Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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114. a. Transitive Verbs compounded with trans or circum may
have two Accusatives, one dependent on the Verb, the other on the
Preposition; as, trgs partes copiarum Helvetios id flumen tra-
duxisse, that the Helvetians had taken three-fourths of their forces across
the river (I. 12), partes being the object of ducere, while flumen is
governed by trans.

b. In the Passive the Object of the Verb used with two Accusatives
becomes a Subject, while the Accusative governed by the Preposition
remains; as, ne maior multitudo Rhenum traducatur, that no greater
host be brought across the Rhine (I. 31).

115. a. Verbs of making ; choosing, regarding, giving, sending, having,
calling, showing, and some others, may have two Accusatives, one a
Direct Object, the other a Predicate Accusative; as, quem rggem
constituerat, whom he had made king (IV. 21) ; quem ' vergobre-
tum' appellant Aedui, which the Aeduans call Vergobret (I. 16).

b. In the construction of Verbs of making, choosing, calling, etc.,
with two Accusatives, the Predicate Accusative may be an Adjective;
as, uti . . . civitStSs stipendiarias habgrent. that t//<y might hare
states tributary to them (I. 30).

c. In the Passive of Verbs of making, choosing, calling, etc., the



§ 118] The Accusative Case 539

Direct Object of the Active is made the Subject and the Predicate
Accusative becomes a Predicate Nominative ; as, qui Celtae appel-
lantur, who are called Celts (I. 1) ; Helvetii certiores fact! sunt,
the Helvetians were informed, where certiores, an adjective in the
comparative degree, is predicative (I. 7).

116. a. Yerbs of asking, demanding, teaching may have two Accu-
satives, one of the Person, the other of the Thing ; as, Aeduos fru-
mentum flagitare, kept pressing the Aeduans for the grain (I. 16).

b. With Verbs of asking and demanding, the Person may be ex-
pressed by the Ablative with a Preposition, the Thing asked by an
Accusative or by a Clause ; as, abs te rationem reposcent, they will
demand an accounting from you (V. 30) ; cum ab eis quaereret quae
civitates . . . essent, making inquiry of them what states were . . .
(II. 4).

c. With quaero the Person may be expressed by the Ablative with
ab or ex; as, quaerit ex solo ea, asked, lit. asks, (him) alone about
those things (I. 18) ; the Accusative of the Thing may be replaced by
an Ablative with de ; as, quorum de natura cum quaereret, making
inquiry about the character of whom (II. 15).

d. Volo is sometimes used like a Verb of asking, with two Accu-
satives; as, si quid (Accusative) ille se (Accusative) velit, if he
(Caesar) wished anything of him. (I. 34).

117. a. With both Intransitive and Transitive Verbs Caesar some-
times uses a Neuter Pronoun as an Accusative of Result produced, to
carry forward or qualify the meaning ; as, Id eis persuasit, he per-
suaded them (to adopt) that (course), lit. he persuaded that to them (I. 2) ;
hoc facere, to do this (III. 27).

b. The Accusative of Result may be a Noun of kindred meaning
with the Verb (Cognate Accusative) ; thus, tut am vitam vivere, to
live a safe life.

118. a. The Accusative is used to express Extent and Duration;
as, milia passuum XVIIII (for unde viginti) , nineteen miles (I. 8) ;
multos annos, many years (I. 3) ; magnam partem aestatis, during
a great part oj the summer (III. 12) ; tridul viam processisset, had
advanced a three days' march (I. 38).

b. Indefinite Extent or Degree may be expressed with certain
Verbs by the Neuter Accusative of Pronouns, or of Adjectives used
substantively ; as, quicquid possunt, whatever strength they have, lit.
to whatever degree they are able (II. 17) ; quid German! virtute pos-
sent, what mettle the Germans had, lit. to what degree the Germans were



540 Companion to Caesar [§ 119

able in respect to bravery (I. 86) ; quorum auctoritas plurimum
valeat (Historical Present), whose influence carried very great weighty
lit. is strong to the highest degree (I. 17) ; si quid (Accusative) opus
esset, if there should be any need, lit. need to any extent (I. 42).

