suffix "-cy" the last
two letters of " magistrate " disappeared ; hence " magistracy."

c. "Classical" comes from the Adjective classicus, Jirst class,
which goes back to classis, a class, though in Caesar classis (III. 14,
etc.) has only the meaning fleet, as a class or division of military
forces. From classicus comes " classic " ; the suffix " -al " was added
from Analogy to the English Words which are derived from the Latin
Adjectives ending in -alis, as " social " from socialis (ultimately from
socius, fellow, ally, I. 5), " hospital " from hospitalis (ultimately from
hospes, Gen. hospitis, guest-friend, I. 53), and " legal " from legalis
(ultimately from lex, legis, law, I. 1). Similarly, "aural " is derived
from auris, ear (VI. 26), "continual" from continuus (I. 48), and
"senatorial" from senatorius (C. III. 83), the suffix " -al " replac-
ing the Latin terminations.

83. a. Some English Words are formed from Words of ultimate
Latin origin by the addition of a suffix of English origin. Thus
"falsehood" comes from "false" (Latin falsus, VI. 20) with the
suffix "-hood " denoting quality ; " citizenship " from " citizen," which
goes back ultimately to Latin civis (VII. 77), with the suffix " -ship"
denoting state or office ; " instantly " from " instant " (Latin instans,
Gen. instantis, Present Participle of insto, 1. 16), and " nobly " from
"noble" (Latin nobilis, I. 2), by addition of the suffix " -ly," which
has the same origin as the English word " like."

1 This suffix has no connection with a similar suffix of Greek origin found
in " democracy " and a few other English words.



530 Companion to Caesar [§84

b. A few English Words are formed from Latin Words by the ad-
dition of an English suffix of Greek origin ; as " jurist " from ius,
Gen. iuria (I. 4) with the suffix "-ist," which represents a Greek
termination denoting the agent; "Caesarism," "nihilism," " terror-
ism " from Caesar (I. 7), nihil (1. 11), and terror (11.12) with the
suffix " -ism," also of Greek origin, implying doctrine or practice.

84. Many Latin Words, especially those that have come into Eng-
lish through the French, have undergone so great changes that their
Latin origin is not at once perceived, though it can always be traced
through intermediate forms. Such are " captaincy," from " captain,"
which is ultimately derived from caput (I. 29), head, with the suffix
" -cy " (82, b) ; " city," from civit&s (I. 2) ; " lieutenant," from
locum tenSns (Present Participle of teneo, hold), one holding
another's office or place ; " madam," " Madonna," from mea domina,
Feminine corresponding to the Masculine meus dominus (Dative
dominis, VI. 13) ; " governor " from gubernator (III. 9) ; " peril "
from periculum (I. 17), and "perilous" from periculosus (1.38),
"preach " from praedico (I. 44), and " receive " from recipio (I. 5).

85. A few common abbreviations represent Latin Words ; as " no."
in " no. 9," where " no." stands not for " number " but for numero
(I. 5), the Ablative of numerus. Also, the symbols for English
money, £ s. d., now read as " pounds, shillings, pence," are derived
from Latin words : £ be libra, a pound in weight, whence librilis,
weighing a pound (VII. 81) ; s. = solidus, a Roman gold coin; and
d. = d8nirius, a Roman silver coin, translated penny, though its value
as silver was originally between fifteen and twenty cents in our cur-
rency. Solidus, the name of the coin, came from the Adjective soli-
dus, from which our word " solid " is derived ; it survives in our word
" soldier " as " one having pay " for military service. Denarius otDM
from deni, ten each (I. 43) because it originally contained ten of the
monetary units called as, and as survives in our word " ace."

Our abbreviation " Mr." is for " Master," but "Master " is of Latin
origin, being derived from magister (C. III. 43).

86. The value of the contribution which the English language has
received from the Latin cannot be measured in percentages of words.
The words of English origin which we use are largely concrete, and
well fitted to express fundamental ideas ; but we are indebted to the
Latin for a very large proportion of the words employed in the arts,
science and education, which fit the English language to be the
vehicle of expression for a constantly developing civilization.



