Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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do; as a Direct Question, Quid agamus ? What are we to do t
(III. 14).

180. a. Caesar rarely uses the Subjunctive in the First Person to
express an Exhortation (Hortatory Subjunctive) ; as, hos latrongs
interficiamus, let us kill these bandits (VII. 38) ; simus parati, let us
be ready (C. III. 85).

b. Caesar rarely uses the Subjunctive in the Third Person to ex-
press a Command (Jussive Subjunctive) ; as, Cum his mini res sit.
let me deal (lit. let the issue be to me) with those (VII. 77).

c. A Wish Capable of Realization is expressed by the Present Sub-
junctive, often with utinam ; as, utinam redeant, may they return !

d. A Wish Incapable of Realization is expressed in Present
Time by utinam with the Imperfect Subjunctive and in Past Time
by utinam with the Pluperfect Subjunctive ; as, utinam adessent.
oh that they were here (but they are not) ; utinam redissent. ok that
(hey had come back (but they did not).

181. a. Caesar rarely uses the Imperative, in Direct Quotations,
as DSsilite, Jump down (IV. '2~>).

b. Caesar uses the Imperatives noli, nolite with the Infinitive to

§ 184] Causal Clauses 559

express Prohibition ; as, Nolite hos vestro auxilio exspoliare, Do
not (lit. he unwilling to) rob them of your assistance (VII. 77).

182. Caesar rarely uses an Infinitive in a Principal Clause in the
place of an Imperfect or Perfect Indicative (Historical Infinitive), the
Subject being in the Nominative ; as, Caesar Aeduos frumentum
flagitare, Caesar kept pressing the Aeduans for the grain (I. 16) ; hostes
. . . signo dato decurrere, the enemy at a given signal rushed down
(III. 4).


183. a. In Causal Clauses introduced by quod and quoniam Cae-
sar uses the Indicative when the reason is stated as that of Caesar
the Writer, the Subjunctive when the reason is presented as some
one else's. Thus, Dumnorix . . . Helvetiis erat amicus, quod
. . . diixerat, Dumnorix icas friendly to the Helvetians, because he had
taken . . ., the quod-clause containing Caesar's explanation of the
reason why Dumnorix favored the Helvetians (I. 9); ei gratias egit,
quod optimum iudicium fecisset, thanked him because (as the dele-
gation said) he had passed a most favorable judgment, the quod-clause
here having the Subjunctive because it presents the r.eason given
by the delegation for the expression of thanks (I. 41).

b. In Causal Clauses Caesar sometimes uses the Subjunctive of a
Verb of Saying or Thinking to introduce a statement of a reason
ascribed to some one else; as, Bellovaci suum numerum non
compleverunt, quod se suo nomine . . . bellum gestiiros di-
cerent, the Bellovaci did not furnish their full contingent because,
as they said, they were going to wage war on their own account . . .
(VII. 75).

c. The Subjunctive introduced by non quod, not because, or quam
quo (= quam eo quod), than because, may be used to express an
alleged or assumed reason ; as, quam quo . . . deslderent, than
because they desire (IV. 2).

184. a. A Causal Clause introduced by cum, since, has its verb in
the Subjunctive; as, cum . . . persuadere non possent, since they
were not able to persuade (I. 9) .

b. Caesar sometimes uses the adverb praesertim, especially, to make
prominent the Causal Idea in a Clause introduced by cum; as, prae-
sertim cum eorum precibus adductus bellum susceperit, especially

560 Companion to Caesar [§ 185

since, in response to (lit. prevailed upon by) their entreaties, he had under-
taken the campaign (I. 16).

185. a. Cum Temporal, when, referring to the Present or Future is
used with the Indicative; as, cum . . . premuntur, when they are
overwhelmed (VI. 18).

b. With cum Temporal, when, and cum primum, as soon as, refer-
ring to Past Time, Caesar uses the Indicative when the force of cum
is purely Temporal; as, cum . . . exercitus . . . meritus (esse)
videbatur, when the army clearly earned, lit. was seen to have earned
(I. 40) ; cum primum potuit, «.s- soon as he could (III. 9).

c. With cum Temporal, when, and cum primum, as soon as, refer-
ring to Past Time, Caesar uses the Subjunctive when an idea of
Circumstance, Condition, or Cause is involved ; as, cum ferrum se
inflexisset, when (i.e. when and because) the iron had become bent, lit.
had bent itself (1. 25) ; cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, as
soon as (and because^ there began to be plenty of forage (II. 2).