c. Extent is expressed by the Accusative of nihil, and also by
partem (Accusative of pars) used indefinitely, a construction often
called Adverbial Accusative ; as, nihil Caesaris imperium exspec-
tabant, were not waiting at all for Caesar's orders, lit. to extent of noth-
ing, to no extent (II. 20); maximam partem lacte atque pecore
vivunt, they live mostly on milk and meat, where partem is used indefi-
nitely, not being limited to a definite idea, as it is when a Genitive
is dependent upon it (IV. 1).

d. Caesar uses quod, Singular Neuter of the Relative qui, as an
Adverbial Accusative before si, nisi, and ubi, where it may be trans-
lated now, moreover, but, and, or even, lit. as to which : as, Quod si . . .
vellet, even if he were willing (1. 14); Quod si quid . . . N<m if
anything (1. 20).

e. Caesar uses quid, Singular Neuter of the Interrogative quis, as
an Adverbial Accusative with the meaning why f lit. as to what thing f
Thus, Quid dubitas, Why do you hesitate ? (V. 44).

119. «. Names of Towns or Small Islands are put in the Accusa-
tive to express the Limit of Motion ; as, Bibracte Ire contendit
(Historical Present), he made haste to go to Bibracte (I. 23).

b. In like manner domum, the Accusative of domus, is used to
express Limit of Motion ; as, qui domum redigrunt, who returned
home (I. 29).

120. a. The Accusative of names of towns is used with ad to ex-
press to the vicinity of, in the neighborhood of; as, ad Genavam per-
venit, he proceeded to the vicinity of Geneva (I. 7) ; Caesar ... ad
Alesiam castra fecit, Caesar encamped in the neighborhood of Ah si a
(VII. 68) ; but Caesar has Vercingetorlx . . . Alesiam iter facere
coepit, Vercingetorix began to march to Alesia, without ad, because
Vercingetorix fled to the town itself for refuge, Alesiam here express-
ing the Limit of Motion (VII. 68).

b. In such phrases as ad oppidum Noviodunum (II. 12) the
Name of the Town is in the Accusative, not because expressing a
Limit of Motion, but as an appositive of oppidum.

121. The Subject of the Infinitive is in the Accusative ; as, diem
Instare, that (he day was at hand (I. 16).

122. a. Caesar uses the following Prepositions with the Accusa-



§ 125] The Ablative Case 541

tive only: ad, to; adversus, against; ante, before; apud, near, with,
among; circa, around (C only); circiter, about; circum, around;
cis, on this side of; citra, on this side of: contra, against; erga,
toioards ; extra, outside of; infra, below ; inter, between ; intra, within;
iuxta, near ; ob, on account of; penes, in the possession of; per,
through; post, after; praeter, excepting; prope, near; propter, on
account of; secundum, along, after, besides, according to ; supra, above ;
trans, across, on the other side of; ultra, beyond ; versus, toward.

b. Several of these Prepositions are used by Caesar also as Adverbs ;
as, contra, in opposition (I. 18) ; supra, above (IT. 18).

123. a. With Nouns referring to Persons Caesar often uses per
with the Accusative to express the Means through which something
is done, as distinguished from Direct Agency, which is expressed by
the Ablative with ab ; as, per eos, with their help, lit. by means of them
(I. 4).

b. Caesar uses also propius, nearer, the Comparative of prope, and
proximus, next, the Superlative of propior, with the Accusative ; as,
propius se, nearer to themselves (IV. 9) ; qui proximi Rhenum in-
colunt, ivho dwell next to the Rhine (T. 54).

c. Versus follows its Noun, and is sometimes used in a separable
Compound with ad and in ; as, Metlosedum versus, towards Metlose-
dum (VII. 61) ; ad Oceanum versus, toioards the Ocean (VI. 33).

124. a. The Prepositions in and sub are used with the Accusative
to denote Motion, with the Ablative to denote Rest; as, in partes
tres, into three parts (I. 1) ; in eorum finibus, in their country (I. 1) ;
sub iugum missum, sent under the yoke (I. 7) ; sub aqua, under
water (V. 18).

b. Super is used ordinarily with the Accusative, but occasionally
with the Ablative.