SYNTAX
SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

87. a. A Noun or Pronoun, or an Adjective taking the place of a
Noun, when used as the Subject of a Finite Verb is in the Nomina-
tive Case ; as, legati reverterunt, the envoys returned (I. 8) ; integri
defessis succederent, fresh men were relieving the exhausted (VII. 41).

b. A Personal Pronoun used as a Subject is expressed only when
there is emphasis or contrast; as, Desilite, commilitones, nisi vul-
tis aquilam hostibus prodere ; ego certe meum . . . officium
praestitero, Leap down, comrades, unless you want to abandon your
eagle to the enemy ; I at any rate shall have done my duty. Here ego is
emphatic, but the subject of the Plural Verbs is not emphatic, and
hence is not expressed (IV. 25).

c. Instead of a Noun or other Substantive word an Infinitive or a
Clause may be used as the Subject of a Verb ; as, Commodissimum
visum est Gaium Valerium Procillum . . . mittere, It seemed
most expedient to send Gaius Valerius Procillus, where mittere is the
subject of visum est (I. 47).

88. a. A Predicate Noun, in the same case as the Subject, is used
with sum and the Passives of Verbs of calling, choosing, making,
esteeming, and the like ; as, Divico princeps fuit, Divico was the lead-
ing man (I. 13) ; qui . . . Galli appellantur, loho are called Gauls
(I. 1) ; duces el deliguntur, those are chosen (as) leaders (III. 23).

b. A Predicate Noun after Passive Participles is similarly used ; as,
obsidibus acceptis primis civitatis, having received the foremost
men of the state as hostages, lit. the foremost men of the state having been
received as hostages (II. 13).

89. a. A Verb is sometimes omitted when it can easily be supplied
from the context; as, acies (I. 25), where intulit is to be supplied.

b. Forms of sum are often omitted in the compound tenses ; as,
occisa (I. 53) for occisa est, was killed.

c. In the Future Active and Perfect Passive Infinitive, and also in
the Present Passive Infinitive of the Periphrastic Conjugation, esse

531



532 Companion to Caesar Q 90

is frequently omitted; as, conciliaturum (I. 8) for conciliaturum
esse; ituros atque futuros (I. 13) for ituros esse atque futuros
esse ; laturi for laturi esse (I. 40) ; occisum . . . pulsum . . . mis-
sum (I. 7) for occisum esse . . . pulsum esse . . . missum esse;
exspectandum (I. 11) for exspectandum esse.

90. a. In certain connections est, erat, etc., may best be trans-
lated there is, there was, etc., with the Subject following ; as, Flumen
est Arar, There is a river, the Arar (I. 12) ; Erant itinera duo.
There were tiuo routes (I. 6).

b. Occasionally there may be used in like manner in translating
other verbs than sum; as, Relinquebatur una via, There remained
only the route (I. 9).

NOUNS

91. a. Nouns used as Appositives, whether in the Nominative or
in the Oblique cases, agree in case with the Nouns to which they
belong; as, Ariovistus, rex Germanorum, Ariovistus, king of the
Germans (I. 31) ; a Bibracte, oppido (Ablative) Aeduorum, from
Bibracte, a town of the Aeduans (I. 23).

b. Nouns in Predicate Apposition sometimes agree with an un-
expressed Subject, which is implied in the Verb ; as, homines . . .
(ei) afficiebantur, {being) men ... they were sorely troubled (I. 2).

c. A Noun referring to a Part may be in Apposition to a Noun ex-
pressing the Whole (Partitive Apposition) ; as, itinera duo : unum
(iter), alterum (iter), two routes: the one (route) . . . , the other . . .
(I. 6).

92. a. A Plural Noun is often used in Latin where English usage
prefers the Singular ; as, ad effgminandos animos, to weaken the
courage (I. 1).

b. An Abstract Noun is sometimes used in Latin where English
usage expects a Concrete Plural Noun ; as, coniurationem nobili-
tatis, a conspiracy of the nobles, lit. of the nobility (I. 2).

c. Abstract Nouns are sometimes used in the Plural to denote
instances of the Quality ; as ; ad frlgora atque aestiis vitandos,
to avoid heat and cold (VI. 22).

THE VOCATIVE CASE

93. The Vocative Case is used only in Direct Address; as, Quid
dubitas, Vorfiue? Vorenus, why do you hesitate? (V. 44).



97] The Genitive Case 533



THE GENITIVE CASE

94. a. In the Possessive Genitive the idea of Possession or of
Close Connection is generally prominent; as, fines Sequanorum, the
territory of the Sequanians, the Sequanians' country (I. 8); a humani-
tate provinciae, from the refinement of the Province (I. 1).

b. The Possessive Genitive is used idiomatically with causa,
gratia and instar; as, auxili! causa, as an auxiliary force, lit. for the
sake of support (II. 24) ; sui purgandi gratia, in order to clear them-
selves (VII. 43) ; instar muri munimentum, a barrier like a wall, lit.
the image of a wall (II. 17).

c. A Genitive, perhaps Possessive in Origin, is used with pridie
and postrldie ; as, pridie eius die!, the day before that day, on the
previous day (I. 47) ; postrldie eius diei, the next day (II. 12).

d. With sum and f!6 the Possessive Genitive is used Predicatively
with the meaning (the business) of belonging to, etc. ; as, neque se
iudicare Galliam potius esse Ariovisti quam populi Roman!,
and he judged that Gaul did not belong to Ariovistus (lit. ivas not Ario-
vistus' s) any more than to the Roman people (I. 45).

