Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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tive, or the Indicative (emphasizing the situation as an actual one)
in the Apodosis ; thus :

(1) Present Subjunctive in both Protasis and Apodosis : qui, si per

te liceat, . . . cum reliquis belli casuni sustineant. if
they shoidd have your permission, they would share the fortune
of war with the rest (V. 30).

(2) Present Subjunctive in the Protasis, Present Indicative in the

Apodosis : neque, aliter si faciat, fill am habet auctorita-
tem, and if (a leading man) does (lit. should do) otherwise, he
has no influence 0,1 d,U (VI, 11).

§209] Conditional Sentences 569

(3) Imperfect Subjunctive in the Protasis, Imperfect Indicative in
the Apodosis : si continere ad signa manipulos vellet,
locus ipse erat praesidio barbaris, if he desired to keep his
companies with the standards, the very (character of the) region
was a protection to the natives (VI. 34).

208. a. Caesar has Conditions of the Third Type (Conditions
Contrary to Fact), introduced by si, if or nisi, unless, with the Sub-
junctive in both Protasis and Apodosis, the Imperfect referring to
Present Time, the Pluperfect to Past Time. Thus :

(1) Imperfect : ego hanc sententiam probarem ... si nullam

praeterquam vitae nostrae iacturam fieri viderem, /

should approve this view if I saw that no (loss) ivas involved
except the loss of our own lives, implying that the speaker did
not approve the view, and that other loss was involved
(VII. 77).

(2) Pluperfect : nisi . . . milites essent defessi, omnes hostium

copiae delgri potuissent, if the soldiers had not been ex-
hausted . . ., the entire forces of the enemy might have been
wiped out, implying that the soldiers were exhausted, and that
many of the enemy escaped (VII. 88).

b. The Indicative is used in the Apodosis of Conditions Contrary
to Fact when there is present an idea of Necessity, Propriety, or Pos-
sibility ; as, si populus Romanus alicuius iniuriae sibi conscius
fuisset, non fuit difficile cavere, if the Roman people had been con-
scious of any wrongdoing it would not have been (lit. was not) difficult
(for them) to take precautions (from the Indirect Form in I. 14).

c. The Imperfect Subjunctive, referring to Past Time, may be
used in Conditions Contrary to Fact, if a lasting state of affairs is
implied ; as, si quid mihi a Caesare opus esset, ad eum venissem,
If I had wanted (or now wanted) anything of Caesar, I should have come
to him (from the Indirect Form in I. 34).

209. In the Protasis of a Conditional Sentence an Ablative Abso-
lute, a Participle, or other form of expression implying a Condition,
may be used in place of the clause with si ; as, data facultate, tak-
ing the place of si facultas data esset, if an opportunity should have
been granted, in the Direct Form, si facultas data erit (I. 7) ; dam-
natum (eum), him, if condemned, damnatum taking the place of
si damnatus esset (I. 4).

570 Companion to Caesar H 210

210. Caesar has Conditional Clauses of Comparison with the Sub-
junctive introduced by velut si, quasi, and proinde ac si. Thus :
quod . . . absentis Ariovisti crudelitatem velut si coram adesset,
horrgrent, that is . . . velut horrgrent, si coram adesset, hor-
rgrent, because they dreaded Ariovistus's cruelty when he was away just
as (they would dread it) if he were present (I. 32) ; Quasi vgro cdnsilii
sit rgs, As if indeed it were a matter of choice, i.e. as it would be, if it
should be a matter of choice (VII. 38) ; proinde ac si . . . vellent,
just as if they proposed (C. III. 60).



211. a. Caesar presents the language of another person in two
ways, either in Direct Quotation, or in Indirect Quotation, a form of
Indirect Discourse.

b. In Direct Quotation Caesar quotes :

(1) Words spoken directly to him, as the brave words of Crastinus

just before going into action at the battle of Pharsalus (C.
III. 91).

(2) Words reported to him, presumably by his officers ; as the exhor-

tation of the unnamed standard-bearer of the Tenth Legion
when landing on the British shore, if this was spoken outside
of Caesar's hearing (IV. 25), and the challenge of Pullo to
Vorenus (V. 44).

