Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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from Geneva to Lyons. autem : ' moreover.' 236, a and b. im-
pendebat : 'overhung.' 54>

5. perpauci : ' very few ' men, posted on the heights above the road ;
see Fig. 32. Force of per ? 79, b, and Vocab. prohibfire : sc. eds.
possent: 197, a. B. 284, 1 ; A. 537, I ; H. 570. prfivinciam nos-
tram : 157, c, and $90.

6. multS: 'much,' lit. 'by much.' 140. facilius: 29. ex-
pedltius : ' more convenient.'



1,6]



The Campaign against the Helvetians 17



inter fines Helvetiorum et Allobrogum, qui nuper pacatl
erant, Rhodanus fluit, isque non nOllis locls vado transitur.
Extremum oppidum Allobrogum est, proximumque Hel-
veti5rum finibus, Genava. Ex eo oppidd pons ad Helvetios ic
pertinet. Allobrogibus sese vel persuasuros, quod nondum




Figure 32. — Mill-race Gorge (Pas de l'Ecluse), looking down the Rhone.



7. Allobrogum: 19, e. nuper : ' recently,' in 61 B.C., after a
revolt ; the Allobroges were first conquered by Q. Fabius Maximus, in
121 B.C. (I. 45). pacatl erant: ' had been subdued.' 53, and 192.

8. fluit: 'flows.' is: 'it.' 160, b. non nullis : 'some.'
28, a. locls : 6, c, and 145, c. vado transitur : ' is fordable,' lit.
Ms crossed by a ford.' 134, a, and 68, c.

9. Extremum : 'The most remote,' lit. < utmost,' from the point of
view of Rome. 83.

10. finibus: 108, a. B. 192,1; A. 384; H.434, 2. pons: 17, c.
Helvgtios: 282.

11. pertinet: 'reaches across.' Allobrogibus: 105. vel
. . . vel : 235, b. persuasuros : sc. esse. 89, c ; 213, a, and 214, a.
nondum . . . vidSrentur : ' did not yet seem ' to the Helvetians ;
Why is viderentur subjunctive? 183, a.



18 Caesars Gallic War [B.C. 58

bon5 animo in populum Romanum videlrentur, existimabant,
vel vi coacturos, ut per suos fines eos Ire paterentur.

Omnibus rebus ad profectionem comparatls, diem dicunt,
is qua die ad ripam RhodanI oranes conveniant. Is dies erat
a. d. v. Kal. Apr., L. Pisone, A. Gabinio consulibus.

Caesar hastens to Geneva, and parleys with the Helvetians.

7, Caesari cum id nuntiatum esset, eos per provinciam
nostram iter facere conarl, maturat ab urbe proficisci et,
quam maximis potest itineribus, in Galliam ulteriorem

12. bono animo: ' kindly disposed,' lit. 'of kindly feeling'; in
predicate after viderentur. 143, b. B. 224, 1; A. 415; H. 473, 2.
in : here ' toward.' existimabant : 4 they believed.'

13. vT: ' by force.' 18, a. coacturos: i.e. sese (the Helvetians)
eos (the Allobroges) coacturos esse. ut . . . paterentur: 'to
permit, 1 substantive clause after persuasuros (esse), coacturos (esse).
199, a. eos : trans, as if Helvetios ; N. to chap. I, 1. 14. ire : 68, a.

14. Omnibus . . . comparatls: ' when all preparations had been
completed.' 144,0,(2). How lit.? dicunt : 'they appointed.'

15. qua die: 'on which.' 147, a, and 165, a. B. 230; A. 423;
H. 486. ad ripam: 'on the bank' across from the Province; the
north bank of the Rhone. conveniant : ' they should assemble ' ;
subjunctive of purpose, as if qua were ut ea, ' that on that day.' 193.
B. 282, 2 ; A. 531, 2 ; H. 590. digs : gender ? 21, a.

16. a. d. v. Kal. Apr. : ante diem qulntum Kalendas Apriles, 'the
fifth day before the Calends of April,' March 28 by our calendar. 24U
a,b. B. 371, 5 ; A. 631 ; H. 754, in, 2. L. . . . consulibus: 58
B.C. 240, a, and 144, d, (1).

7. 1. Caesari: 19, c, and 353, e. nuntiatum esset : ' had been
reported.' 185, c. B. 288, 1, b; A. 546; H. 600, 11. 1. e5s . . .
conarl : infinitive clause in apposition with id; the gist of the report,
in the direct form, was Helvetia per provinciam nostram iter facere
conantur. 214, <*>

2. maturat : ' he hastened.' 255, 256. urbe : Rome, which by
way of distinction was "the city." 17, b.