95. The Subjective Genitive designates the Person or Agent whose
act or feeling is expressed in the Noun on which the Genitive de-
pends ; as, ab Ariovisti iniuria, from the wrongdoing of Ariovistus
(I. 31) ; terrore equorum, the fright caused by the horses, lit. of the
horses (IV. 33).

96. The Appositional Genitive defines or explains the Noun on
which it depends ; as, iniuria retentorum equitum, the wrong (com-
mitted by) detaining the knights, the detaining of the knights being
the wrong expressed in iniuria (III. 10).

97. a. The Partitive Genitive, or Genitive of the Whole, designates
the Whole of which a Part is expressed in the Noun, Pronoun, Adjec-
tive, or Numeral on which it depends; as, quarum iinam (partem),
of which (i. e. three parts) one (part) (I. 1) ; mllia passuum CCXL,
two hundred and forty miles, lit. two hundred and forty thousands of paces
(I. 2) ; prlmos civitatis, the first (men) of the state (II. 3) ; nihil
reliqu! . . . fecerunt, they spared no effort, lit. nothing of the rest
(II. 26).

b. The Part on which the Genitive of the Whole depends may be
indefinitely expressed by the Singular Neuter of a Pronoun or of an
Adjective, used substantively, or by the Adverb satis used substan-
tively; as, quid negoti!, what business, lit. what of business (I. 34);



534 Companion to Caesar [§ 98

quid sui consilii sit, what his plan was (I. 21) ; aliquid novi con-
silii, some new scheme or other (IV. 32) ; quantum bom, how great
good (I. 40) ; plus doloris, more suffering (I. 20) ; totius Galliae
plurimum possent, were the most powerful of all Gaul (I. 3) ; satis
causae, sufficient ground, lit. enough of cause (I. 19).

c. In the English phrase all of these there is no Partitive idea, be-
cause these and all refer to the same whole. Such phrases are not
expressed in Latin by the Partitive Genitive but by words agreeing
in Case; as, HI omnes, all these (I. 1); complures nostri, a large
number of our men (I. 52) ; omnium vestrum, of all of you, of you
all (VII. 77).

d. Caesar sometimes uses de or ex with the Ablative instead of
the Genitive of the Whole; so regularly with quidam and words
referring to Number. Thus, quidam ex his, some of these (II. 17) ;
pauci de nostris, a few of our men (I. 15).

e. A Genitive of the Whole may be used with an Adverb in the
Superlative Degree ; as Deorum maxime Mercurium colunt, of the
gods they worship Mercury above all others (VI. 17).

98. a. A variety of the Genitive of the Whole is the Genitive of
Material, which is used to designate the Material or Units included
in the Noun on which it depends; as, multitudinem hominum. a
force of men, lit. a multitude (made up) of men (1.4); aciem legio-
num quattuor, a line (consisting) of four legions (I. 24).

b. The Material of which anything is made is expressed by the
Ablative with ex ; as, scutis ex cortice factis, with shields made of
bark (II. 33).

99. The Genitive is used to express Origin ; as, Catamantaloedis
filio, son of Catamantaloedes (I. 3).

100. a. The Genitive of Quality and the Genitive of Measure are
modified by Adjectives or Numerals ; as, homines magnae virtutis,
men of great valor (II. 15) ; murum in altitudinem pedum sedecim.
a rampart sixteen feet high, lit. to the height of sixteen feet (I. 8)

b. The Genitive of Quality and Genitive of Measure may be used
predicatively ; as, Ei ant eius modi situs oppidorum, The strong-
holds were so situated, lit. the situations of the strongholds were of such a
character (ITT. 12).

101. The Neuter Genitives magni, tanti. and some others are used
predicatively, without a Noun, to express Indefinite Value ; as, magni
habSbatur, ivas considered of great weight (IV. 21) ; tanti, of so great
account (I. 20).



§ 105] The Dative Case 535

102. The Objective Genitive is used with Nouns to denote the
Object toward which Action or Feeling is directed, and with Adjec-
tives to limit their application ; as, rei publicae (Genitive) iniuriam,
the wrong done to the state (I. 20) ; regni cupiditate inductus, led by
desire of kingly power (I. 2) ; imperitum rerum, unversed in affairs
(I. 44) ; alicuius iniuriae conscius, conscious of any wrong-doing
(I. 14).