(3) Words or Speeches, sometimes in dialects foreign to Caesar,

which he presents in his own language, but throws into the
form of Direct Quotation in order to enhance the effect ;
such are the words of the Eburonian captive to the Sugam-
brian leaders (VI. 35), and the speech of the cold-blooded
Critognatus at the war council in Alesia (VII. 77) ; also tin*
words of the dying eagle-bearer (C. III. 64), and the remarks
of Pompey and Labienus before Pharsalus (C. III. 86, 87).

212. a. In Indirect Quotation, or Indirect Discourse in the nar-
rower sense, Caesar in most cases aims to present, not a word-for-
word reproduction of what was said or written, but a summary, as
brief as possible, of the main points. For example, in order to move
to action the other prominent Helvetians, and carry through the
negotiations with Casticus and Dumnorix, Orgetorix must have had

§212] Indirect Quotation 571

many conferences, extending over a considerable period of time ; yet
the gist of the argument by which, according to Caesar, he per-
suaded the whole Helvetian nation to migrate, is given in ten words
of Indirect Discourse (I. 2), while the gist of the argument by which
Casticus and Dumnorix were induced to join him in forming a
triumvirate of usurpation is summarized in thirty -one words (I. 3).

b. The kind of Summary found in the longer passages of Caesar's
Indirect Discourse has a parallel in the condensed reports of addresses
in the newspapers. A reporter, sent to prepare a synopsis of a lecture
an hour in length, on the Moon, might on his return to the news-
paper office find his space reduced, by pressure of matter, to sixty
words; he might nevertheless summarize the main points thus:

" The lecturer said that the moon is nearly two hundred and thirty-nine
thousand miles from the earth ; that under the telescope it has the appearance
of a dead planet ; that most careful observations have failed to detect the
presence of air or water ; and that, notwithstanding the moon's brightness,
due to reflection, its surface must be as cold as ice."

c. In a manner somewhat similar, but with marvelous clearness
and cogency in view of the degree of condensation, Caesar in Indirect
Discourse presents summarizing statements, or outlines, including —

(1) Conferences with Gallic and German leaders, conducted, no

doubt haltingly, through interpreters, as with Divico (I. 13,
14), Liscus and other Aeduans (T. 17, 18), the Gallic delega-
tion (I. 30-33), and Ariovistus (I. 43-45).

(2) His own addresses ;, as the speech with which he quelled an

incipient mutiny (I. 40), and his exhortation to his soldiers
at Pharsalus (C. III. 90).

(3) Reports made to him ; as by Labienus (II. 1) and the envoys

of the Remi (II. 3. 4).

(4) Requests and replies, messages and instructions; as the request

of the Helvetian envoys, and Caesar's answer (I. 7); the
plea of the Aeduans (I. 11), Caesar's message to the Lin-
gones (1.26), messages to and from Ariovistus (I. 34-36,47).

(5) Arguments; as the arguments of Orgetorix (I. 2, 3), and of

disloyal natives (II. 17).

(6) Brief reports, explanations or speeches, presented in some

cases with little or no condensation, as the hurried report of
Considius (I. 22), the apology of the soldiers (I. 41), the
joke by the soldier of the Tenth Legion (I. 42), and the
taunt of the Atuatuci as translated into Latin (II. 30).

572 Companion to Caesar [§ 213

d. Indirect Discour.se in a broader sense includes all statements in
the Indirect Form after words of Thought as well as Speech : M,
biennium satis esse diixerunt, they reckoned that two years would be
sufficient (I. 3).

e. In the Latin text of this book the more important Indirect Quota-
tions and Summaries are printed in Italic Type.

213. a. Indirect Discourse is introduced by a Verb or other Ex-
pression of Saying, Perceiving, Ascertaining, Thinking, Knowing, or
Remembering; as, sS . . . condonare dicit (Historical Present) he
said that he would pardon (I. 20).

