Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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(1.2).

e. A Participle forming part of an Infinitive may agree with the
Subject of the Principal Verb ; as, meritus [esse] vidSbatur, was
seen to have earned (I. 40).

149. Demonstrative and other Pronouns used like Adjectives agree
with the word to which they belong; as, eo tempore, at that time
(I. 3) ; qua arrogantia, what presumption (I. 46) ; id ipsum, that very
thing (VII. 50).

150. a. An Attributive Adjective used with two or more Nouns
regularly agrees with the Nearest; as, eadem alacritate ac studio,
the same eagerness and enthusiasm (IV. 24).

b. A Predicate Adjective used with two or more Nouns is regu-
larly Plural ; when the Nouns are of Different Genders, the Adjec-
tive is generally Masculine if Persons are referred to, Neuter if only
Things or Abstract Qualities are denoted, though even in this case
the agreement may be with the nearer substantive; as, frater et
soror eorum bonl sunt, their brother and sister an good ; et murus
et porta alta erant, both the wall and the gate were high : at bracchia
atque umeri . . . liberi esse possent, that their arms and shoulders
might be free (VII. 56).



§ 153] Adjectives 549

c. An Adjective or Participle may agree with a Noun in Sense,
without regard to Grammatical Gender or Number; as, hominum
milia (Neuter) VI, perterriti (Masculine), six thousand (of) men,
thoroughly frightened (I. 27).

d. A Noun, particularly a Noun with Verbal Force, is sometimes
modified by a prepositional phrase ; as, legationem ad civitates, the
office of envoy to the states (I. 3).

151. Adjectives are sometimes used in Latin where in English an
Adverb or a Phrase is required ; as, laeti ... ad castra pergunt
(Historical Present), joyfully . . . they advanced against the camp (III.
18) ; viatores etiam invitos consistere cogant, they oblige travelers,
even against their will, to stop (IV. 5).

152. a. Certain Adjectives often designate a part of that to which
they refer ; as, in colle medio, halfway up the hill (I. 24) ; prima
nocte, in the first part of the night (I. 27) ; summus mons, the top of
the height (I. 22).

The Adjectives thus used hy Caesar are extremus (as II. 5) ; infimus (II.
18) ; medius ; multus (I. 22) ; novissimus, in novissimum agmen (I. 15 and
often), the rear of a marching column as the latest part of a column to pass a
given point ; primus and summus.

b. The Adjectives princeps, prior, primus are sometimes used by
Caesar to designate the first to do or experience something ; as, prin-
ceps poenas persolvit, was the first to pay the penalty (I. 12) ;
neque priores bellum inferre, did not take the lead in waging war,
where prior is used because only two peoples, the Germans and the
Romans, are referred to (IV. 7).

c. The Adjective multus and another Adjective agreeing, with the
same Noun are joined by et or -que ; as, multis gravibusque vul-
neribus, many severe wounds (II. 25).

153. a. The Comparative and Superlative of both Adjectives and
Adverbs sometimes have shades of meaning best expressed in English
by too, rather, very, exceedingly, or highly, and the like, with the Positive ;
as, paulo fortius, unusually brave, lit. a little braver than usual (III.
14) ; latissimo atque altissimo, very wide and very deep (I. 2).

b. A Superlative is sometimes modified by an Adverb; as, longe
nobilissimus, far the highest in rank (I. 2).

c. The highest possible degree is expressed by quam with the
Superlative, as quam maximum numerum, as great a number as pos-
sible, the greatest possible number (I. 3) ; quam celerrime potuit, as
quickly as possible (I. 37) ; quam primum, as soon as possible (I. 40).



550 Companion to Caesar [§ 154

154. a. Adjectives and Participles are used as Substantives, fre-
quently in the Plural, less often in the Singular ; as, v6rl (Neuter)
simile, probable, lit. like truth (III. 13) ; nostrl, our men (I. 52) ;
novissimis (Masculine), for the rear, lit. for those last (I. 25); sua,
their possessions (1. 11) ; pro viso, as seen, lit. for {that which was) seen
(I. 22).

b. Caesar uses the Genitive Singular Neuter sui with a collective
force in the Gerundive Construction, and in such cases it should be
translated as if plural ; as, sui colligendi facultatem, opportunity of
collecting their forces, lit. of collecting themselves (III. 6).