103. a. Caesar uses reminiscor and obliviscor with a Genitive
of the thing remembered or forgotten ; as, reminisceretur incom-
modi, he should recall the disaster (I. 13) ; contumeliae obliviscl, to
be forgetful of an affront (I. 14).

b. A Genitive of the Charge is used with Verbs of Accusing and
Condemning; as, proditionis Insimulatus, accused of treachery (VII.
20) ; capitis damnarent, should condemn (to loss) of civil rights, lit.
of head (C. III. 83).

c. Caesar uses the impersonal paenitet with the Accusative of the
Person repenting and the Genitive of the Object of Repentance ; as,
quorum eos paenitere necesse est, of which they of necessity repent,
lit. of which it is necessary that it repent them (IV. 5).

d. Caesar uses interest with a Genitive Neuter to express the
degree of concern ; as, magni interesse arbitrabatur, he thought that
it was of great importance (V. 4) .

e. With interest Caesar uses a Genitive of the Interest concerned;
as, rei publicae communisque salutis intersit (Historical Present),
it concerned the State and their mutual welfare (II. 5).

THE DATIVE CASE

104. a. The Dative of the Indirect Object is used with Transitive
Verbs which have a Direct Object in the Accusative, or an Infinitive
Clause as Object, and also with the Passive of such Verbs ; as, dat
(Historical Present) negotium Senonibus, He assigned the task to the
Senones (II. 2); nostris — dabatur, was given to our men (IV. 29).

b. With such Verbs the place of the Direct Object may be taken by
an Adverb or a Clause ; as, ne suae magnopere virtuti tribueret,
that he should not presume over-much upon his valor (I. 13).

105. The Dative of the Indirect Object is used with many Intransi-
tive Verbs meaning persuade, trust, distrust ; command, obey, serve, re-
sist ; pardon, spare ; please, displease, favor, indulge ; approach ; envy,
threaten, rebuke, and some others ; as, persuadet Castico, he persuades
Casticus (I. 3), that is, he prevails upon Casticus. The Roman point



536 Companion to Caesar [§ ioe

of view in these verbs is somewhat different from that of the English,
which with corresponding verbs generally uses a Direct Object.

The following are among the Intransitive Verbs thus used with the Dative
by Caesar :

accidit, happens to (I. 18) ; appropinquS, approach (II. 10) ; cedo, yield
to (VII. 89) ; concedo, acknowledge inferiority to (IV. 7) ; confido, trust (I.
42); consulo, look out for (VI. 31); contingit, it falls to the lot of (I. 43);
credo, intrust (VI. 31) ; cupio, wish well to (I. 18).

despero, despair of (III. 12) ; diffid5, lose confidence in (VI. 38) ; evenit,
it turns out (IV. 25) ; faveo, favor (VI. 7) ; ignosco, pardon (I. 45) ; impero,
command (I. 28) ; indulged, treat with favor (I. 40) ; invideo, envy, be jeal-
ous of (II. 31).

licet, it is permitted (I. 30); medeor. remedy (V. 24) ; noceo. do injur;/
to (III. 13) ; obtempero, submit to (IV. 21) ; parco, spare (VI. 28) ; pared,
obey (VI. 13) ; persuadeo, persuade (I. 2) ; placet, it pleases (I. 34) ; pro-
spicio, arrange for (I. 23); prosum, be of benefit to (VI. 40).

repugno, contend against (I. 19) ; resists, oppose (I. 25) ; satisfacio, make
restitution (I. 14) ; servio, be the slave of (IV. 5), devote one's self to (VII.
34) ; studeo, be eager for (I. 9), give attention to (II. 17) ; tempero, restrain
(1.33).

106. a. A few Intransitive Verbs are also used Transitively by
Caesar, and govern the Accusative : examples are, impunitatem con-
cedere, grant escape from punishment (I. 14) ; milites, quos impera-
verat, the soldiers that he had levied (I. 7).

b. Verbs which take the Dative of the Indirect Object are in the
Passive used only Impersonally ; as, Sibi persuadSri, That the convic-
tion was forced upon him, that he was persuaded (I. 40).

107. a. The Dative of the Indirect Object is used after many
Verbs compounded with the Prepositions ad, ante, com- (for cum),
in, inter, ob, prae, sub, and super ; as, omnibus praestSrent, they
excelled all (I. 2).

b. Transitive Verbs compounded with these Prepositions may have
both a Direct and an Indirect Object, the Dative depending not on
the Preposition but on the Compound ; as, flnitimis bellum inferre,
to wage war on their neighbors (I. 2).