186. a. Caesar sometimes uses cum Temporal or ubi with the
Indicative to denote recurrent action ; as, cum usus est, whenever it
is necessary (IV. 2).

b. Caesar sometimes uses cum Temporal correlatively with the
Adverb turn in the sense not only . . . but also, but, both . . . and ; as,
cum omnis iuventus . . . convenerant, turn navium quod ubique
fuerat, not only (lit. when) had all the youth . . . assembled but (lit.
then) all the ships they had (III. 16).

187. Caesar sometimes uses cum Adversative, although, ivhile, with
the Subjunctive; as, cum ea ita sint, although this (lit. those things) is
true (I. 14).

188. a. Caesar uses the Temporal Conjunctions ubi, ut, when,
postquam, after, postea quam (written as two words) after that,
after, and simul atque, simul, as soon as, with the Indicative, usually
in the Perfect Tense. Thus, Quod ubi Caesar resciit, When Caesar
found this out (I. 28) ; postquam Caesar pervgnit, after Caesar
arrived (I. 27); simul atque sg recgpgrunt, so soon as they rallied
(IV. 27).

b. The conjunction ut, as, introducing a comparison, is used with
the Indicative ; as, ut . . . nSluerant, ita. at they had been unwilling
so . . . (II. 1).

c. ubi primum, as soon as (lit. when first), is used with the Perfect
Indicative ; as, ubi primum nostros equitgs conspexgrunt, as soon
as they saw our horsemen (IV. 12).

§ 193] Temporal and Relative Clauses 561

d. The Pluperfect Indicative with ubi may denote a Repeated
Action ; as, ubi . . . conspexerant, whenever they saw, lit. when they
had seen (IV. 26).

189. a. Caesar uses prius quam, until, before, with the Indicative
to denote an actual occurrence or a fact ; as, neque prius fugere de-
stiterunt quam ad flumen Rhenum . . . pervenerunt, and they did
not stop their flight until they reached the river Rhine (I. 53).

b. Caesar uses prius quam and ante quam, sooner than, before,
with the Subjunctive, implying Expectancy or Purpose in an action;
as, prius quam se hostes reciperent, before the enemy could rally
(II. 12).

190. a. Caesar uses dum Temporal in the sense of while with the
Indicative Historical Present ; in the sense of so long as, while, with the
Indicative Present, Imperfect, and Perfect. Thus, Dum ea conqui-
runtur, while those things were (lit. are) being sought out (I. 27) ; Dum
longius aberant Galli, so long as the Gauls were further away
(VII. 82).

b. Caesar uses dum, until, with the Subjunctive to denote Intention
or Expectancy ; as, dum . . . Helvetii pervenirent, until the Helve-
tians should reach (I. 11).

c. Caesar uses quoad in the Temporal sense of so long as, until,
with the Indicative ; in the sense of until denoting Intention or Ex-
pectancy, with the Subjunctive. Thus, quoad potuit, so long as he
could (IV. 12) ; quoad ipse propius . . . accessisset, until he him-
self should have come up nearer (IV. 11).

191. a. Caesar uses the Adversative Conjunctions etsi, tametsi,
although, with the Indicative ; as, etsi . . . videbat, although he saw
(I. 46).

b. Concessive ut, meaning granted that, although, is followed by the
Subjunctive; as, ut omnia contra opinionem accidant, granted
that everything turn out contrary to expectation (in Indirect Form III. 9).

192. Relative Clauses, introduced by a Relative or General Rela-
tive Pronoun, have their Verb in the Indicative unless an idea of
Purpose, Characteristic, Cause, Result, or Condition is involved ; as,
Allobrogum, qui nuper pacati erant, of the A llobroges, who had
lately been subdued (I. 6) ; quaecumque pars castrorum . . . premi
videbatur, whenever any part (lit. whatever part) of the camp seemed to
be hard pressed (III. 4).