THE ABLATIVE CASE

125. a. Caesar uses the following Prepositions with the Ablative :
a, or ab, abs, away from, by; cum, with', de, down from, concerning ;
ex or e, out from, out of; prae, before ; pro, in front of, for, consider-
ing, as; sine, without.

b. The form abs appears only in abs te (V. 30). Ab and ex are
regularly used before vowels and h; a and e, before consonants, but
before consonants ab and ex are also used.

c. With the Ablative of the Personal, Reflexive, and Relative Pro-
nouns cum is ordinarily joined ; thus nobiscum, with us (V. 17) ;



542 Companion to Caesar [1 126

secum. with him (I. 8), w.ith himself (I. 36) ; quibuscum, ivith whom

(i. i).

126. a. Direct Agency with the Passive is expressed by 5, ab,
with the Ablative ; as, ab Helvetiis pulsum, routed by the Helvetians
(I. 7).

b. Caesar sometimes uses an Abstract or Collective Noun with a,
ab, to express Agency; as, a multitudine, by a host (III. 2).

c. Caesar often uses a, ab, and sometimes ex, to indicate a Local
Relation, where we use on, in, or at ; as, a dextro cornu, on the right
wing, lit. from (the point of view of) the right wing (I. 52) ; SL novis-
simo agmine, on the rear (I. 23) ; a fronte, in front (II. 23).

127. a. An Ablative of Separation without a Preposition is regu-
larly used by Caesar with many Verbs meaning keep from, refrain
from; withdraw from ; strip, deprive of '; free from ; lack, be without;
as, proelio abstinebat, was refraining from battle (I. 22) ; ea spS
deiecti, deprived of this hope (I. 8).

The most important of the Verbs thus used by Caesar are :

abstineo, refrain from ; cared, be without (VI. 38) ; deicio, cast down

from ; desisto, desist from, leave off (1. 8) ; egeo, lack (C. III. 32) ; emitto, let

go from (I. 25) ; excedo, ivithdraw from, leave (II. 25) ; exuo, strip (III. 6) ;

intercludo, cut off (L 23).

levo, relieve from (V. 27) ; libero, free from (IV. 19) ; nudo, clear (II. <>) ;

prohibeo, keep from (LI); spolio, rob of, despoil (V. 6), and exspolio, rob

(VII. 77).

b. With several of these Verbs the idea of Separation may be ex-
pressed by a Preposition ; as, ab oppidis vim hostium prohibere,
to defend the towns against the violence of the enemy, lit. to hold back the
violence of the enemy from the towns (I. 11).

c. With other Verbs the Ablative of Separation is regularly
accompanied by a Preposition; as, exercitum deducat ex his regio-
nibus, leads his army out of these regions (I. 44).

d. Caesar uses egeo with the Genitive also : nS quia . . . auxilii
eggret, that not any one be without help (VI. 11).

128. a. A variety of the Ablative of Separation is the Ablative
of Source, or Origin, which Caesar uses with natus. participle of
nascor, and ortus, participle of orior; as, amplissimo genere
n&tus, sprung from most illustrious stock (IV. 12) ; summo ortus loco,
born to the highest station in life, lit. risen from the /ti<j/>rs/ place
(VII. 77).

b. Origin is more broadly stated with Prepositions; as. quibus
orti ex civitatibus, tribes from which they (were) descended (V. 12) ;



§ 131] The Ablative Case 543

ortos a Germanis, descendants (lit. descended) from the Germans (II.
4) ; ab Dite patre prognatos, descendants from Father Dis (VI. 18).

129. a. The Ablative of Comparison is used by Caesar after
Comparative Adjectives and Adverbs ; as, paulo ceteris huma-
niores, ceteris being used instead of quam ceteri (sunt), a little
more civilized than the rest (IV. 3) ; non amplius quinis aut senis
milibus passuum, not more than five or six miles each day (I. 15) ;
celerius omni opinione, more quickly than any one had anticipated,
lit. than every expectation (II. 3).

b. In a few instances Caesar uses amplius, longius, and minus
as if in place of amplius quam, longius quam, minus quam, with-
out influence upon the construction of the Noun following ; as,
non amplius pedum sescentorum (Genitive of Measure), not more
than six hundred feet (I. 38) ; neque longius milia (Accusative of
Extent) passuum VIII, and not further than eight miles (V. 53) ;
milites sunt paulo minus DCC deslderati, almost seven hundred
men were lost, lit. by a small degree less than 700 (VII. 51) .

