Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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662 Exercises in Latin Composition [iv, 29

LESSON XXXVII
REVIEW

Clauses of Result, and Substantive Clauses of Result (Lessons VIII
and XVIII).

Book IV. 29-31. 1. It happened that the tides were very
high on that night because there was a full moon. 2. He
caused those things which were of use to be brought from the
continent. 3. We must keep them from supplies, and pro-
long the affair until winter. 4. The tide was so " high that
it filled the ships which had been drawn up on dry land.
5. Although they were going to pass the winter in Gaul, they
had made no provision for grain. 6. The ships are so dam-
aged by the storm that they cannot be repaired. 7. He
brought it about that no one afterwards crossed to Britain
to bring on war. 8. It happened that everything was lack-
ing which was useful for carrying on war.

1 so, tarn.

LESSON XXXVIII
REVIEW

Exhortations, Commands, Prohibitions and Wishes (Lesson XXXIII).



Book IV. 32, 33. 1. Let part of the legion march in that
direction in which the dust was seen. 2. Would that Caesar
had suspected the plans of the barbarians, and attacked them
when their arms were laid aside ! 3. It was reported to the
general that the cohorts which were on guard had started in
the same direction. 4. If the enemy attack you, throw your
weapons quickly ; let the cavalry dismount and fight on foot.
5. Do not be disturbed by the noise of the chariots, for if
hard pressed, you will have an easy retreat. 6. The Brit-
ons fight with chariots, and daily practice makes them able
to do many things with their horses at full speed.



iv, 38] Exercises in Latin Composition 663

LESSON XXXIX

REVIEW

Purpose Clauses, and Substantive Clauses after Certain Verbs (Lessons
VI, XIV, and XV) .

Book IV. 34, 35. 1. Caesar will keep his men in camp
that they may not be attacked by the enemy. 2. The bar-
barians sent messengers in all directions to tell what had hap-
pened. 3. Storms followed for so many days 1 that the
enemy were kept from a battle. 4. Caesar feared that the
same thing would happen. 5. They urged the rest, who
were in the fields, to depart. 6. Disturbed by th: strange
sort of fighting, they begged Caesar to send aid to them.
7. They gathered a large number of cavalry and infantry, in
order that they might the more easily 2 drive the Romans
from the camp. 8. He ordered them to burn the buildings
far and near, and return to camp. 9. Having killed many,
they prevented the rest from escaping. 3

1 days, 118, a. 2 easily, facile. s from escaping, 201, a, and 223, a, (3).

LESSON XL

REVIEW

Conditions (Lesson XXXIV) .



Book IV. 36-38. If Caesar had not sailed on that night,
the hostages which he ordered would have been brought to
him, but the equinox was near, and he thought if he hastened
he would arrive safely at the continent. After finding a suit-
able place, he disembarked some three hundred men, who
started for the camp, but were surrounded by the Morini, who
said, " Lay down your arms if you do not wish to be killed.
If Caesar and his cavalry were here, they would defend you,
but you cannot withstand our attack and will be all killed
unless he comes to your assistance." But after those who
said this saw that our cavalry were coming, they quickly
turned and fled.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



1. Wolf-holes along Caesar's lines before Alesia, in 52 B.C. L. Gur-

litt, Anschauungstafeln zu Caesar? II . . . ix

2. Wolf-holes along the German lines near Ypres, Belgium, in 1914.

Photograph, Press Illustrating Company, New York . . x

3. Roman soldier's trenching tool, spade, found in the remains of

the Roman camp at the Saalburg, near Homburg. R. Forrer,
Reallexikon der pr'dhistorischen, klassischen und fruhchrist-
lichen Altertwner, Taf. 182 xi

4. Trenching tool, spade, supplied with the marching equipment of

the U. S. army and navy . . . . . . xii

5. " One-man tank," used " somewhere in France." Photograph . xiii

6. Roman soldier in heavy marching order, impeditus. 3 S. Cybulski,

Tabulae, 2 VI ........ xiv

7. United States sailor in heavy marching-order equipment . . xv

8. French soldier hurling a hand grenade. Photograph, Under-

wood and Underwood, New York ..... xvi

9. French bayonet, with scabbard. Type of 191 5. Photograph,

G. R. S. 4 xvii

10. French helmet, type of 191 5. Photograph, G. R. S. . . xvii

11. Gallic bronze helmets, perhaps of the second century B.C. Brit-

ish Museum. Photograph, kindly furnished by Sir Hercules
Read xvii:

1 Stereopticon slides of all illustrations and maps in this book can be supplied to
teachers and schools at cost; inquiry should be addressed to the Latin Department,
University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, Michigan.