108. a. The Dative is used after Adjectives meaning agreeable,
friendly, hurtful, hostile, like, unlike, near, subject, obedient, suitable,
appropriate, and many others; as, plgbi acceptus, acceptable to the
people (L 3) ; proximi Germanis, next to the Germans (I. 1) ; locum
idoneum castris, a place suitable for <i ramp (II. 17).

b. Similis is used with the Genitive when referring to an inner or
complete resemblance, as, v6rl simile, probable, lit. having the likeness



§112] The Dative Case 537

of truth (III. 13); otherwise with the Dative; as, fugae similis, like
a rout (V. 53).

109. a. The Dative of Reference designates the Person or Interest
affected by the action or state expressed in a Verb, or in a Clause as
a whole; it should be translated with to, for, of , from, in, or left un-
translated, according to the meaning of the clause in which it appears,
and the requirements of English idiom. Thus, iniuriae sibi con-
scius f uisset, had been conscious of wrong-doing, lit. had been conscious,
to itself, of wrong-doing (I. 14) ; si sibi purgati esse vellent, if they
wanted to clear themselves in his sight, lit. to clear themselves with refer-
ence to himself (I. 28) ; Sese Caesari ad pedes proiecerunt, pros-
trated themselves at Caesar's feet, lit. in relation to Caesar (I. 31).

b. A Dative of Reference is used with Verbs of taking away, espe-
cially those compounded with ab, de, and ex (sometimes called Dative
of Separation) ; thus, Aeduis libertatem sint erepturi, that they were
going to take away liberty from the Aeduans, lit. that as regards the Aedu-
ans, they are, etc. (I. 17) ; scuto uni militi detracts, snatching a shield
from a soldier, lit. to a soldier, the Dative expressing the point of view
of the soldier (II. 25) ; longe eis afuturum, would be far from bene-
fiting them, lit. would be far away with reference to them (I. 36).

c. A Dative of Reference is used with interdico, which may take
also the Ablative of the Thing; as, Gallia Romanis interdixisset,
had denied to the Romans any rights in Gaul, lit. from Gaul (I. 46).

110. The Dative is used with the Passive Periphrastic Conjugation
to express Agency ; as, omnibus Gallis idem esse faciendum, that
all the Celts would have to do the same thing (I. 31) ; Caesari omnia
erant agenda, Caesar had to see to everything (II. 20).

111. The Dative is used with the Verb sum to denote Possession ;
as, Mercatoribus est aditus, Traders have access (IV. 2) ; quid . . .
Caesari . . . negotii esset, ivhat business Caesar . . . had (I. 34).

112. a. The Dative is used with Verbs to denote the Purpose or
Tendency of an action ; as, locum domicilio deligerent, might select
a place for a permanent habitation (I. 30) ; locum castris deligit
(Historical Present), selected a place for a camp (VII. 16 and often) ;
Dies colloquio dictus est, a day was appointed for a conference
(I. 42).

b. Sum and several other Verbs may have two Datives, a Dative
of Purpose or Tendency and a Dative of Reference ; as, sibi earn rem
curae futuram, that this matter should have his attention, lit. should be to
him for a care (I. 33) ; cum auxilio Nerviis venirent, when they were



538 Companion to Caesar [§ 113

coming to the assistance of the Nervians, lit. for an aid to the Nervians
(II. 29).

THE ACCUSATIVE CASE

113. a. The Direct Object of a Transitive Verb is in the Accusa-
tive Case; as, frumentum comburunt (Historical Present), they
burned the grain (I. 5).

b. Caesar uses as Transitive Verbs several Intransitives compounded
with ad, ante, circum, com-, in, ob, prae, praeter, sub, and trans ;
as, si insulam adisset, if he should have visited the island (IV. 20) ;
reliquos antecedunt, surpass the rest (III. 8) ; eum convenissent,
had met him (I. 27) ; se gratiam inituros [esse], that they would gain
favor (VI. 43) ; inita hieme, at the beginning of winter, lit. winter hav-
ing been begun (III. 7) ; tectum non subissent, had not found shelter
under a roof lit. had not j assed under a roof (I. 36) ; tantam virtu-
tem praestiterunt, displayed so great valor (II. 27).

c. Caesar uses both animadverts and animum adverto with the
Accusative of the Direct Object conceived as the object of the mental
action expressed by the Compound; thus, id animum advertit, he
noticed that (I. 24) ; haec animadvertisset, had noticed this (I. 40).



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 45 of 73)