Such Verbs and Expressions used by Caesar are :

ago, present a case (I. 13); animadverts, notice (I. 32); arbitror, think
(I. 2) ; audio, hear (IV. 7) ; censeo, decide, think (VII. 21) ; certiorem facio,
inform (I. 11); certior fit, is informed (I. 12); clamito, cry out (V. 7),
cogito, think (V. 33) ; cognosco, learn (I. 22) ; commemoro, relate (IV. 16) ;
comperio, ascertain (IV . 19); conclamo. shout (III. 18); confido. be confi-
dent, trust (III. 9) ; confirmo, assure (I. 3) ; coniecturam capio, infer (VII.
35) ; conspicio. see (II. 24) ; constat, it is agreed (III. (5) ; constituo, resolve
(II. 10) ; contendo, insist (VI. 41) ; credo, believe (II. 33).

demonstro, show, prove (1. 11)* denuntio, threaten (I. 36) ; dico, say ; dif-
fido, lose confidence (VI. 36) ; disco, learn (VII. 54) ; doceo, explain (I. 4."i) ;
duco, reckon (I. 3) ; existim5, reckon, think (I. 6) ; facio verba, make a plea
(II. 14) ; intellego, understand (I. 16) ; invenio, find out (II. 16) ; iudico,
judge (I. 45) ; iuro, sioear (VI. 12) ; loquor, speak, say (11.31).

memini, remember (III. 6) ; memoria teneo, hold in memory, remember
(I. 7) ; mini persuasum habeo, am convinced (III. 2) ; moneo. explain (C. III.
89); nego, declare that . . . not (I. 8); nuntio, announce (II. 2); nuntium
m'itto, send word (II. 6) ; ostendo, make plain (I. 8) ; perscribo. write fully
(V. 49) ; perspicio, perceive (III. 9) ; polliceor, promise (I. 33) : praedico,
declare (1.39); pro explorato habeo, consider certain (VI. 5) : prob5, show,
prove (I. 3); profiteor, declare (VII. 2); pronuntio. announce (V. 56);
pr5vide5, foresee (VII. 39) ; puto, think (IV. 3).

recordor, recall (C. III. 47) ; refer5, import (VI. 10) ; renuntio, bring (hark)
report (1. 10) ; reperio,.tfnd out, ascertain (I. 18) ; respondeo, anevn r (I. 14);
sciS, know (I. 20) ; scribo, write (V. 13) ; sentio, perceive (I. IS) ; spem habeo.
have hope that (I. 33); signifies, give intimation (II. 18); simulo. pretend
(IV. 4) ; spero, hope (I. 3) ; statuo, determine (I. 42) : suspicor, suspect (I. 44) ;
testibus iitor, take as witnesses that (VII. 77) ; video, see (I. 33) ; voveo
vow (VI. 16).

b. The Verb of Saying, on which Indirect Discourse depends, is
sometimes not expressed, l>ul implied in the Context; as, Caesarem
complexus obsecrare coepit . . . scire s6. thro/ring his arms
around Caesar began to beseech {him, saying) that he knew (I.J<»).

§217] Indirect Discourse 573


214. a. In Indirect Discourse the Principal Statements, corre-
sponding with the Principal Clauses of Direct Discourse, are ex-
pressed by the Subject Accusative and the Infinitive; Subordinate
Clauses have the Subjunctive. Thus, Consuesse deos immortales
. . . quos pro scelere eorum ulcisci velint, his secundiores in-
terdum res, et diuturniorem impunitatem, concedere, The im-
mortal gods are wont to grant a more prosperous estate meanwhile, and
longer freedom from punishment, to those whom they desire to punish for
their wickedness ; in the Direct Form consuesse deos would be-
come consuerunt di, and velint in the Subordinate Clause would
be volunt, the other words remaining unchanged, and the sentence
would read Consuerunt di immortales . . . quos pro scelere
eorum ulcisci volunt, his secundiores interdum res et diuturni-
orem impunitatem concedere (I. 14) .

b. A Subordinate Clause containing an implied quotation may
have the Subjunctive; as, frumentum, quod essent polliciti, the
grain which (as he said) they had promised (I. 16).

c. In Indirect Discourse a Subordinate or Parenthetical Clause,
presenting a Statement of Fact which is not necessarily a part of the
Indirect Discourse, may have the Indicative ; as, Condrusos . . .
Paemanos, qui German! appellantur, that the Condrusi . . . and the
Paemani, who are called Germans (II. 4).

215. The Subject Accusative in Indirect Discourse is sometimes
omitted when it is easily understood from the Context, especially
when it refers to the same person as the Subject of the Verb on
which the Indirect Discourse depends; as, scire, for se scire, that he
knew (I. 40, 1. 41) ; prohibiturum ostendit, for se prohibiturum
esse ostendit (Historical Present), he showed that he would prevent
them (I. 8).

