Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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which direction it flows. 6. Caesar inflicted a great disaster
on this state, with the design of avenging* his personal
wrongs. 7. He will send envoys to Rome to ask help.

1 ask of, peto, with ab and Ablative. 116, b.

2 with the design of avenging; in Latiu, with this design that he might

1, 15] Exercises in Latin Composition 647



Book I. 13. Caesar led his army across the Arar, so that
he might follow up the forces of the Helvetians. His sudden
arrival alarmed them, and they sent envoys to him to make
peace, for 1 they could not understand how 2 he had crossed
the river so quickly. 3 Divico was the leader of this embassy,
and he asked Caesar where he wished the Helvetians to go.
He inquired if Caesar remembered the former valor 4 of the
Helvetians, and the destruction of the army which had crossed
from the Roman Province 5 into their territory.

1 for, nam 2 ^ 0M)> quern ad modum. ยป quickly, celeriter.

4 valor ; note case after reminiscor in text.
6 province, provincia.


Subjunctive of Besult. 197, a and b. B. 284; A. 537 ; H. 570.
Ablative of Means. 131, a. B. 218; A. 409; H. 476.
Dative of Possession, ill. B. 190; A. 373; H. 430.

Book I. 14, 15. 1. They boasted so insolently that Caesar
could not put aside the memory of the injuries. 2. Caesar
had less doubt because he remembered what the envoys had
mentioned. 3. They will march in such a way that we can-
not attack them. 4. By this battle he kept the enemy from
foraging. 5. The gods had granted prosperity to them for
so long that they were grieved at the change of circumstances.
6. The number of the enemy is so large that they cannot
drive them back. 7. He stationed men to see in what direc-
tion the enemy were marching.

648 Exercises in Latin Composition p, 16


Indirect Discourse: Simple Declarative Sentences. 212, d; 213, a and
6 ; 214, a ; 178. B. 313, 314, 1, 2, and 317 ; A. 579-582, 584 ; H. 642, 644.

Partitive Genitive. 97, a, b, c, and d. B. 201, 1, 2; A. 346, a, c; H. 440,
5, and 441-443.

Book I. 16, 17. 1. Caesar said that the grain in the fields
was not ripe. 2. He knew that many of their chiefs had
been called together to complain about the leadership of the
. Aeduans. 3. For this reason he thought Caesar would take
away liberty from the Gauls. 1 4. Day after day he declared
that the Aeduans were not collecting the grain. 5. They
have a large supply of grain, which they can use if Caesar
undertakes 2 the war. 6. He said that he thought we knew
with how great danger he had reported our plans.

1 Gauls ; note case in text.

2 undertakes; what time is referred to?



Book I. 18. Caesar realized that Liscus referred to Dum-
norix, and that these matters had been discussed very freely
and boldly ; but because Dumnorix was in charge of the cav-
alry and was utterly reckless, 1 he wished him to favor the
Romans. After dismissing 2 the council he asked many ques-
tions, 3 and discovered that for several years Dumnorix had
been enlarging his private property and had very great power
both at home and among the Helvetians. Caesar knew that
Dumnorix, by means of this power, could restore himself to
his former position of influence, and that he had amassed so
much 4 wealth that he entertained hopes of getting the royal
power. He learned also that Dumnorix and his horsemen had
started the flight of the cavalry a few days before.

1 utterly reckless; in Latin, of supreme recklessmss.

2 after dismissing ; use Ablative Absolute. 144, a and b.
8 questions; omit, and use neuter adjective as a noun.

* so much, tantus.

I, 22] Exercises in Latin Composition 649


Complex Sentences. 214, a; 218; 158, a; 354. B. 314, 1 and 318; A. 580,
and 585, a ; H. 643.

Prepositions. 122, a; 124, a; 125, a. B. 141, 142, 143; A. 220, a, b, c;
H. 420, 2 and 3, and 490, 2.