3. quam maximis potest itineribus : stronger than quam maxi-
mis itineribus ; ' with the utmost possible speed.' 153, c. How lit. ?



I, 7] The Campaign against the Helvetians



19



contendit et ad Genavam pervenit. Provinciae toti quam
maximum potest mllitum numerum imperat (erat omnrnos
in Gallia ulteriore legio una); pontem, qui erat ad Genavam,
iubet rescind!.

Ubi de eius adventu Helvetii certiores factT sunt, legatos
ad eum mittunt nobilissimos civitatis, cuius legationis Nam-

Galliam ulteriorem : here including the Province, Caesar's immediate



lit.



, ad : * to the vicinity of. 1
a. pervenit: 'came,'
' comes through.'' If, as



b. Le-
meant.



Plutarch says, Caesar arrived
at the Rhone on the eighth
day after leaving Rome, he
must have traveled at the
rate of about ioo Roman miles
(about 92 English miles ;
243, b) per day. Provin-
ciae . . . imperat: l he levied
upon the Province. 1 106, a. B.
187,1 ; A. 369; H. 426, 1.

5. militum : 10,
gionary soldiers an

( Fi g-, 33-)

6. legio : this ' legion ? was
the tenth, afterwards famous.
307, e. una : 23, a. ad :
' near. 1 pontem . . . re-
scind! : ' that the bridge be
broken down. 1 200, b.

8. adventu: 'approach. 1
20, b. certiores fact! sunt :
' were informed, 1 lit. * were
made more certain. 1 115, c.
legatos : i as envoys 1 ; predi-
cate accusative. 6,
115, a.

9. mittunt- 'sent.



and



175,b.




Figure 33. — Roman legionary soldier.
He has a cuirass, a crested helmet, oval shield,
and pike. Caesar's legionaries had oblong shields.



20 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

iomeius et Verucloetius principem locum obtinebant, qui
dicerent,

Sibi esse in anitno sine idlo maleficio iter per provinciam
facere, proptered quod alind iter haberent nullum ; rogdre,
ut eius voluntdte id sibi facere liceat.

is Caesar, quod memoria tenebat, L. Cassium consulem
occisum exercitumque eius ab Helvetils pulsum et sub
iugum missum, concedendum non putabat ; neque homines
inimico animo, data facultate per provinciam itineris

nobilissimos : 'the most distinguished men.' 154,' a- cuius 16ga-
tionis : 'and in this delegation'; lit. 'of which delegation." 1 167.

10. principem : ' foremost. 1 26, b, and 10, a. qui dicerent :
'in order to say. 1 193, a. B. 282, 2 ; A. 531, 2 ; H. 590.

12. Sibi . . . liceat : 212, a, b, and c, (4). Sibi esse in anim6 :
' that it was their intention ' ; less freely, ' that they had it in mind,' Sibi
being a dative of possession. Ill, and 214, <*', also, 178. sine:
'without.' 125, a. CU16 : 23, a. maleficio: ' wrong-doing '; we
should say ' without doing any harm.'

13. facere: subject of esse. 222, b. habgrent : 214, a. nul-
lum : emphatic position. 353, d. rogare : sc. si, '(and) that they
requested.' 215, and 234, a.

14. eius voluntate : ' with his consent.' 138. ut . . . liceat :
1 that permission might be granted ' ; subjunctive also in direct dis-
course. How lit. ? 73, b, and 199, a. facere : 222, a.

15. memoria: 131, a. B. 218 ; A. 409; H. 476. memoria
tenSbat : ' he remembered.' 183, a. L. : Lucium. 19, a.

16. occisum : sc. esse, 'had been killed.' 89, c, and 213, a. ez-
ercitum : ' army.' 20, a, b, and 74, b. pulsum [esse] : ' had been
routed.' 178. sub iugum : 'under the yoke,' made by setting two
spears upright and placing a third on them horizontally, as a cross-piece ;
under this captured soldiers were made to pass, bending over, as a token
of complete submission and humiliation. The defeat of Cassius by the
Helvetians took place in 107 B.C. 124, #•

17. concgdendum n5n putabat : ' did not think that the request
ought to be granted ' ; less freely, ' that the concession ought to be made. 1
63, and 73, e. neque : trans, as if et ndn.