193. a. A Relative Clause of Purpose may be introduced by qui
(= ut is, in order that he), or by the Relative Adverbs quo (= ut

562 Companion to Caesar [§ 194

eo), qu5 ( = ut e5), and has its Verb in the Subjunctive; as, lggatos
mittunt (Historical Present) nobilissimos civitatis . . . qui dice-
rent, they sent as envoys the citizens of highest rank to say, lit. who should
say (I. 7) ; quo gravius homines . . . doleant, in order that men
may more bitterly suffer (I. 14). Cf. 365 (p. 643).

b. In Relative Clauses of Purpose quo is generally used with a
Comparative ; as, quo facilius . . . possit, that he might (lit. may)
be able the more easily (I. 8).

194. a. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive, introduced by a
Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb, may characterize an Indefinite
Antecedent (Clause of Characteristic) ; as, itinera duo, quibus
itineribus . . . exire possent, two routes by which they could go out,
i.e. two routes of such a character that by them they could go out
(I. 6); nihil [els] erat quo famem tolerarent, they had nothing
with which they could satisfy hunger (I. 28).

b. A Clause of Characteristic may be used after a Comparative ; as
non longius aberant quam quo telum adigi posset, were already
within range, lit. not further away than (the distance) to which a dart
could be thrown (II. 21).

c. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive may have a Causal
Force ; as, Catuvolcus . . . detestatus Ambiorigem, qui eius
consilii auctor fuisset, . . . se exanimavit, cursing Ambiorix, ftnca
he (lit. ivho) had been the originator of that scheme, Catuvolcus killed
himself (VI. 31).

d. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive may have an Adversa-
tive Force ; as, Cicero, qui . . . milites in castris continuisset,
Cicero, although he had kept the soldiers in camp (VI. 3(5).

e. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive may have a Conditional
Force; as qui . . . vidSret if one should look at (VII. 19).

/. A Restrictive Clause may be introduced by the Relative quod
and have the Subjunctive ; as, quod . . . posset, .\-t> far at h> might li-
able, (lit. that) which, etc. (I. 35).

195. A Relative Clause of Result may be introduced by qui (= ut
is, so that he), or quin (= qui non, quae non, quod non). and has
its Verb in the Subjunctive; as, Nemo est tarn fortis, quin rei
novitate perturbgtur, No one (of them) was so strong that he was not
upset by the unexpectedness of the occurrence (VI. 39).

196. a. Clauses of Purpose in Caesar are most often introduced
by ut, utl, in order that, that, or ng. in order that not, lest, and have
their Verb in the Subjunctive; as, ut spatium intercgdere posset,

§ 198] Substantive Clauses 563

in order that a period of time might (lit. might be able to) intervene (I.
7) ; Id ne accideret, in order that this might not happen (I. 38).

b. In Clause,* of Purpose Caesar uses ne . . . neve (neu) in the
sense of that not . . . nor, and ut (uti) . . . neve (neu) in the sense of
that . . . and that riot, with the Subjunctive ; as, ut . . . earum rerum
vis minueretur, neu ponti nocerent, that the force of these things might
be lessened and that they might not damage the bridge (IV. 17).

197. a. Clauses of Result are most often introduced by ut or uti,
so that, that (negative non), and have their Verb in the Subjunc-
tive ; as, ut perpauci prohibere possent, so that a very few (men)
could stop them (I. 6) ; ut . . . iudicarl non possit, that it cannot be
determined (I. 12).

b. Clauses of Result are often preceded by a word of Measure or
Quality, tam, tantus, ita, sic, etc. ; as, tanta rerum commutatio
est facta, ut nostri . . . proelium redintegrarent, so great a change
was brought about that our (men) renewed the fght (II. 27) ; sic munie-
batur, ut magnam . . . daret facultatem, was so fortified that it
afforded a great resource (I. 38).

c. A Clause of Result with the Subjunctive may be introduced by
quam after a Comparative, with or without ut ; as, pulverem ma-
iorem, quam consuetiido ferret, a cloud of dust greater than usual
lit. greater than (sk> that) an ordinary condition would bring it (IV. 32).