Book I. 19, 20. 1. He knew that everything 1 which was
said to him was true. 2. Caesar hoped not to hurt (that
he should not hurt) the feelings of Diviciacus, if he should
punish his brother. 3. We all know that Procillus was a
man in whom 2 he had great confidence. 4. Diviciacus
thought that Caesar would punish Dumnorix because he had
led an army through the territory of the Sequanians. 5. He
will order Diviciacus to be called to him, in order that he
may tell him what he knows. 6. Caesar replied that he
would tell what had been said in the council.

1 everything ; in Latin, all things.

2 in ivhom; use the Dative.


Ablative Absolute. 144, a and b. B. 227; A. 419, 420; H. 489.

Book I. 21, 22. 1. Caesar, having sent ahead all his cav-
alry, ordered Labienus to climb to the summit of the mountain.
2. While our men were seizing this mountain, the Helvetians
moved camp. 3. After seizing the mountain, Labienus did
not begin battle, but waited for Caesar. 4. Caesar led his
forces to the nearest hill, but did not make an attack on the
enemy. 5. When they had pitched camp three miles from
Caesar's camp, the enemy refrained from battle.

650 Exercises in Latin Composition [1,23



Book I. 23, 24. On the following day it was announced to
the enemy that Caesar had changed his route and gone to
Bibracte, which was the richest city of the Helvetians, to pro-
vide for grain. The Helvetians thought that he was with-
drawing because he was frightened, and attacked him in the
rear ; but Caesar, after leading his forces to the nearest hill
and drawing up his line of battle, stationed two legions on the
top of the ridge, and collected the packs in ! one place. The
Helvetians, following with all their baggage, formed a phalanx
close by 2 the line of battle of the Romans.

1 in; in Latin, into. 124, a. 2 close by, sub, with the Ablative.


Substantive Clauses with Verbs of Commanding, Urging, Reminding,
Persuading, and Permitting. 199, a; 200, b; 223, a, (1) and (4). B. 294, 295,
1, 2, and 296, 1 ; A. 563 ; H. 564, 565, 568.

Ablative of Accompaniment. 137, a, b, and c. B. 222; A. 413; H. 473,
and 474, 2, n. 1.

Book I. 25, 26. They threw away their shields, and
fought with the enemy with swords. 2. Caesar ordered the
soldiers- to make an attack on the Helvetians with drawn
swords. 3. Having noticed this, he bade the cavalry sur-
round the enemy and renew the battle. 4. He urges them to
retreat to the mountain with their baggage and carts. 5. We
persuaded them not to help the soldiers with wagons or any-
thing else. 6. They fought a long time near the baggage,
and got possession of the camp and the horses.

i, 30] Exercises in Latin Composition 651


Substantive Clauses with Verba of Asking and Fearing. 199, a, and 202.
H. 295, 1, and 296, 2; A. 563, 564; H. 565, 567.

Book I. 27, 28. 1. Caesar demanded that they should
await his l arrival in that place. 2. The Helvetians feared
that Caesar would ask that they surrender their arms.

3. They begged Caesar not to regard them as enemies.

4. He will ask that envoys be sent to him. 5. He was
afraid that the Germans might cross into the territory of the
Helvetians. 6. Caesar asked the Helvetians to return to
their own territory, so that the lands 2 might not be unoccupied.
7. They urge him to accept their surrender. 3 8. They fear
that they may not be able to conceal their flight.

1 his, indirect reflexive. 158, a. 2 lands, agri.

8 accept their surrender ; note the text.



Book I, 29, 30. The soldiers found records in the camp
showing * the number of Helvetians who could bear arms.
These had gone out from home with all the women and chil-
dren. Caesar ordered his men to make an enumeration of
those who had returned home, and the total was about 120,000.
The envoys of the Gauls, who had come to Caesar, feared that
he would inflict punishment on their states, but nevertheless
asked him not to take possession of all Gaul. This war had
turned out to the advantage of Gaul, and they begged Caesar
that they might be permitted to appoint a council, and to ask
of him the things which they wished. 2 This request was
granted, and they agreed together not to disclose anything
except with Caesar's consent.

1 showing ; in Latin, which showed.

2 wished; use Subjunctive, Subordinate Clause in implied Indirect Dis-
course. 214, b.