PRONOUNS

155. The Genitives mei, nostrl, tui, and vestri (39, a) are regu-
larly Objective, nostrum and vestrum being used in other relations ;
as, tanta contemptione nostrl, with so great contempt for us (V. _M>) ;
omnium vestrum, of you all (VII. 77).

156. The Plural is often used for the Singular of the Pronoun of
the First Person, just as in our "editorial we"; thus Caesar when
referring to himself as writer often uses a Plural Verb, as, ut ante
demonstravimus, as we have previously shown (II. 22).

157. a. The Possessive Pronouns are expressed only when re-
quired for the sake of Clearness, Emphasis, or Contrast ; in translat-
ing they must be supplied in accordance with English idiom; as,
Considius, equo admisso, Considius with (his) horse at top speed (I. 22).

b. When expressed for Clearness, and unemphatic, the Possessive
Pronoun follows its Noun, as, in civitate sua, in his state (I. 3) ;
when used for Emphasis or Contrast, the Possessive Pronoun pre-
cedes its Noun, as, meum officium, my duty (IV. 25).

c. Caesar often uses noster to designate that which is Roman ; as,
nostram amicitiam, our friendship (I. 43).

d. A Possessive Pronoun and a Genitive are sometimes coordi-
nated in construction ; as, suo populique Roman! beneficio, with
his own kindness and that of the Roman people, that is, kindness of him-
self and of the Roman people (I. 35).

e. suus may mean his characteristic, his well-known; as su5
clSmentiS, hit well-known clemency (II. 14).

158. a. The Reflexive Pronoun of the Third Person, sS, and the
corresponding Possessive suus, refer to the Subject of the Verb; in a
Subordinate Clause they may refer to the Subject of the Principal
Clause (Indirect Reflexive). Thus, s§ Sripuit, he rescued himself



§ 160] Pronouns 551

(I. 4) ; legio . . . el gratias egit, quod de se optimum iudicium
fecisset, the legion . . . conveyed thanks to him because he had passed
an extremely favorable opinion on it (I. 41).

b. In the Pronouns of the First and Second Persons the regular
forms are sometimes Reflexive, as, me servare non possum, I can-
not save myself (VII. 50) ; so also is, as eos, themselves (II. 1).

c. In translating into Latin the English Possessives ' his,' ' her,' ' its,'
' their,' when referring to the subject of the Verb must be rendered by
forms of the Reflexive suus.

159. The Reciprocal Relation is expressed by inter se (lit. among
themselves'), which must be translated in accordance with the require-
ments of English idiom ; as, inter se dant, they gave (lit. give) to one
another (I. 3) ; inter se differunt, they differ from one another (I. 1) ;
inter se collocuti, having conferred with one another (IV. 30) ; co-
hortati inter se, urging one another on (IV. 25) ; inter se contende-
rent, they strove together (I. 31); -inter se, referring to two persons,
with each other (V. 44).

160. a. The Demonstrative Pronoun hie, this, refers to something
near the speaker or the subject of thought ; iste, that of yours, to
something near the person addressed ; ille, that, to something more
remote ; and is, that, to something thought of in a less definite rela-
tion. Thus : Hie pagus, This canton (1. 12) ; Animi est ista mollitia,
That is lack of resolution on your part (VII. 77) ; ill! simile bello, like
that war with the Cumbrians and Teutons (VII. 77) ; Is dies, That day
just referred to (I. 6).

b. Caesar frequently uses the Demonstrative is, less frequently hie
and ille, where the English has a Personal Pronoun of the Third
Person ; as, ad eos, to them (I. 1) ; cur nunc quisquam discessu-
rum iudicaret, why should any one suppose that he (Ariovistus) would
withdraw (I. 40) ; ilium uno die fecisse . . . , that he (Caesar) had in
one day accomplished (I. 13).

c. Caesar frequently uses the Neuter Singular and Neuter Plural
of hie, ille, and is with the meaning this (thing), that (thing), it, these
things, those things; a Noun may sometimes be supplied in translation.
Thus, id quod, that which (I. 5) ; Id els persuasit, he persuaded
them (to) that course (I. 2) ; ilia esse vera, that those statements were
true (I. 20).

d. A Demonstrative Pronoun is sometimes used in Latin where
English usage prefers an Article; thus, Ea res, The matter, lit. that
thing (I. 4) ; eum locum, a place (II. 16).