18. inimlcS animd : 'of hostile temper.' 14S, a. B. 224 : A. 415 ;
H. 473, 2. data facultate : = si facultas data esset, ' if opportunity






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i, 8j The Campaign against the Helvetians 21

faciundl, temperaturos ab iniuria et maleficio existimabat.
Tamen, ut spatium intercedere posset, dum milites, quos 20
imperaverat, convenient, legatis respondit,

Diem se ad deliberandum sumpturum ; si quid vellent,
ad Id. April, reverterentur.

Caesar prevents the Helvetians from entering the Province.

8. Interea ea legione, quam secum habebat, militibus-
que, qui ex provincia convenerant, a lacu Lemanno, qui
in flumen Rhodanum Tnfluit, ad montem Iuram, qui fines
Sequanorum ab Helvetiis dlvidit, milia passuum xviiii
murum in altitudinem pedum sedecim fossamque perducit. 5

should have been granted.' 144, 6,(4). itineris faciundl: 'of
marching. 1 64, b, and 230, (i). How lit.?

19. temperaturos [esse]: ' would refrain. 1 63. iniuria: < vio-
lence. 1

20. Tamen : ' Nevertheless. 1 236, a. spatium : trans, as if
tempus, * time. 1 intercedere : ' intervene. 1 221, a. dum : ' until. 1

21. convenirent : i should assemble. 1 190, b. B. 293, in, 2;
A. 553; H. 603, 11, 2. respondit: 'he made answer. 1

22. Diem: 'time. 1 sS : 158, a. deliberandum: « for consid-
eration. 1 230, (3). sumpturum [esse]: 'would take. 1 63, and
214, a. quid: 'anything. 1 168. vellent, reverterentur : 'they
wanted, 1 ' they should return ' ; in the direct form, sf vultis, revertimini.
206, (2) ; 218, (1), a, and 216. B. 316; A. 588; H. 642.

23. Id. April. : Idas Apr lies, April 13. 241, a, b.

8. 1. Interea: 'Meanwhile, 1 while the more distant troops levied
on the Province were gathering at the Rhone, and the Helvetians were
waiting for Caesar's answer. legione, militibus : looked upon as
instrument rather than as agent. 131, b. secum : 125, c.

3. qui . . . Influit : while Caesar's statement is not incorrect, mod-
ern geographers consider Lake Geneva as an enlargement of the Rhone,
applying the name " Rhone " also to the principal feeder entering the
lake at the upper end.

4. Helvetiis : 282. milia : 118, a, and 243, b; 38, a. XVIIII. :
undevigintl. 86, and 38, b.

5. murum: 'a rampart. 1 1. in altitudinem pedum sedecim:



22 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 68

Eo opere perf ecto, praesidia disponit, castella communit, quo
facilius, si, se invito, transire conarentur, prohibere possit.
Ubi ea dies, quam constituerat cum legatis, venit, et legati
ad eum reverterunt, negat, se more et exemplo populi
10 Romani posse iter ulli per provinciam dare ; et, si vim
facere conentur, prohibiturum ostendit.

* sixteen feet high. 1 How lit. ? pedum: 10, b, and 100, a. B. 203,
2; A. 345, b\ H.440, 3. fossam: ' trench. 1 perducit : 'he con-
structed. 1 175, b. For much of the distance between Lake Geneva (Fig.

35) and Mill-race Gorge (17J English

miles; n. to chap. 6, 1. 4) the left bank

of the Rhone is steep enough to make

extensive fortifying unnecessary. What

Caesar did was, apparently, to make

the slopes hard to surmount by cutting the

Figure 34. — Section of the face down from the top for sixteen feet

Fortifications along the Rhone, and throwing the dirt out toward the

a. Top of the bluff, with palisade. riv er in . such a way as to produce the

b Face of the bluff, cut down. effect of a rampart and trench (Fig. 34) ;

e. Trench, with dirt thrown out pa ]j sa d e s were probably driven in along

toward the river. , , J

the edge of the bluff. See Map 2.

6. Eo opere perfecto : « When this work had been finished. 1 13, e,
and 1U, b, (2). praesidia : * detachments ' of troops. disponit :
'he stationed at intervals. 1 79, d. castella: 'redoubts 1 ; their prob-
able location is shown on Map 2. communit : * he strongly fortified. 1
quo : why used in place of ut? 193, b. B. 282, \,a\ H. 568, 7.