652 Exercises in Latin Composition [i, 31


Ablative of Separation or Source. 127, a, b, and c. B. 214, 215; A. 400-
402, and 403, 1 ; H. 461^65, 467.

Ablative of Comparison. 129, a and b. B. 217 ; A. 406 and 407, a ; H. 471.
Ablative of Degree of Difference. 140. B. 223; A. 414; H. 479.

Eook I. 31 (first half). 1. They asked back their hostages
from the Sequanians, and sought aid of the Roman people.
2. The Germans are much fiercer than the Gauls, 1 and covet
their lands. 3. Diviciacus fled from his state, and came to
Rome many years before. 4. The Aeduans are less powerful
in "Gaul than the Sequanians, being weakened by great disasters.
5. We are working to induce 2 Diviciacus to give his children
as hostages to the Germans. 6. About a thousand of the
Germans crossed the Rhine, and contended in arms with the
Aeduans and their dependents.

1 than the Gauls ; express in two ways. 2 to induce, 196, a.


Substantive Clauses of Kesult. 203. B. 297; A. 568, 569; H. 571.
Ablative of Manner. 136, a and b. B. 220 ; A. 412 ; H. 473, 3.
Ablative of Accordance. 136, c. B. 220, 3; A. 418, a ; H. 475, 3.

Book I. 31 {latter half). 1. The result was that they could
not longer endure his cruelty. 2. He will cause a place to
be prepared for the Harudes. 3. He saw that the best part
of entire Gaul would be occupied by Ariovistus. 4. All these
things were done with the greatest injustice. 5. He says that
they will not be able to drive the Germans from the Gallic
territory. 6. The cruelty of Ariovistus caused them to seek
another home. 7. It happened that a larger number of Ger-
mans crossed the Rhine.

I, 35] Exercises in Latin Composition 653


Book I. 32, 33. The lot of the Sequanians was much more
unhappy than (that) of the others, because the cruelty of Ario-
vistus had caused them to fear him in his absence, and they
did not dare to seek aid from Caesar.

Therefore ! when Caesar asked why they did not do what
the others did, it happened that they made no answer, 2 but
remained silent. Diviciacus finally told what the reason was.
Caesar promised to put an end to the outrages of Ariovistus,
and dismissed the council. The Koman Province was sep-
arated by the Rhone from the territory of the Sequanians, and
Caesar thought it would be dangerous to the Roman people
(for) the Germans to cross from their own boundaries into

1 therefore, itaque.

2 made no answer ; in Latin, answered nothing.


Verbs of Hindering, Preventing, Doubting. 201, a, b, and c. B. 295, 3,
and 298; A. 558; H. 568, 8, and 595, 1, 2, and 596, 2.

Ablative of Time. 147, a and b. B. 230, 231 ; A. 423; H. 486, 487.
Accusative of Extent. 118, a. B. 181 ; A. 423, 425; H. 417.

Book I. 34, 35. 1. They could not be restrained from send-
ing envoys to Caesar. 2. In three days he will advance
many miles. 3. There was no doubt that these replies had
been brought back to Caesar. 4. He talked 1 with him a
large part of the day about very important matters.
5. Caesar demanded of him that he prevent a large number
from being led across the Ehine. 6. This river was half
a mile (five hundred paces) wide. 2

i talked, ago. 2 36, and 243, a and b.

654 Exercises in Latin Composition [i, 36


Dative with Special Verbs. 105. B. 187, n ; A. 367 ; H. 426.
Dative with Compounds. 107, a and 6. B. 187, m; A. 370; H. 429.

Book I. 36. 1. The Germans rule those whom they con-
quer, as they wish. 2. We do not prescribe to you how you
shall pay the tax. 3. I shall not make war on their allies
unjustly. 4. They could not be persuaded to return the
hostages. 5. No one had resisted him without his own de-
struction. 6. They put him in command 1 of the conquered.
7. He ordered 2 them not to make the revenues less. 8. He
will persuade them to do what he wishes. 9. They had been
ordered 2 to do all these things.

!put in command, praeficio.

2 ordered ; use impero in one sentence, and iubeo in the other.