198. a. Substantive Clauses are used as Subject of a Verb, as
Object of a Verb, and in other Relations similar to those in which
Nouns are used.

b. A Substantive Clause introduced by quod, meaning the fact that,
that, has its Verb in the Indicative, and may stand as Subject, or
Predicate, or Object of a Verb, or in Apposition. Thus, magno erat
impediments, quod . . . neque . . . poterant, A great hindrance
. . . was the fact that they were able neither to . . . the quod-clause
being the Subject of erat (L 25) ; causa mittendi fuit quod . . .
volebat, the reason for sending was the fact that he wanted . . . the
quod-clause being in Predicate (III. 1) ; multae res . . . in primis
quod . . . videbat, many circumstances, first of all the fact that he saw
. . . the quod-clause being in Apposition with res (I. 33).

c. A Substantive Clause introduced by quod, meaning As to the
fact that, As regards the fact that, may have the force of an Accusative
or Ablative of Specification. Thus, quod . . . eniintiarit, As to the

564 Companion to Caesar [§ 199

fact that he had reported'; in the direct form, quod gnuntiavi. si
to the fact that I have reported (I. 17).

199. a. Substantive Clauses with the Subjunctive introduced by ut,
or uti, that, andnS, that not, are used after Verbs of Commanding, Urging,
Reminding, Asking, Persuading, Conceding and Permitting, Deciding,
Striving ; the Subjunctive may often best be translated by an Infini-
tive. Thus, Allobrogibus imperavit, ut . . . copiam facerent,
ordered the Allobmges to furnish (lit. that they should furnish) a wpply
. . . (1.28) ; persuadet (Historical Present) Castico . . . ut rggnum
. . . occuparet, persuaded Casticus to seize the kingly power (I. 3).

Such Verbs and Phrases used by Caesar are :

(1) Commanding: impero, order; interdico, enjoin (VII. 40); mando,

command (I. 47) ; negotium do, assign the task (II. 2) ; praecipio, en-
join, direct (I. 22) ; denuntio, enjoin, (C. III. 86) ; praedico, order
in advance (C. III. 92).

(2) Urging : cohortor, encourage (II. 21) ; hortor, urge (I. 19) ; sollicito,

press (III. 8).

(3) Reminding : admoneo, admonish (V. 49) ; moneo, warn (I. 20).

(4) Asking : deprecor, beg to escape (II. 31) ; oro, beg (IV. 16) ; obsecro,

beseech (I. 20) ; obtestor, pray (IV. 25) ; pet5, ask earnestly (I. 28) ;
postulo, demand (I. 34) ; rog5, ask (I. 7).

(5) Persuading: adduco, prevail upon (I. 31); persuadeo, persuade; im-

pello, incite (IV. 16).

(6) Conceding and Permitting : concedo, grant (III. 18) ; patior, suffer, al-

low (1.45) ; permitto, permit (I. 35).

(7) Deciding : censed, decree (1. 35) ; cSnstituo, determine (II. 10) ; placuit,

it pleased (I. 34) ; sancio, bind (I. 30).

(8) Striving : ago, arrange (I. 41) ; contendo, strive (I. 31) ; do operam.

take pains (V. 7) ; impetro, obtain one's request (I. 9) ; laboro, put
forth effort (I. 31).

b. Such Verbs are sometimes used impersonally in the Passive, the
Substantive Clause taking the place of a Subject; as erat ei praecep-
tum, ne proelium committeret, he had been ordered not /<> join battle,
lit. it had been ordered to hi?n that he should not, etc. (I. 23).

c. With such Verbs the Substantive Clause is sometimes replaced
by the Infinitive, with or without a Subject Accusative ; as, loqui
concgditur, permission is given to speak (VI. 20) ; H5s [n5v§s] actu-
aries imperat (Historical Present) fieri, he ordered that these (shifts)
hi I milt Jar fist movement (V. 1).

d. As a Negative Connective between Substantive Subjunctive
C1&UB68 Caesar uses n6ve (before vowels and h) and neu (before con-
sonants), with the meaning and that . . . not, or that . . . not.

§202] Substantive Clauses 565

200. a. In Substantive Clauses with ut after admoneo, cohortor,
constituo, impero, mando, nuntio, order, postulo, demand, and
rogo, ask, and a few phrases, the ut is sometimes omitted ; as, rogat
(Historical Present), finem orandi faciat, asked him to make an end
of his pleading (I. 20) .

b. Iubeo, order, bid, and veto, forbid, are regularly used by Caesar
with the Infinitive and Subject Accusative ; conor, attempt, with the
Infinitive ; as, quemque effere iubent, they gave (lit. give) orders that
each person carry away ... (I. 5) ; exsequi conaretur, attempted to
enforce (I. 4).