552 Companion to Caesar [§ i6i

e. A Demonstrative Pronoun used as Subject is regularly attracted
into agreement with a Noun in the Predicate ; as Animi est ista
mollitia, for istud est animi mollitia, that is lack of resolution on
your part (VII. 77).

161. a. The Demonstratives hie and ille sometimes refer to what
follows ; as, hoc facilius . . . quod, the more easily on this (account)
because (I. 2) ; multis de causis . . . quarum ilia fuit iustissima,
quod, for many reasons, of ichich this was the most weighty, that
(IV. 16).

b. Caesar sometimes uses hie and ille in contrast, with the mean-
ing the latter (that last mentioned) and the former (that previously
mentioned) ; as, Reliqui . . . se atque illos alunt ; hi rursus anno
post in armis sunt, ill! domi remanent, The rest support themselves
and those in the field ; the latter after one year are again in arms, the
former remain at home (IV. I).

c. A Conjunction followed by is or hie may express an Emphatic
Characterization ; as, legionem, neque earn plenissimam (sc.
legionem), the legion, and that lacking its full strength, lit. and that not
most full (III. 2).

162. a. The Intensive Pronoun ipse with Nouns and Pronouns
has the meaning self, very ; as, ipsi magistrates, the magistrates
themselves (I. 17) ; ipsum esse Dumnorigem, that Dumnorix was the
very man (I. 18) ; in ipsis ripis, on the very banks (II. 23).

b. In Subordinate Clauses ipse may be used as an Indirect Re-
flexive referring to the Principal Subject, or to avoid ambiguity ; as,
Ariovistus respondit, si quid ipsi a Caesare opus esset, Ario-
vistus answered that if he himself had wanted anything of Caesar, lit. if
anything were necessary to himself from Caesar (I. 34).

c. Contrasted pronouns are often placed in proximity; as, s6 ipsi
interficiunt, they all killed one another, lit. they themselves slay them-
selves (V. 37).

163. a. A Relative Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in Gender
and Number, but its Case depends upon its construction in the clause
to which it belongs; as, tr6s (legiongs, Fern., Ace), quae (Fem.,
PI., Norn.) . . . hiemabant, three legions which wen wintering (I. 10).

b. A Relative referring to two or more Antecedents of the same
Gender and Number agrees with them in Gender, but in Number may
agree with the nearest Antecedent, or be Plural ; as, pro sua clfi-
mentia ac mansuetudine. qiiam audirent, in accordance with his
forbearance and grariousm it, of which they were hearing (II. 31);



§ 167] Pronouns 553

filius et fratris films, . . . quos . . . , his son and his brother's
son, whom . . . (V. 27).

c. A Relative referring to two or more Antecedents of different
Gender or Number may agree with the nearest Antecedent, or be
Masculine Plural in case one Antecedent denotes a man, Feminine
Plural in case one Antecedent denotes a woman and the others things,
or Neuter Plural in case only things are denoted; thus, frumento
(Neut.) commeatuque, qui (M., Sing.), grain and {other) supplies
which ... (I. 48) ; matres familiae . . . petierunt, ne se (Fern.),
et llberos dederent, quos . . . , the matrons besought not to give up
themselves and the children whom (VII. 26) ; usus ac discipllna, quae
(Neuter Plural) . . . , experience and training, which ... (I. 40).

164. a. The Antecedent of a Relative Pronoun is sometimes
omitted; as, (el incolunt) qui, those inhabit who (I. 1).

b. Caesar sometimes uses a Relative referring to an implied Ante-
cedent; as, servlli tumultu, quos . . . , as if he had said tumultu
servorum, quos . . . , in the uprising of the slaves, whom ... (I. 40).

c. A Noun in Predicate attracts a Relative Pronoun standing as
subject into agreement with it; as, Belgas, quam (for quos) tertiam
esse Galliae partem dixeramus, the Belgians who, we had said, form
(lit, are) a third of Gaul (II. 1).

d. A Plural Relative may refer for its Antecedent to a Singular
Collective Noun which suggests Plurality ; as, equitatum . . . qui
videant, cavalry . . . to see, lit. who should see (I. 15).