Book I. 37, 38. The Harudes, who had lately come
into Gaul, could not be kept from laying waste the lands of
the Aeduans. The latter resisted bravely for many days, and
did not doubt that Caesar was hurrying by forced marches
against the Swabians, commanded by Nasua, 1 in order to pre-
vent them from , crossing the Khine. Caesar thought that
he ought to advance as quickly as possible to seize Vesontio,
and after getting ready a grain supply, he hastened to that
town with all his forces. The town is almost surrounded by
a river of great width, which touches the base of a mountain
six hundred feet high. Caesar fortified this town with a very
high wall, so that a great opportunity was given to prolong
the war, and having stationed a garrison there, he advanced a
three days' march toward Ariovistus.

1 commanded by Nasua; in Latin, ir/iom Nasua commanded.

i, 40] Exercises in Latin Composition 655


Gerund and Gerundive. 230. B. 338, 339; A. 501-507; H. 623-631.

Supine. 231,232. B. 340 ; A. 509 ; H. 633.

Active Periphrastic Conjugation. 63. B. 115; A. 193-195, and 498, a;
H. 236, 531.

Passive Periphrastic Conjugation. 63, 73, e, and 229, c. B. 115, and 337,
8, b, 1 ; A. 193, 194, 196, and 500, 2; H. 237, and 621, 1, 2.

Dative of Agent. 110. B. 189, 1; A. 374, a; H. 431.

Book I. 39. 1. One assigned one reason for departing, an-
other another. 2. He remained in camp for the sake of
avoiding suspicion. 3. Caesar intended to delay a few days
near Vesontio. 4. Caesar sent some of his men to bring up
the grain. 1 5. We shall have to break camp in a few days.

6. He said that he was going to report this to Caesar.

7. Having sealed their wills, they remained in their tents to
lament the common danger. 8. The Germans, with whom
they were going to contend, had 2 incredible valor.

1 to bring up the grain ; write in five ways. 355.

2 had; in Latin, were of.


May, Might. 356, a and b. B. 327, 1 ; A. 565, n. 1, 2 ; H. 564, 2.
Must, Ought. 357, a and b. B. 115, 270, 2, and 337, 8, b, 1 ; A. 194, 196, 486,
a, and 500, 2 ; H. 237, 618, 2, and 621, 1, 2.

Book I. 40 {first half). 1. Caesar ought 1 to summon to the
council the centurions of all ranks. 2. A centurion is not
allowed to inquire by what plan he is being led. 3. Caesar
said he did this in order that Ariovistus might not reject
his friendship. 4. This he should not have said (= ought
not to have said). 5. After learning their plans, you may
stay in camp if you wish. 6. The Romans did not need to
fear that these unarmed men would conquer them. 2

1 ought ; write in three ways. 357, b. 2 them, 158, a.

656 Exercises in Latin Composition [I, 40



Book I. 40 (latter half). Caesar urged the Roman soldiers
not to despair in regard to grain, which was then already ripe
in the fields. He told them that they ought not to be dis-
turbed by the narrow roads, and that they were not permitted
to dictate to the commander concerning his duties. He de-
sired to know as soon as possible whether the soldiers were
going to be l obedient to his command or not, and so he ordered
them to move camp on the next night. He had the greatest
confidence in the tenth legion, and did not 2 doubt that they
would follow 3 him, 4 and do what 5 had to be done.

1 were going to be, etc., 63, and 204, (1). 2 and . . . not, neque.

s follow, 201, b. 4 him, 158, a.

5 what ; in* Latin, = those things which.


Temporal Clauses with Ubi, Ut, Postquam, Simul atque. 188, a. B. 287,
1; A. 543; H. 602.

Temporal Clauses with Cum, Cum primum. 185, a, b, c. B. 288, 1, and
289 ; A. 545-547 ; H. 600, 601.

Ablative with Certain Deponents. 131, c. B. 218, 1 ; A. 410; H. 477.