130. a. The Place Whence is regularly expressed by the Ablative
with a Preposition, generally ex or de ; as, ex agris, from the country
(1.4).

b. Domo, Ablative of domus, is used in the Ablative of the Place
Whence without a Preposition; as, domo exire, to go out from home
(I. 6).

131. a. The Ablative is used to denote Means or Instrument ; as,
gladiis partem eorum interfecerunt, killed a part of them with
swords (II. 23) ; proeliis contendunt, they contend in battle, lit. by
means of battles (I. 1) ; memoria tenebat, he remembered, lit. held by
means of memory (I. 7).

b. The Ablative of Means may denote persons as well as things ;
as, quingentis equitibus, with five hundred horsemen (I. 15).

c. Caesar uses the Ablative of Means with iitor, abutor, fruor,
fungor, nitor, innitor, and ordinarily with potior ; thus ephippiis
uti, to use saddle-cloths, lit. to assist themselves by means of saddle-cloths
(IV. 2) ; impedimentis potiti sunt, obtained possession of the baggage,
that is made themselves masters by means of the baggage (I. 26).

d. Caesar uses potior also with the Genitive ; as, totius Galliae
potiri, to become masters of the whole (of) Gaul (I. 3).

e. Caesar uses an Ablative of Means with fretus, relying on, lit.
supported by ; as, victoriis freti, relying on their victories (III. 21).

/. The Ablative with utor is sometimes accompanied by a Predi-



544 Companion to Caesar [§ 132

cate Ablative, the construction resembling that of two Accusatives
after verbs of having (Ho, a) ; thus Isdem ducibus usus, employing
the same men as guides (II. 7).

132. a. Opus est, there is need, is used with the Ablative of the
Thing needed, which may be expressed by a Perfect Passive Partici-
ple ; thus, si quid opus facto esset, if anything should require action,
lit. if there should be need of {something) done, to any extent (I. 42).

b. With opus est the Thing needed may be expressed by a Neuter
Pronoun in the Nominative ; as, si quid (Subject) ipsi a Caesare
opus esset, if he himself had wanted anything of Caesar, lit. if any-
thing were necessary to himself from Caesar (I. 34) ; quid . . . opus
esset, what was necessary (II. 22) ; Quaecumque opus sunt, What-
ever is (lit. whatever things are) necessary (V. 40).

133. The Ablative of Means is used with a few Adjectives; as,
naves . . . omni genere armorum ornatissimae, ships completely
fitted out with every kind of equipment (III. 14).

134. a. Caesar uses the Ablative of the Way by Which with sev-
eral words referring to Natural Features and Military Operations;
as, adversS colle, up the hill, lit. by the hill facing them (II. 19) ; quod
flumine subvexerat, which he had brought up the river, lit. by means
of the river (I. 16) ; duabus portis eruptionem fieri, that a sally be
made from (lit. by) two gates (III. 19).

The words thus used are :

collis, flumen ; fretum (C. II. 9) ; iter, especially in magnis itineribus, by
forced marches (I. 37) ; iugum (C. III. 97) ; pons (C. I. 55) ; porta, vadum
(I. 6, 8), and via (V. 19).

b. The Ablative of the Way by Which is sometimes used indefi-
nitely with words referring to Distance ; as, tanto spatio secuti
quantum efficere potuerunt, following so great a distance (lit. by so
great a space) as they were able to cover (IV. 35).

135. a. An Ablative denoting Cause is used with many Verbs and
Adjectives, particularly those which express pleasure, pain, trust, dis-
trust, boastfulness, and the like ; as, annl tempore confisae, trusting
in the time of year, lit. confident because of the time of year (III. '27) :
Quod suS. victoria gloriarentur, the fact that they were boasting of
(lit. by reason of) their victory (I. 14).

b. In some phrases the force of the Ablative of Cause has become
obscured, as in causa and gratia, for tin sake if with the Genitive,
and in iussu, iniussu, and the like; as, auxilii causa, at an auxiliary
force, lit. for the sake of support (III. IS; Q, 24) ; iussu Caesaris, by



§ 140] The Ablative Case 545

(reason of) Caesar's orders (VII. 3); iniussii suo et civitatis, with-
out his own authorization and (that) of the state, i.e. because of un-author-
ization (I. 19).