216. Commands expressed in Direct Quotation by the Imperative,
or by the Jussive Subjunctive, in Indirect Discourse have the Sub-
junctive, the Negative being ne. Thus, reminisceretur, let him
remember, which in the Direct Form would be Imperative, remini-
scere, remember (1. 13) ; ne . . . tribueret, that he should not presume,
the Direct Form being noli tribuere (I. 13).

217. a. Ordinary Questions in Indirect Discourse have the Sub-
junctive ; as, Cur in suas possessionem veniret, Why did he (Cae-
sar} come into his possessions? in the Direct Form this would be,

574 Companion to Caesar [§ 218

Cur in meas possessionem venls ? Why do you come into my pos-
sessions (I. 44) ?

b. Deliberative Questions in Indirect Discourse retain the Subjunc-
tive, but the Tense is governed by that of the Verb on which the
Indirect Discourse depends (177, a, b); thus, Quid agamus? What
are we to do ? after a Past Tense in Indirect Discourse becomes Quid
agerent ; as, neque satis . . . constabat, quid agerent, and it was
not quite clear . . . what they should do (III. 14).

c. Rhetorical Questions in Indirect Discourse have the Infinitive
(179, b) ; as, quid esse levius, what is more capricious, implying
that nothing could be more capricious (V. 28).

218. An Apodosis of a Conditional Sentence containing a State-
ment is expressed in Indirect Discourse by the Accusative and Infini-
tive, containing a Command, by the Subjunctive; the Protasis,
containing the Condition, has the Subjunctive, as follows:

(1) a. In the First Type (Conditions of Fact), the Tense of the
Infinitive in Indirect Discourse corresponds with the Tense
of the Apodosis in the Direct Form, while the Tense of the
Protasis, introduced by si or sin, is governed by that of the
Verb on which the Indirect Discourse depends (177, a, b).
Thus, Is ita cum, Caesare egit ; si pacem populus Roma-
nus cum Helvetiis faceret, in earn partem ituros [esse]
atque ibi futuros [esse] Helvetios, ubi eos Caesar consti-
tuisset atque esse voluisset, He took up (the matter) icith
Caesar thus : If the Roman people ivould make peace with the
Helvetians, they would go wherever Caesar should have appointed
and wished them to be, and would there remain ; in the Direct
Form, Si pacem populus Romanus cum Helvgtiis faciet,
in earn partem lbunt atque ibi erunt Helvetil. ubi eos
tu constitueris (Future Perfect Indicative) atque esse
volueris (I. 13).
b. In the Protasis of the First Type a Perfect or Pluperfect
Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse may represent a Future
Perfect Indicative in the Direct Form ; as. Quod si fgcerit
(Perfect Subjunctive), Aeduorum auctoritatem amplifica-
tiirum [esse], If he should do this, he uwuhl inertOM tkt />/>.<-
tige of the Aeduans ; in the Direct Form, Quod si fgceris
(Future Perfect Indicative) Aeduorum auctoritatem am-
plificabis, ff you will do (lit. thaU tat* dtmi) this, you will
increase the prestige of the Aeduans (II. 11).

§220) Indirect Discourse 575

(2) Tn the Second Type (Conditions of Possible Realization) the

Infinitive in Indirect Discourse represents the Subjunctive
of the Direct Form ; the Tense of the Present Subjunctive in
the Protasis is Present after a Present Tense, but Imperfect
in case the Indirect Discourse follows a Past Tense. Thus,
after a Present Tense, Si quid accidat Romanis, summam
in spem . . . venire, if any (disaster) should befall the Romans,
he would entertain the highest expectation, lit. would come into the
highest hope ; in the Direct Form, si quid accidat Ro-
manis, summam in spem veniat (I. 18).