7. se invito: 'without his permission, 1 lit. 'he (being) unwilling. 1
144, a. conarentur : 177, b, and 220. B. 324, 1 ; A. 593 ; H. 652.
prohibgre : sc. eos.

8. ea digs : April 13 ; see chap. 7, 1. 23.

9. revertgrunt : 'returned. 1 79, d. more et exemplo: 'con-
sistently with the settled usage, 1 lit. ' custom and precedent. 1 136, c.
B. 220,3; H. 475>3-

10. iter : ' right of way. 1 ulli : here used as a noun, ' to any one.'
vim facere : ' use force. 1 18, a.

11. conentur, [se eos] prohibiturum [esse] : in the direct form, si
conabimini, prohibfbo. 215 ; 218, (1), a. B. 314, 1 ; A. 580; H. 643.

12. ea spgdgiecti: 'disappointed in their expectations, 1 lit. 'cast



1,8] The Campaign against the Helvetians



23



Helvetii, ea spe deiecti, navibus iGnctis ratibusque com-
pluribus factis, alii vadls Rhodani, qua minima altitudo
fluminis erat, n5n numquam interdiu, saepius noctu, si
perrumpere possent, conati, operis munltione et militum is
concursu et tells repulsi, hoc conatu destiterunt.




Figure 35. — Lake Geneva, ancient Lacus Lemannus.

down from that hope.' 57, b. spe : 127, a. navibus . . . factis :
' joined boats together,' attempting to make a floating bridge, 'and
made a number of rafts, 1 for poling across. How lit ? 144, b, (2).

13. alii : ' others,' relatively few, compared with the number who tried
to cross in the ways just mentioned. vadls : 134, &- minima : 32.

14. non numquam: 'sometimes.' interdiu: 'by day.' sae-
pius : 35. noctu : ' at night.'

15. si perrumpere possent: '(to see) whether they could break
through ' ; after conati. 204, (4)- B. 300, 3 ; A. 576, a ; H. 649, II, 3.
conati : participle, but trans, 'tried.' 61, a, (1), and 228, a. operis
munitione : < by the strength of the fortifications,' i.e. murus, fossa,
castella. How lit.?

16. concursu: 'by the rapid massing,' at points attacked. 1, and
20, b. tells: 'by (their) missiles.' repulsi: 'forced back.'
conatu: 'they gave up' (lit. 'desisted from') 'the attempt.' 127, a.
B. 214; A. 402; H. 462.



24 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

The Helvetians get leave to go through the country of the
Sequanians.

9. Relinquebatur una per Sequan5s via, qua, Sequanls
invltis, propter angustia9 Ire non poterant. His cum sua
sponte persuadere non possent, legatos ad Dumnorigem
Aeduum mittunt, ut, eo deprecatore, a Sequanls impetrarent.

5 Dumnorix gratia et largitione apud Sequanos plurimum
poterat, et Helvetiis erat amicus, quod ex ea civitate
Orgetorlgis filiam in matrimonium duxerat, et cupiditate
regni adductus novis rebus studebat, et quam plurimas
civitates suo beneficio habere obstrictas volebat. Itaque

iorem suscipit, et a Sequanls impetrat, ut per fines suos

9. i . Relinquebatur : * There was left.' 90, a. una via : ' only
the way, 1 described in chap. 6, 11. 2-5. qua: 134, a- Sgquanos :
282. Sequanls invitis : 144, b, (4).

2. angustias : 'the narrowness' of the road through the Mill-race
Gorge (Fig. 32). His: 105. sua sponte: 'by their own influ-
ence. 1 17, d, and 157, b.

3. possent : 184, #, and 66, b.

4. eo deprecatore: 'through his intercession.' 144, b, (6).
impetrarent : i they might gain their request.' 177, b, and 196, a. B.
268, 3; A. 485, e\ H. 546.

5. gratia et largitione: 'on account of his popularity and lavish
giving.' 135, a. plurimum poterat : ' had very great influence,'
lit. 'was able to a very great degree.' 118, b. A fuller account of
Dumnorix is given in chapter 18, where we learn that he had prac-
tical control of the revenues of the Aeduans and was bitterly opposed
to Caesar; a coin struck by Dumnorix is shown in Fig. 42.

6. Helvetiis: 108, a. B. 192, 1 ; A. 384 ; H. 434.

7. Orgetorigis . . . duxerat: see chap. 3, 11. 15-18, and Notes.

8. novis rebus studgbat : ' was eager for a revolution.' 105. B.
187, II, a\ A. 368, 3; H. 426, 1. quam plurimas: 'as many ... as
possible.' 153, c.