201. a. Substantive Clauses with the Subjunctive introduced by
ne, that not, quo minus, that not (lit. by which the less), and quin,
that not, are used after Verbs of Hindering, Preventing, and Refusing ;
the Conjunction often may best be rendered by from with a Par-
ticiple. Thus, hos . . . deterrere ne frumentum conferant, these
through fear were holding back {the people) from furnishing the grain
(I. 17) ; retineri non potuerant quin . . . tela conicerent, could
not be restrained from hurling darts (I. 47).

Such Verbs used by Caesar are :

deterreo, hold back through fear ; recuso, refuse (1.31) ; retineo, restrain;
tempero, restrain one's self (I. 33) ; teneo, hold back (IV. 22) ; terreo, frighten
(VII. 49).

b. Substantive Clauses with the Subjunctive introduced by quin
are used also after general expressions of Doubt and Negation, quin
being translated that. Thus, non esse dubium, quin . . ., that there
was no doubt that (I. 3) ; neque abest suspicio . . . quin, and there is
ground for suspecting that, lit. and there is not lacking suspicion that (I. 4).

c. After dubito, meaning doubt, Caesar uses a Substantive Clause
with quin and the Subjunctive ; after dubito, hesitate, generally the
Infinitive, rarely a clause with quin. Thus, non dubitare quin . . .
sumat, he did not doubt that he (Ariovistus) would inflict (I. 31) ;
transire flumeii non dubitaverunt, did not hesitate to cross the river
(II. 23) ; dubitandum non existimavit quin . . . proficisciretur,
thought that he ought not to hesitate to set out (II. 2).

202. Substantive Clauses with the Subjunctive introduced by ut
and ne are used after Verbs of Fearing ; after such Verbs ut is to be
translated that not, and ne, that, or lest. Thus, ne . . . offenderet
verebatur, was afraid that he might offend (I. 19); ut . . . supportari
posset, timere dicebant, were saying that they feared that (the supply
of grain) could not be brought up (I. 39).

566 Companion to Caesar [§203

203. Clauses of Result introduced by ut or uti and ut non are
used as Substantive Clauses in four ways :

(1) As the Subject of Impersonal Verbs ; thus, fiebat ut . . . va-

garentur, it came about that they wandered (1. 2) ; AccgdSbat
ut . . . tempestatem ferrent, There icas the additional fact
that they weathered the storm (III. 13).

The more important Impersonal Forms thus used by Caesar are accedebat ;
accidit, it happened (IV. 29) ; fit (C.II.4) ; fiebat; factum eat (III. 19) ; factum
esse (I. 31), fieri (II. 4) ; institutum est, the custom became jixed (C. III. 92);
Kelinquebatur, the result was, lit. it icas loft (V. 19); and the Future
Infinitive of sum in both forms, futurum esse (I. 10, 20, 31), and fore

(2) As Predicate or Appositive with consuetudo est and ius est ;

thus, ea consuetudo esset, ut matres familiae . . . de-
clararent, there was the custom that the matrons should declare
(I. 50).

(3) As Object after Verbs of Action and Accomplishment; thus,

committeret ut is locus . . . nomen caperet. lit. bring it
about that the place . . . should assume a name (I. 13) ; com-
meatus ut . . . portari possent, efficiebat, made it possible
for supplies to be brought, lit. teas accomplishing that supplies
could be brought (II. 5).

The Verbs thus used by Caesar are committo, efficio, perficio (I. 9).

(4) As Appositive of a Noun or Neuter Pronoun whose meaning

the ut-clause defines; thus, poenam, ut igni cremargtur,
the penalty of being burned by fire, lit. that he should be burned
by fire (I. 4) ; id, quod constituerant . . . ut § finibus
suls exeant. that which they had reso/red upon, <i migration
from their country, lit. that they should go out from their U rri-
tories (I. 5).

204. Indirect Questions are used as Substantive Clauses after Ex-
pressions of Inquiry, Narration, Deliberation, and Uncertainty, and
have the Subjunctive. The following types of Indirect Questions are
used by Caesar :

(1) Introduced by the Interrogative Particles -ne (V. 27), num
(I. 14) in Single Questions; in Double Questions, by the
Correlative Particles utrum . . . an, whether . . . or (I. In);
utrum . . . necne, whether . . . or not, necne representing
annoii of the Direct Form (I. 50); -ne . . . an, whether . . .