165. a. An Antecedent is sometimes repeated in a Relative Clause,
and should be translated only once ; as, itinera duo, quibus itineri-
bus, two routes by which (I. 6), not by which routes.

b. An Appositional Antecedent is sometimes incorporated in a Rela-
tive Clause, and should be translated ; as, quod tempus convenerat,
the time which had been agreed on (II. 19).

c. An Antecedent is often incorporated in a Relative Clause ; as,
Cui ration!, . . . hac, By the cunning, . . . for which (I. 40).

166. Caesar uses the Neuter of a Relative or Demonstrative Pro-
noun, sometimes both a Demonstrative and a Relative, referring to a
Clause or Thought as a whole ; as, supplicatio decreta est, quod
. . . , a thanksgiving was decreed, (a distinction) which . . . (II. 35) ;
magna, id quod necesse erat accidere, perturbatio facta est, a
great commotion, as was bound to be the case, ensued (IV. 29) .

167. A Relative is often used in Latin at the beginning of a Clause
or Sentence where English idiom requires a Demonstrative, with or



554 Companion to Caesar [§ 168

without a connective; as, Qua de causa. And for this reason, For this
reason (I. 1) ; Qui . . . proelium committunt (Historical Present),
They (or And they) . . . joined battle (I. 15).

168. Of the Indefinite Pronouns, Caesar uses quid am. a certain, in
respect to persons or things distinctly thought of but not described;
aliquis, some, any, somebody, of persons or things referred to in a gen-
eral way; quis and qui, any, some, still more vaguely, with si, nisi,
seu, ne, and ubi ; and quisquam, any at all, in Interrogative or Nega-
tive Clauses or in a Clause following a Comparative ; as, quasdam
rgs, certain things (I. 30) ; quidam ex militibus, a certain one (or
one) of the soldiers (I. 42) ; alicuius iniuriae, of any wrong-doing
(T. 14) ; si quid vellent, if they wanted anything (I. 7) ; Cur quis-
quam iudicaret, Why should any one suppose (I. 40) ; prius quam
quicquam conaretur, before taking any measures, lit. before he should
attempt anything at all (I. 19).

169. Caesar uses the Indefinite Distributive Pronoun uterque, each
of two, in the Plural as well as the Singular ; as, utrisque castris,
for each camp (I. 51) ; ab utrisque, by those on each side (IV. 26).

170. a. Caesar sometimes uses the Indefinite Distributive Pronoun
quisque, each, with a Superlative to designate a Class, or with a Nu-
meral Ordinal to indicate a Proportion ; thus, nobilissimi cuiusque
liberos, the children of every man of high rank (I. 31) ; decimum
quemque militem, one soldier in ten, lit. each tenth soldier (V. 52).

b. Caesar uses quisque, each, in close connection with sg and suus ;
as, cum sibi quisque . . . peteret, when each one was seeking for him-
self (II. 11); uti eos testes suae quisque virtutis habgret, that
each might have them as witnesses of his own valor (I. 52).

171. a. Of the Pronominal Adjectives, cgterl (Plural) means the
other, the rest besides those mentioned ; reliqui, the rest in the sense
those remaining after some are taken ; as, Aeduos cgterosque ami-
cos populi RomanI, the Aeduans and the other friends of the Roman
people (I. 35) ; reliquos Gallos, the rest of the Gauls, after the Helve-
tians have been singled out (I. 1).

b. Caesar repeats alter and alius in a Correlative Relation ; as, harum
altera occlsa, altera capta est, of these (daughters) one was killed,
the other captured (I. 53) ; aliae (nSvgs) . . . aliae .... some (ships)
. . . others (IV. 28); alter! — alterl, the latter — the former (VII. 17).

c. Caesar repeats alius with the sense one . . . one, another . . .
another; as, legiSngs aliae aliS in parte resisterent, legions were
offering resistance, one at one point, another at another (II. 22).