9. suo beneficio obstrictas: 'placed under obligation to himscltV
lit. 'bound by his own favor.' volSbat : 71. Itaque: 'Accordingly.'

10. rem: 'the negotiation.' impetrat: 'obtained a promise.'
How lit.?



I, io] The Campaign against the Helvetians 25

Helvetios Ire patiantur, obsidesque uti inter sese dent, per-
ficit : SequanI, ne itinere Helvetios prohibeant ; Helvetii,
ut sine maleficio et iniuria transeant.

Caesar, learning of their plan, brings Jive legions from Italy.

10. Caesari renuntiatur, Helvetiis esse in animo per
agrum Sequanorum et Aedu5rum iter in Santonum fines
facere, qui non longe a Tolosatium finibus absunt, quae
civitas est in provincia. Id si fieret, intellegebat magno
cum perlculo provinciae futurum, ut homines bellicosos, 5

1 1 . patiantur : 199, a, (8) . obsides . . . perficit : ' and brought
about an exchange of hostages ' (lit. ' that they should give ') ' between
them. 1 Hostages were exchanged as a pledge of good faith ; if the
agreement were violated, they were liable to be put to death with tortures.
uti . . . dent: after perficit. 203, (3). B. 297, 1 ; A. 568; H. 571.

12. SequanI, Helvetii: in partitive apposition with the subject of
dent; freely, * the Sequanians (giving hostages). 1 91, c. itinere:
127, a. B. 214, 2; A. 400; H. 464. ne . . . prohibeant, ut . . .
transeant : substantive clauses with the subjunctive of purpose, ex-
pressing the terms of the agreement for the ratification of which the
exchange of hostages was arranged.

10. 1. renuntiatur: 'Word was brought (back) to Caesar, 1 re-
implying that men had been sent out by him and now returned with the
information. 79, d. esse: subject of reniintiatur ; cf. chap. 7, 11.
12-14, an d Notes.

3. non longe . . . absunt: the territories of the Santones were
on the west coast, more than 100 miles from the nearest point of the
Province ; see Map. If the Helvetians should reach their destination,
they would be further from the Province than when they started ; yet '
even at that distance they might become dangerous neighbors because
they would no longer be kept on the defensive by the Germans,
quae civitas : ' a state which, 1 the state of the Tolosates. 165, b.

4. Id : the migration to the territory of the Santones, iter . . . facere.
fieret . . . futurum [esse] : in the direct form, flet . . . erit. 70, a,
and 218, (1), a.

5. cum: 136, a. provinciae: 'to 1 (lit. 'of 1 ) 'the Province.'
102. ut . . . haberet: 'to have 1 ; how lit.? 203, (1). B. 297, 2;
A. 569, 2; H. 571, 1. bellicosos: 'warlike. 1 75, f.



26 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

populi Romani inimlcos, locls patentibus maximeque fru-
mentarils finitimos haberet.

Ob eas causas el munition!, quam fecerat, T. Labienum

legatum praefecit; ipse in Italiam magnis itineribus con-

10 tendit, duasque ibi legiones conscribit, et tres, quae circum

Aquileiam hiemabant, ex hlbernis educit ; et, qua proximum




Figure 36. — A road through the Alps.



6. inimlcos: 91, a. locis . . . finitimos: 108, a, and 115, b.
B. 192, 1 ; A. 384; H. 434, 2. Caesar had no reason to interfere with
the passage of the Helvetians through the country of the Sequanians
unless it was clear that Roman interests would be unfavorably
affected by it. patentibus: * open ' to attack, not being protected
by natural barriers. frumentSriis : * productive ' of grain. 30.

8. munition! : 107, b, and 74, b. T. : Titum. 19, a.

9. legatum : 4 lieutenant-general, 1 or ' lieutenant.' 818, a. prae-
fgcit: 'placed in charge (of). 1 57, b. Italiam: Cisalpine Gaul is
here meant. 283, b.

10. duas legiones: the nth and 12th. conscribit: 'raised,'
by conscription. trCs : sc. legiones, the 7th, 8th, and 9th legions.
circum: 'in the neighborhood of,' lit. 'around 1 ; the winter-quarters
were not in the town. 122, a.

11. Aquileiam: a nourishing Roman colony near the head of the



i, io] The Campaign against the Helvetians 27

iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes erat, cum his quinque
legionibus Ire contendit.