(3) In the Third Type (Conditions Contrary to Fact) in Indirect

Discourse the Perfect Infinitive of the Active Periphrastic
Conjugation corresponds to the Active Pluperfect Subjunctive
in the Apodosis of the Direct Form, while a Passive Pluper-
fect Subjunctive in the Apodosis is represented by futurum
fuisse (Impersonal) ut . . . with a Passive Imperfect Sub-
junctive, the Protasis being in the Subjunctive ; as, neque
Eburones, si ille adesset, (fuisse) venturos, nor would the
Eburones have come if he (had been and) were at hand (V. 29;
cf . 208, c) ; nisi nuntii essent allati, existimabant plerique
futurum fuisse, uti (oppidum) amitteretur, if news had
not been brought, most people were of the opinion that the town
would have been lost, in the Direct Form, nisi nuntii essent
allati, oppidum amissum esset (C. III. 101).

219. The Apodosis of a Conditional Sentence is sometimes incor-
porated in a Substantive Clause introduced by ut, ne, or quin. Thus,
ut, si vellet Ariovistus proelio contendere, el potestas non de-
esset, in order that, if Ariovistus wished to contend in battle, opportunity
might not be lacking to him, in the Direct Form, SI . . . volet . . . non
deerit (I. 48) ; neque dubitare debere quin, si Helvetios supe-
raverint (Perfect Subjunctive) R6ma.ni . . . Aeduis libertatem
sint erepturi, and that they ought not to doubt that, if the Romans should
have overpowered the Helvetians, they were going to take away liberty from
the Aeduans, in the Direct Form, si Helvetios superaverint (Future
Perfect Indicative) Roman! . . . erepturi sunt (I. 17).

220. The Verb of a clause subordinate to a clause having its Verb in
the Subjunctive, or in the Infinitive, is ordinarily put in the Subjunctive
(Subjunctive by Attraction) ; as, uti frumento commeatuque, qui
. . . supportaretur, Caesarem intercluderet, that he might cut Caesar
off from the grain and other supplies which were being brought up (I. 48).

576 Companion to Caesar [§221


221. a. Caesar uses the Infinitive after many Verbs to complete
the Meaning (Complementary Infinitive) ; as, . . . exire possent,
they were able to go out, exire filling out the sense which with pos-
sent alone would be incomplete (I. 6).

b. A Participle, Adjective or Noun in Predicate with a Complemen-
tary Infinitive is attracted to the case of the Subject of the Verb on
which the Infinitive depends; as, purgati esse vellent, they should
wish to be guiltless (I. 28).

c. Caesar has the Infinitive after certain Participles used as Ad-
jectives; as, paratum (Accusative) decertare, ready to fight it out
(I. 44).

222. a. An Infinitive may be the Subject of an Impersonal Verb,
or of other Verbs used Impersonally ; as, Maiori parti placuit . . .
dSfendere, The majority decided (lit. to the greater part it was pleasing)
to defend . . . (III. 3) ; Commodissimum visum est . . . mittere.
It seemed most expedient to send, mittere being the Subject of visum
est (I. 47).

b. An Infinitive is sometimes used as the Subject of an Infinitive,
especially in Indirect Discourse ; as, commodissimum esse statuit
. . . imponere, he decided that the most expedient (thing) was to place . . .
on, imponere being the Subject of esse used impersonally (I. 42).

c. An Infinitive used as Subject may have a Subject Accusative;
as, intersit (Historical Present) mantis distingri, it was important
that the forces be kept apart (II. 5).

223. a. Caesar uses the Accusative with the Infinitive not only
after words of Speech and Thought (Indirect Discourse, 212, d), but
also. after Words expressing Will or Desire, Feeling, Permission and
Prevention, Persuasion, Command, Training and Compulsion; as, eas
rgs iactari nolebat, he was unwilling that those matters should he dis-
cussed (I. 18); eos ire paterentur, would allow them to go (I. )!).

Such Words used by Caesar are :

(1) Expressing Will or Desire : desidero, desire (IV. 2) ; malo.

(C. III. 80); n515, be univil!in</ ; studeo, be soger (('. I. 4); volo,
wish (I. 13).

(2) Expressing Feeling: admiror, he surprised (I. 14); dole5, grieve

(III. 2) ; gaudeo, rejoice (IV. 13); glorior, boast (C. L 4); queror.
complain (0. III. 90; usually followed bj ;i quod clause) : magno
dolore fer5, feel deeply chagrined (VII. 68); moleste fero.
irritation (II. 1).

§ 226] Participles 577

(3) Expressing Permission or Prevention : patior, suffer, allow) (sometimes

followed by an ut-clause) ; prohibeo, prevent . . . from (II. 4, etc.).