Book I. 41, 42. 1. When Caesar had delivered this speech,
the military tribunes thanked him. 2. As soon as Ariovistus
learned of Caesar's arrival, he promised many things of his
own accord. 3. After getting possession of the horses, he
put on them his bravest soldiers. 4. When he saw that
Ariovistus wished a conference, he decided not to use the
Gallic horsemen. 5. As soon as they came, they said that the
enemy's forces were twenty miles away.

1, 44] Exercises in Latin Composition 657


Temporal Clauses with Prius quam. 189, a and b. B. 291, 292; A. 551;
H. 605.

Temporal Clauses with Dum and Quoad. 190, a, b, and c. B. 293 ; A. 553-
556 ; H. 603, 604, 1.

Ablative of Specification. 142, a and b. B. 226 ; A. 418 ; H. 480.

Ablative of Cause. 135, a and 6. B. 219; A. 404; H. 475.

Book I. 43. 1. Caesar stationed the legion two hundred
paces from the mound, before he came to the conference.
2. While he was making war on their allies, a part of the
Germans crossed the Ehine. 3. The Aeduans had held the
leadership before Ariovistus came into Gaul. 4. They had
been able to secure these gifts through his kindness. 5. They
did not send back the hostages until 1 he demanded them.
6. They were his allies, and for this reason he made these de-
mands. 7. He waited 2 until they should seek our friendship.
1 until , iOO t b. 2 wait, exspecto.



Book I. 44 {first half). After Ariovistus was summoned by
the Gauls, he crossed the Rhine, and took possession of the
settlements whioh the Gauls had granted him. When they
made war upon him, they were routed in one battle, and after
being defeated, paid tribute and enjoyed peace. While this
was going on, Caesar was marching to attack Ariovistus, and
wished to come into Gaul before he 1 should impose tribute
on all the states. As soon as he came there, he pitched camp,
and waited 2 until Ariovistus should reply to his demands.
The latter 3 was ready to fight if Caesar wished to, but Caesar
made objections about the tribute, which up to this time had
been paid willingly by the Gauls.

l he, ille. 2 wait, exspectd. * the latter, here ille.

658 Exercises in Latin Composition p, 44


Causal Clauses with Quod, Quia, Quoniam. 183 ; a and 6. B. 286, 1;
A. 540 ; H. 588.

Causal Clauses with Cum. 184, a and b. B. 280, 2; A. 549; H. ~>M.
Dative with Adjectives. 108, a and 6. B. 192; A. 383-385; H. 434.

Book I. 44 {latter half). 1. He withdrew his army into
those regions, because they were nearest the province (of) Gaul.

2. Since the Aeduans had been called brothers by the senate,
they ought to have enjoyed the assistance of the Romans.

3. Ariovistus complained because we had made an attack on
his territories. 4. The friendship of the Roman people was
pleasing to the Aeduans, since they did not wish to be over-
whelmed. 5. Since he has withdrawn from Gaul, we shall
consider him as a friend, and not as an enemy.


Adversative or Concessive Clauses. 187, and 191, a and b. B. 308, and
309, 2, 3; A. 527, 549; H. 585, 586, 598.

Genitive with Adjectives. 102. B. 204, 1 ; A. 349, a ; H. 450, 451.

Book I. 45, 46. 1. Although Fabius conquered the Aver-
nians, he did not reduce them to a province. 2. Since the
horsemen were hurling weapons against our men, Caesar
stopped speaking. 1 3. Although the soldiers were eager for
the battle, Caesar ordered them not to make an attack.

4. Even if Gaul is free, still it cannot use its own laws.

5. When this had been announced to Caesar, he ordered his
men to return to camp. 6. Although they are ignorant of
the custom of the Roman people, he will not pardon thein.

1 stopped speaking ; uote the expression in the text.

I, 49] Exercises in Latin Composition 659



Book I. 47. Ariovistus sent a messenger to Caesar, to ask
that he should a second time appoint a day for a conference.
Although the matters which they had begun to discuss the
day before had not been finished, Caesar was unwilling to go
himself, or to send envoys and expose them to so great danger.
However, 1 because he desired to know what Ariovistus would
say (was going to say), 2 it seemed best to him to send Valerius
Procillus and Marcus Mettius. When they had come to Ario-
vistus in 3 camp, and were attempting to speak, he called out
that they were spies, and threw them into chains. Caesar
ought not to have sent these men to Ariovistus, since there
was no reason for a conference, and he knew that the danger
to 4 them would be great.