§ 205] Conditional Sentences 567

or (VI. 31) ; -ne . . . an . . . an, whether . . . or . . . or (IV. 14) ;
-ne . . . -ne, whether . . . or (VII. 14) ; and an alone, utrum
being omitted, or (VII. 15). Thus, consultum [esse],
utrum Ignl statini necaretur an . . . reservaretur, that
counsel was taken whether he should at once be put to death by
burning, or saved up for another occasion (I. 53).

(2) Introduced by an Interrogative Pronoun ; as, Dumnorigi cus-

todies ponit (Historical Present), ut, quae agat, quibuscum
loquatur, scire possit (Caesar), set guards over Dumnorix,
in order to be able to know what (lit. what things) he did, with
whom he talked (I. 20).

(3) Introduced by Pronominal Adjectives, and Adverbs used Inter-

rogatively ; as, in utram partem fluat, in which direction it
flows (I. 12). Adjectives and Adverbs thus used by Caesar
are qualis, of what sort (I. 21) ; quam with an Adjective,
how (I. 43) ; quantus, how great (I. 17) ; quem ad modum,
in what way (I. 36); uter, which; cur, why (I. 40); quare,
wherefore, why (I. 45); quo, whither (III. 16); quot, how
many (VII. 19) ; quotiens, how often (I. 43) ; unde, whence
(V. 53); ut, how (I. 43).

(4) Introduced by si, if, whether, after Verbs of Effort and Expec-

tation; as, si perrumpere possent, conati, trying (to see)
whether they could break through (I. 8).


205. Caesar has General Conditions of the First Type (Conditions
of Fact) introduced by si, if, with the Indicative in both Protasis and
Apodosis, the Protasis implying Customary or Repeated Action ; si is
almost equivalent to whenever. Thus:

(1) Present Tense in both Protasis and Apodosis: si qui ex reli-

quis excellit, succ§dit, if anyone of the rest is preeminent, he
becomes the successor of the arch-druid (VI. 13).

(2) Imperfect Tense in both Protasis and Apodosis : si quid erat

diirius, concurrebant, if there was unusually serious difficulty
(lit. if there was anything rather hard) they would rush to the
rescue (I. 48).

(3) Perfect Tense in the Protasis, Present in the Apodosis: si

compertum est, interficiunt, if the fact (of crime) has been
established, they kill (VI. 19).

568 Companion to Caesar [§206

(4) Pluperfect Tense in the Protasis, Imperfect in the Apodosis
si qui . . . equo dgciderat, circumsistebant. if anyone had
fallen from his horse, they would gather around him (I. 48).

206. Caesar has Specific Conditions of the First Type (Conditions
of Fact) introduced by si, if or nisi, unless, with the Indicative in tin
Protasis, and the Indicative, Imperative, or Hortatory Subjunctive in
the Apodosis. Thus :

(1) Present Indicative in both Protasis and Apodosis: Cuius si

vos paenitet, vestrum vobis beneficium remitto, if yon
regret this, I give you back your far or (C. II. 32).

(2) Present Indicative in the Protasis, Present Imperative in the

Apodosis : Desilite . . . nisi vultis aquilam hostibus pro-
dere, jump down, unless you wish to abandon your eagle to the
enemy (IV. 25).

(3) Present Indicative in the Protasis, Hortatory Subjunctive in

the Apodosis : Si quid in nobis animi est, persequamur
mortem, if ice have any vestige of courage in us, let us avenge
the death (VII. 38).

(4) Future Perfect Indicative in the Protasis, Future Indicative or

Imperative in the Apodosis: si gravius quid accident,
rationem reposcent, if any disaster shall befall them (lit. any-
thing rather heavy shall have happened), they will demand an
accounting (V. 30) ; Tuemini castra, et defendite, si quid
durius acciderit, guard the camp, and defend it in case of any
trouble, lit. if anything rather hard shall have happened (C. III.

207. Caesar has conditions of the Second Type (Conditions of
Possible Realization), introduced by si, if, nisi, unless, or sin, !>nt
if, with the Subjunctive in the Protasis, and the Potential Subjunc-

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 48 of 73)