VERBS
AGREEMENT, MOODS AND TENSES, QUESTIONS

172. a. A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Per-
son ; in compound forms of the Verb the Participle must agree with
the Subject also in Gender. Thus, Orgetorix deligitur, Orgetorix is
chosen (I. 3) ; Ea res est enuntiata, The matter (lit. that thing) was
made known (I. 4).

b. When a Verb is used with more than one Subject, it may agree
with the nearest Subject, or be Plural ; as, filia et unus e filiis cap-
tus est, a daughter and one of the sons were taken captive (I. 26) ; Nam-
meius et Verucloetius . . . obtinebant, Nammeius and Verucloetius
held (I. 7).

c. Verbs are sometimes used in the Third Person Plural with an
implied indefinite subject, as, dicunt, they say (V. 12).

d. A verb in Latin is sometimes used with a Personal Subject
where the English prefers the Impersonal Construction with " it " ;
as, Quod non fore dicto audientes . . . dicantur, As to the fact
that it was said that they would not be obedient, lit. that they are said not
to be about to be, etc. (I. 40).

173. a. When two Subjects express a single idea, the Verb may be
Singular ; as, Matrona et Sequana dividit, the Marne and the Seine
separate . . ., the two rivers being thought of as forming one boundary

a. i).

b. A Plural Verb may be used with a Singular Noun, or with an
unexpressed Subject representing a Singular Noun, where the sense
suggests Plurality; as, cum tanta multitudo lapides conicerent,
when so great a host were hurling stones (II. 6) .

174. Caesar rarely uses a Passive Verb or Participle in a Reflexive
Sense ; as, sublevati, supporting themselves (I. 48) ; armari, to arm
themselves (IV. 32).

175. a. The Present, Imperfect, and Future Tenses represent an
action as going on in Present, Past, or Future Time ; as, eSrumque
agros populabantur, and were laying waste their country (I. 11).

b. In vivid narration Caesar often thinks of past events as in prog-
ress nnd uses the Present Indicative (Historical Present). In trans-

555



556 Companion to Caesar [§ 176

lating the Historical Present a past tense should generally be used ;
as, dicit liberius, he spoke (lit. speaks) more freely (I. 18).

c. The Present is used in statements true at all times (Universal
Present), and statements about Customs; as, homines id, quod
[credere] volunt, credunt, men readily believe what they wish to
believe (III. 18).

d. The Imperfect may be used of Repeated or Customary Action ;
as, perlclitabatur, he kept trying (II. 8) ; adoriebantur . . . circum-
sistebant . . . coniciebant, would attack . . . would surround . . .
would hurl (IV. 26).

e. The Imperfect is sometimes used of Attempted Action (Conative
Imperfect) ; as, nostros intra munitiones ingredi prohibebant,
were trying to prevent our men from getting inside the fortification (V. U).

f The Imperfect with iam, used of an action already in progress
for a considerable period, should be translated with a Progressive
Pluperfect; as, Cum iam amplius horis sex pugnaretur, when fight-
ing had now been going on more than six hours (III. 5).

176. a. Caesar generally uses the Historical Perfect, as discessit,
he withdrew (I. 14) ; very rarely he uses the Perfect in the sense of the
English Present Perfect, as non venerunt, they have not come (VII. 77).

b. The Perfect and Pluperfect of nosco, cognosco, consuesco
express a state resulting from action, and are generally best trans-
lated by the Present and Imperfect; as, noverunt, they are familiar
with, lit. have come to know (VI. 15) ; Ire consuerant, were aecnttomed
(had become accustomed) in go (III. 1). The Perfect and Pluperfect of
memini and odi also are translated by the Present and Imperfect

c. The Latin Future Perfect is used with, great precision, where
frequently in English a Future or Present Tense might be employed ;
as, meum officium praestitero, / shall hare done my duty, where we
should ordinarily say, T shall do my duty (IV. 25).