(4) Expressing Command, Training, or Compulsion : iubeo, order (I. 5) ;

veto, forbid (II. 20); assuefacio, train (IV. 2) ; cogo, force (I. 4).

b. Cupio, malo, nolo, studeo, and volo frequently have the In-
finitive without a Subject Accusative (Complementary Infinitive) ;
as, ulcisci velint, may ivish to punish (I. 14).

224. a. When Verbs which, in the Active Voice, have the Accusa-
tive and Infinitive, are used in the Passive, a Subject Nominative may
take the place of the Accusative, the Infinitive remaining the same ;
in translating, the English Impersonal construction should often be
used. Thus, non fore dicto audientes . . . dicantur, that it is said
they will not be obedient to the command, lit. that they are said not to be
about to be obedient (I. 40).

b. The Accusative and the Infinitive may stand as the Subject of
an Impersonal Verb, or of other Verbs used Impersonally; as, poe-
nam sequi oportebat, the penalty would inevitably follow, lit. that the
penalty follow, was inevitable (I. 4) ; Non esse fas Germanos supe-
rare, That it was not right for the Germans to conquer, Germanos
superare being the Subject of esse used Impersonally (I. 50).

225. The place of the Future Infinitive may be taken by fore or
futurum esse and a clause with ut and the Subjunctive ; as, fore, utl
pertinacia desisteret, that he would desist from his obstinate course, lit.
that it would be that he would desist (I. 42).


226- a. The Time denoted by a Present Participle is the same as
that of the Principal Verb ; as, flens peteret, with tears (lit. weeping)
he was entreating (I. 20).

b. The Time denoted by a Perfect Participle is prior to that of the
Principal Verb; as, cupiditate inductus, led on (lit. having been led)
by a desire (I. 2).

c. Caesar sometimes uses Perfect Participles of Deponent and Semi-
deponent Verbs where English usage prefers a Present Participle ; as,
Caesarem complexus, embracing Caesar, lit. having embraced (I. 20).
Examples are :

arbitratus, thinking (III. 28) ; complexus ; commorStus, delaying (V. 7) ;
confisus, trusting (I. 53) ; consoiatus, comforting (I. 20) ; diffisus, distrust-
ing (VI. 38) ; gavisus, rejoicing (IV. 13) ; mlratus, wondering (I. 32) ; secu-
tus, following (I. 24) ; usus, using (II. 7) ; veritus, fearing (II. 11).

578 Companion to Caesar [§ 227

227. a. A Participle is often used to express concisely an idea
which might have been expanded into a Clause, particularly an idea
of Cause, Condition, Opposition, Characterization, or Description. Thus :

(1) Expressing Cause: se, Biturigum perfidiam veritos, rever-

tisse, that they, fearing the treachery of the Bituriges, had come
back, that is, that they had come back because they feared the
treachery of the Bituriges (VII. 5).

(2) Expressing Condition : hanc adept! victoriam, in perpe-

tuum se fore victores confidebant, having won this victory,
they were confident that they would be victorious for all time,
adept! being equivalent to s! adept! essent (V. 39).

(3) Expressing Opposition : in colloquium venire inv!tatus,

although invited to come to a conference (I. 35).

(4) Expressing Characterization or Description : vict!s, venientes,

those beaten, those coming up, meaning those who had been beaten,
those who were coming up (I. 25).

(5) Expressing Time : conantes, when they were attempting (I. 47).

b. A Participle may express Manner or Circumstance; as, flgns
peteret, with tears (lit. weeping) he was entreating (I. 20) ; pugnans
interficitur, is killed while fighting (V. 37).

228. a. Caesar sometimes uses a Perfect Participle in agreement
with the Subject or the Object of a Verb where Pmglish usage prefers a
coordinate clause. Thus, Persuadent (Historical Present) Raurac!s
. . . ut!, eodem us! consilio, . . . cum e!s profic!scantur, Per-
suaded the Ro.uraci . . . to adopt the same plan, and set out with them,
lit. that, having used the same plan, they should set out (I. 5) ; Boios'

. . . receptos ad se socios sibi asc!scunt, they received and assJf^
dated with themselves the Boians, lit. the Boians, having been received
. . . they associated (I. 5).

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 49 of 73)