136. a. The Ablative of Manner (answering the question " How? ")
is used by Caesar with cum, especially when the Noun is modified by
an Adjective ; as, cum cruciatu necabatur, was put to death with tor-
ture (V. 45) ; multis cum lacrimis, with many tears (I. 20).

b. The Ablative of Manner is often used without a Preposition ; as,
et mente et animo, with heart and soul (VI. 5).

c. In certain connections Caesar uses an Ablative with the mean-
ing in accordance icith ; as, Moribus suls, in accordance with their
customs (I. 4) ; consuetudine populi Roman!, in accordance with the
practice of the Roman people (III. 23).

137. a. The Ablative is used with cum to express Accompani-
ment; as, cum suis omnibus copiis, with- all his forces (I. 38).

b. An Ablative of Accompaniment referring to Military Opera-
tions, when qualified by an Adjective, may be used without cum ;
but if the modifier is a Numeral, cum must be used. Thus, omnibus
copiis contenderunt, they hastened with all their forces (II. 7); cum
duabus legionibus, with two legions (I. 21).

c. The use of cum with the Ablative of Accompaniment is much
broader than the meaning together with. Examples are : constituerat
cum legatis, had appointed with the envoys (I. 8) ; consilio cum lega-
tis communicato, having imparted his determination to his lieutenants
(IV. 13) ; cum Caesare egit, treated with Caesar (I. 13) ; cum ilia
(consuetudine) comparandam, to be compared with that manner of life
(I. 31).

138. An Ablative of Attendant Circumstance is used by Caesar
with an Adjective, Pronominal Adjective, or Genitive as modifying
word, and without a Preposition; as, paribus intervallis, at equal
intervals (I. 51) ; imperio nostro, under our sovereignty (II. 1) ; com-
modo rei publicae, with advantage to (lit. of) the State (I. 35) ; Cae-
saris voluntate, with Caesar's approval (I. 30).

139. The Ablative is used with certain Verbs meaning exchange,
mix, and accustom : thus, ne studium belli gerendi agri cultura
commutent, that they may not exchange their devotion to aggressive war-
fare for farming (VI. 22); niillo officio aut disciplina assuefacti,
habituated to (lit. familiarized with) no obligation or training (IV. 1) ;
admixtum lacte, mixed with milk (C. III. 48).

140. The Ablative of Degree of Difference is used with Compara-



546 Companion to Caesar [§ hi

tives, and with Adverbs or Phrases implying Comparison ; as, paulo
longius, a little further, lit. further by a little (II. 20); paucis ante
digbus, a few days before (I. 18); milibus passuum duobus ultra
eum, two miles beyond him, lit. beyond him by two miles (I. 48).

141. The Ablative of Price is used by Caesar only in indefinite
expressions ; thus, parvo pretio redempta, purchased at a low price
(I. 18) ; impenso pretio, at a high price (IV. 2) ; quanto detri-
ments, at how great a loss (VII. 19) ; lev! momento. of slight account
(VII. 39).

142. a. The Ablative of Specification (answering the question
"In respect to what?") is used with Verbs and Adjectives and the
Adverb saepe ; as, cum virtute omnibus praestarent, since they
surpassed all in valor (I. 2) ; Sueba natione, a Sueban by birth (I. 53) ;
numero ad duodecim, about twelve in number, lit. in number about twelve
(I. 5) ; saepe numero, frequently, lit. often in respect to number (I. 33).

. b. The Ablative of Specification is used with dignus and indignus ;
as, nihil, quod ipsis esset indignum, committebant, they did noth-
ing that was unworthy of them, lit. in respect to themselves (V. 35).

143. a. The Descriptive Ablative, or Ablative of Quality, is modi-
fied by an Adjective or, more rarely, by a Noun in the Genitive ; as,
homines inimico ammo, men of unfriendly (attitude of) mind (I. 7).

b. The Descriptive Ablative may be used predicatively ; as, ingenti
magnitudine Germanos esse, that the Germans were of huge size
(I. 39) ; sunt specie* . . . tauri, they have (lit. are of) the appearance
of a bull (VI. 28).