1 however, autem, the second word of its clause. 236, a and b.

2 would say, 63.

8 in, in with accusative. 124, a.
x to ; in Latin, of.


Subjunctive of Characteristic. 194, a. B. 283, 1, 2; A. 535, a,b; H.
591, 1,2,4,5.

Ablative of Description. 143, a and 6. B. 224 ; A. 415 ; H. 473, 2.
Genitive of Quality and Measure. WO, a and 6. B. 203 ; A. 345 ; H. 440, 3.

Book I. 48, 49. 1. A place about six hundred paces long was
picked out, suitable for two legions. 2. The forces of Ario-
vistus are the only ones which can keep our troops from sup-
plies. 3. The Germans were very swift and of great courage,
and terrified our men. 4. There is no army in all Gaul that
can overcome the forces of the Eomans. 5. They were (men)
of so great swiftness that they equaled the speed of the
horses. 6. They were cut off from grain and supplies by a
river two hundred feet in width. 1

1 Two hundred feet in width ; express in two ways.

660 Exercises in Latin Composition p, 50


Exhortations, and Jussive Subjunctive. 180, a and b. B. 273-275; A.
439; H. 559, 1,2.

Commands and Prohibitions. 181, a and b. B. 276, 6; A. 450; H. 561, 1.

Wishes. 180, c and d. B. 279; A. 441 ; H. 558.

Dative of Purpose; Two Datives. 112, a and 6. B. 191, 1, 2; A. 382;
H. 425, 3, and 433.

Book I. 50, 51. 1. Let us lead out the troops from camp,
and draw up our line of battle. 2. Would that we had not
given them an opportunity for fighting ! 3. Caesar left the
auxiliaries as a protection for the smaller camp. 4. that
they would not deliver us into slavery ! 5. Do not fight be-
fore the new moon, if you wish to conquer. 6. Let him not
use the auxiliaries for a show. 7. Would that it were not
ordained that the Germains should conquer !


Conditions. 205-209. B. 301-304, 1 ; A. 515-517 ; H. 574-579.

Book I. 52. 1. If the enemy should suddenly make an at-
tack on our men, they would not be able to hurl their javelins.
2. They would have sent the lieutenant to our assistance, if
they had noticed this. 3. If Caesar were in command of the
troops, they would not be in difficulty. 4. I shall not begin
battle on the left wing, unless I see that that part of the line
is the strongest. 5. They said that if they leaped upon the
enemy from above, they would put them to flight. 6. Do
not throw your javelins against the enemy, unless they make
an attack upon you. 7. Had he not put a lieutenant in
charge of our men, they would have been routed.

iv, 28] Exercises in Latin Composition 661


Book I. 53, 54. When the battle had been renewed, the
enemy were put to flight, and fled to the river. A few, who
trusted in their strength, swam across. There were some who
crossed over in boats which they found, but the rest were put
to death by our cavalry. Ariovistus himself would have been
killed, if he had not found a skiff fastened to the shore, and
sought safety in it.

While he was following the enemy, Caesar fell in with
Valerius Procillus, whom the guards were dragging along.
Having rescued him, Caesar said : " I should have little pleas-
ure in this victory, if you were now in the hands of the enemy.
Would that the other envoys, whom I sent to Ariovistus, had
also been restored to me ! Let us hope that they may be found
and brought back."


Causal and Concessive Clauses (Lessons XXIX and XXX).

Book" IV. 27, 28. As soon as the hostages, whom the enemy
sent to Caesar, did what he had ordered, he pardoned them,
and begged them not to make war on him without good cause.
Although he pardoned their ignorance, he complained because
they had thrown Commius the Atrebatian into chains, and had
not sent him back. Since part of the hostages which they
promised were at a distance, he ordered them to be sent to the
continent in a few days. The ships in which the cavalry were
carried approached Britain, but could not hold their course
because a great storm suddenly came up and carried them

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 55 of 73)