Ibi Ceutrones et Graioceli et Caturiges, locis superioribus
occupatis, itinere exercitum prohibere conantur. Com- is
pluribus his proelhs pulsls, ab Ocelo, quod est oppidum
citerioris provinciae extremum, in fines Vocontiorum
ulterioris provinciae die septimo pervenit ; inde in Allo-
brogum fines, ab Allobrogibus in Segusiavos exercitum
ducit. Hi sunt extra provinciam trans Rhodanum primi. 20

Adriatic Sea. hiemabant : ' were wintering. 1 hlbernis : ' (their) *
winter quarters. 1 127, c, and 335, a, b.

12. ulteriorem Galliam : 286. Alpes; 291. cum: 137, b.

14. Ibi : i.e. in the Alps ; Caesar's route lay over the pass of Mt.
Genevre, which is one of the best in the Alps. The roads over all the
Alpine passes are of the same general character. See Map 1, and
Figures 36 and 92. locls superioribus occupatis: * seized com-
manding heights and. 1 How lit.? 144-, b, (2).

15. itinere: 127, a. B. 214, 2; A. 400; H. 464. Compluribus
proeliis : < in a number of engagements. 1 131, a.

16. his pulsls: ' driving them off. 1 How lit. ? 144* b, (2), and
160, b. ab : here < from. 1

17. citerioris provinciae: 'nearer 1 from the viewpoint of Rome.
284. extremum : i.e. most westerly.

18. ulterioris provinciae: 290. pervenit: ' passed -through. 1
175, b. inde : trace on Map 1 Caesar's route from Ocelum.

19. exercitum : three trained legions from near Aquileia, and two
legions of recruits just levied in Cisalpine Gaul (the nth and 12th), with
which was joined the tenth legion, released from guarding the fortifica-
tion below Geneva ; for the campaign against the Helvetians Caesar had
thus 6 legions, aggregating about 22,000 men, besides cavalry. Light-
armed troops, used in the campaign of 57 and afterwards, are not
mentioned in Book I. 307, e.

20. trans Rhodanum : Caesar probably crossed the Rhone by a
pontoon bridge, a short distance above the junction with the Arar.
The Segusiavi were clients of the Aeduans, hence on good terms with
the Romans. Most of their territory was on the west side of the Rhone,
but they seem to have occupied also the narrow corner between the
Rhone and the Arar.



28 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 68

Tlie Aeduans, Ambarri and Allobroges entreat Caesar's aid
against the Helvetians, who are ravaging their country.

11. Helvetii iam per angustias et fines Sequanorum

suas copias traduxerant, et in Aeduorum fines pervenerant

eorumque agros populabantur. Aedui, cum se suaque ab

eis defendere non possent, legatos ad Caesarem mittunt

5 rogatum auxilium :

Ita se ornni tempore de populo Romano meritos esse, tit,
paene in conspectu exercitus nostrl, agri vastari, liberl
eorum in servitutem abduct, oppida expugnari non debuerint.

11. i. angustias : chap. 9, 1. 2, andN. : chap. 6, 11. 2-5, and Notes.
It must have taken Caesar 7 or 8 weeks to go to Cisalpine Gaul, gather
his forces there, and bring them across the Province to the north side of
the Rhone. Meanwhile the Helvetians with their throng of women and
children and their loaded carts had slowly threaded the narrow Mill-race
Gorge, and had advanced, in all, only about 100 miles.

2. traduxerant: 'had led (across). 1 Aeduorum finSs : on the
west side of the Arar, which the van of the Helvetian host already had
crossed. See Map 1.

3. populabantur: 'were laying waste.' 61, a, (1), and 175, a.
sua : ' their possessions.' 154, a-

4. possent: 184, a- B. 286,2; A. 549; H. 598.

5. rogatum: Mo ask for.' 231, a. auxilium: < help.' 231,6.
6-8. Direct form : Ita (nos) omnl tempore de populo Romano merit}

sumus, ut, paene in conspectu exercitus tut, agri vastari, liberl nostrl in servi-
tutem abduci, oppida expugnari ndn debuerint.

6. Ita s6 . . . meritos esse : i (saying) that they had so (well)
deserved.' 213, b. orani tempore : 'at all times 1 ; with us "every
time" has a different force. More than 40 years before, in 121 B C, the
Aeduans had by treaty been recognized as socii populi Rdmdnf % l allies of
the Roman people.' The Romans were first led to intervene in the
affairs of Transalpine Gaul, however, not in the interest of the Aeduans,



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 5 of 73)