144. a. The Ablative Absolute consists of a Noun or Pronoun in
the Ablative with a Participle, Adjective, or Noun in the same case,
and is loosely related with the rest of the sentence ; as, regno occu-
pato. having seized the governing power, lit. the governing power having
been seized (I. 3).

6. The Ablative Absolute may express Time, Attendant Circum-
stance, Cause, Condition, Concession, Means, or Manner, and may often
be translated by a clause ; thus :

(1) Time : M. Messala, M. Pisone consulibus, in the consulship

of Marcus Messala and Marcus Piso, lit. Marcus Messala,
Marcus Piso (being) consuls (I. 2).

(2) Attendant Circumstance : convocStis eorum prmcipibus,

having called together their leading men (I. 10) ; capto monte
et succSdentibus nostris, after they had reached the height
and our men were coming up (1. 25).



§ 147] The Ablative Case 547

(3) Cause: omnibus frugibus amissis, since all the produce of the

Jields was gone, lit. all . . . having been lost (I. 28).

(4) Condition : data facultate, if opportunity should have been

granted (I. 7).

(5) Concession or Opposition: superioribus locis occupatis,

though the higher positions had been seized (I. 23) .

(6) Means : eo deprecatore, through his intercession, lit. he (being)

intercessor (I. 9).

(7) Manner : equo admisso, with (his) horse at top speed, lit. his

horse having been let go (I. 22).

145. a. The Place Where is regularly expressed by the Ablative
with a Preposition ; as, in eorum finibus, in their territories (I. 1).

b. Names of Towns, excepting those in the Singular of the First
and Second Declensions, are put in the Ablative of the Place Where,
without a Preposition; as, Bibracte, at Bibracte (VII. 90).

c. The Noun locus, Singular and Plural, is often used in the Abla-
tive of the Place Where without a Preposition, as are also several
other Nouns when modified by an Adjective, particularly totns ; thus,
alieno loco, on unfavorable ground, lit. in an unfavorable place (I. 15);
totis castris, throughout the camp, lit. in the whole camp (I. 39) ;
eodem vestigio, in the same spot (IV. 2).

146. With Names of Towns of the First and Second Declensions,
Singular, Place Where is expressed by the Locative ; as, Cenabi, at
Cenabum (VII. 14) ; also doml, Locative of domus, at home (I. 18).

147. a. The Time When, and Time Within Which anything hap-
pens, may be denoted by the Ablative without a Preposition; as, die
quarto, on the fourth day (I. 26) ; paucis annis, within a few years
(I. 31).

b. Words that have only an indirect reference to Time are some-
times put in the Ablative of Time When or Within Which ; as, pa-
trum nostrorum memoria, within the memory of our fathers (I. 12) ;
initio orationis, at the beginning of his statement (I. 43).

c. Intervals of Space and Duration of Time are sometimes ex-
pressed by the Ablative, especially when modified by an Adjective
or Genitive ; as, milibus passuum sex, six miles (distant), lit. by six
thousands of paces (I. 48) ; tota nocte ierunt, all night long they went
on (I. 26).



548 Companion to Caesar [§ 148

ADJECTIVES

148. a. Adjectives and Participles, whether Attributive or Predica-
tive, agree in Gender, Number, and Case with the Noun or Pronoun
to which they belong.

b. Attributive Adjectives and Participles stand in direct relation
with a Noun or Pronoun ; as, fortissimo viro (Abl.), a very brave man
(II. 25) ; Is, regni cupiditate inductus, He, led on by a desire of
kingly power (I. 2).

c. Predicate Adjectives, and Participles in Predicate used as Ad-
jectives, are connected with a Noun or Pronoun through a Verb or
Participle; as, fortissimi sunt Belgae, the Belgians are the brave*
(I. 1) ; qui peritissimus habebatur, who was considered highly skilled
(I. 21) ; Gallia est divisa, Gaul is divided, the Perfect Passive Par-
ticiple of divido being used as an Adjective; if est divisa were here
a Perfect Passive tense, it would have to be translated has been divided
or was divided (I. 1).

d. A Predicate Adjective or Participle limiting an Infinitive or
Clause is Neuter; as, perfacile esse . . . potiri, that it was exceed-
ingly easy (or, a very easy thing) to obtain possession of, perfacile
being the Predicate after esse, to which potiri stands as subject



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 46 of 73)