177. a. In the Sequence of Tenses a Primary Tense ( P res ent ,
Future, or Future Perfect 1 ) in the Principal Clause is ordinarily
followed by a Primary Tense in the Subordinate Clause ; and a Sec-
ondary Tense (Imperfect, Perfect, or Pluperfect 2 ) of the Principal



1 The Primary Tenses of the Indicative, referring to Present and Future
Time, are the Present, Future, and Future Perfect. The Primary Tenses of
the Subjunctive are the Present and Perfect. Cf. 354 (p. 642).

2 The Secondary Tenses of the Indicative, referring to Past Time, are the
Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect. The Secondary Tenses of the Subjunctive
are the Imperfect and Pluperfect.



§179] Tenses 557

Clause by a past tense in the Subordinate Clause. Thus, Mercato-
ribus est aditus ut, quae bello ceperint, quibus vendant, habeant,
Traders have access (to them) . . . that they may have purchasers for the
things that they have captured in war, lit. that they may have (those) to
ivhom they may sell (those things) which they have taken in war (IV. 2) ;
equitatumque, qui sustineret impetum, misit, and he sent his
cavalry to sustain the attack (I. 24).

b. A Historical Present in the Principal Clause is sometimes fol-
lowed by a Primary Tense, sometimes by a Secondary Tense, in the
Subordinate Clause; as, diem dicunt, qua die . . . conveniant,
they set a day on which they were (lit. are) to come together (I. 6) ;
pontem, qui erat ad Genavam, iubet rescind!, he gave (lit. gives)
orders that the bridge, which was near Geneva, be cut down (I. 7).

c. A verb in a Subordinate Clause containing a Statement of Fact
or a General Truth may be in the Present Tense even though the
verb of the Principal Clause is in a Past Tense ; as, els persuasit,
quod Helvetii . . . continentur, he persuaded them, because the
Helvetians are hemmed in . . . (I. 2).

178. The Tenses of the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse express
time relative to that of the Verbs on which they depend, the Present
Infinitive expressing the same time as the Governing Verb ; the Per-
fect Infinitive, time earlier than that of the Governing Verb ; and the
Future Infinitive, time later than that of the Governing Verb. Thus,
non se hostem vereri . . . dicebant, were saying that they did not
fear the enemy (I. 39) ; ilium fecisse intellegerent, they understood
that he had done (1. 13) ; Caesar . . . sese eos . . . conservaturum
[esse] dixit, Caesar said that he would spare their lives (II. 15).

179. a. Direct Questions in Latin are introduced by Question
Words and are of two kinds :

(1) Single Questions, introduced by Interrogative Pronouns

and Adverbs, or by the Enclitic -ne attached to the em-
phatic word of the question and asking for information, by
nonne implying the answer " Yes," or num implying the
answer " No." Thus : quern locum . . . exspectas ? what
(kind of a) chance are you waiting for (V. 44) ? Audisne ?
Do you hear ? Nonne audls ? Do you not hear ? Num
audis ? You don't hear, do you ?

(2) Double Questions, which ordinarily have utrum or the Enclitic

-ne in the First Member, and an, or, or annon, or not, in the
second ; as, utrum officium, an timor, plus valet, Is sense



558 Companion to Caesar [§ iso

of duty, or cowardice, stronger ? The First Member of a

Double Question may be omitted, An alone introducing the

second; as, An . . . dubitatis? Do you have (any) doubt

(VII. 77)?

b. In Indirect Discourse Caesar uses Rhetorical Questions, implying

a Negative Answer, Doubt, or Perplexity; these in the Direct Form

would have had the Indicative, or the Deliberative Subjunctive.

Thus:

(1) Indicative in the Direct Form : num . . . memoriam deponere

posse ? could he lay aside the recollection t As a Direct Ques-
tion : Num . . . memoriam deponere possum, can I put
aside the recollection? implying the answer "No"; as when
we say "How can I do that?" meaning, emphatically, "I
cannot do that" (1.14).

(2) Deliberative Subjunctive in the Direct Form : cur quisquam

. . . iudicaret, why should any one infer? in the Direct form,
curiudicet? (1.40); neque satis Bruto . . . centurioni-
busque . . . constabat, quid agerent, and Brutus and the
centurions . . . did not quite know what to do, lit. and it was not
quite clear to Brutus and the centurions . . . what they should



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 47 of 73)