2 The three series of wall plates, L. Gurlitt's Anschauungstafeln zu Caesar, S. Cy-
bulski 's Tabulae quibus antiquitates Graecae et Romanae illustrantur, and Ad. Leh-
mann's Kulturgeschichtliche Bilder (cf. Fig. 117), are imported by G. E. Stechert and
Company, New York, and A. J. Nystrom and Company, Chicago.

8 The designs reproduced in the illustrations from Cybulski's Tabulae were pre-
pared by Dr. Martin Fickelscherer. They are based chiefly upon evidence drawn
from monuments later than Caesar's time, yet in most respects the designs are correct
for the military equipment of Caesar's armv.

4 The photographs designated " G. R. S. " were made by Mr. George R. Swain.

665



666 List of Illustrations

PAGE

12. Roman legionary's helmet, galea. S. Cybulski, Tabulae, V . xix

13. Italian barb-wire cutter. Photograph, Medem Photo Service . xxi

14. Leaden slingshot, inscribed. Ephemeris Epigraphica, vol. 6

(1885), pi. 3, no. 16 xxiii

15. Highlanders holding to stirrups of Scots Greys charging at St.

Quentin. From a colored plate, published in 191 5.
Courtesy of Collier's Weekly . . . . . . xxv

16. Gold coin, ascribed to the Ambarri. H. de la Tour, Atlas de

monnaies gaidoises (Paris, 1895), pi. 16, no. 5315 . . xxix

17. Gold coin of the Mediomatrici. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 36, no.

8933 . xxix

18. Arvernian gold coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 12, no. 3775 . . xxx

19. Altar, of marble, discovered at Nimes. Espe'randieu, Bas-reliefs

de la Gaule romaine, vol. 1, no. 431 . . . . . xxx

20. Bronze coin attributed to the Leuci or Treverans. De la Tour,

Atlas, pi. 37, no. 9248 xxxi

21. Gold coin of Tasciovanus. J. Evans, Coins of the Ancient Brit-

ons, pi. 8, no. '11 ; De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 43 xxxi

22. Silver coin of Tasciovanus. J. Evans, Coins of the Ancient

Britons, pi. 6, no. 6; De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 43 . . . xxxii

23. Bronze coin of Cunobelinus. J. Evans, Coins, pi. 12, no. 1 ; De

( la Tour, Atlas, pi. 44 xxxii

24. Bronze coin of Lugdunum. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 7, no. 4669 xxxii

25. Gold coin, aureus, of Julius Caesar: Pietas and trophy. En-

graved from a cast of the original in the British Museum x xxxvi

26. Bronze ball believed to contain the ashes of Julius Caesar; on

the Vatican obelisk, Rome, before it was moved to the front
of St. Peter's, in 1586. From an engraving published by
Gamucci, Antichiid di Roma (1569) .... xxxix

27. Modern road in the Jura Mountains. Photograph, G. R. S. . 3

28. Long summit of the Jura range. Photograph, G. R. S. . . 6

29. Helvetian yoke, of wood, found in 1910. J. De'chelette, Manuel

d^archhlogie prihistorique celtique et gallo-romaine, II. 3
(1914),% 509 (p. 1 194) . . .... 8

30. Gallic standard-bearer. From a plate of H. Rheinhard . . 12

31. Ancient Gallic mill. G. and A. de Mortillet, Musle prthis-

torique, 2d edit. (1903), pi. 66, no. 717 .... 14

1 Casts of Roman coins engraved for this book were kindly furnished by the British
Museum, through the courtesy of Mr. G. F. Hill.



List of Illustrations 667



32. Mill-race Gorge, Pas de TEcluse, looking down the Rhone.

Photograph, G. R. S. . 17

33. Roman legionary soldier. Cybulski, Tabulae, VI . 19

34. Section of the fortifications along the Rhone. Napoleon III,

Atlas, pi. 3 22

35. Lake Geneva. Photograph 23

36. A road through the Alps. Photograph . . . ... 26

37. The Sadne at Trevoux, looking upstream. Photograph, G. R. S. 30

38. The Rhone below Geneva. Photograph, G. R. S. . . . 33

39. Gallic swords, now in the Museum of St. Germain, near Paris.

Photograph, G. R. S. 36

40. Gallic spear heads and dart heads, of iron. Dechelette,

Manuel, II. 3, fig. 478 (p. 1145) . . . . .40

41. Mount Beuvray. Photograph, G. R. S. . . . . .42

42. Silver coin, of Dumnorix. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 15, no. 5026 . 47

43. Helvetian spear. Dechelette, Manuel, II. 3, fig. 494 (p. 11 71) . 49

44. Lance heads found at Alesia, now in the Museum pf St. Germain.

Photograph, G. R. S. 50

45. Typical ridge in France, like that seized by Labienus. Photo-

graph, G. R. S. . 54

46. Gallic helmets. Dechelette, Manuel, II. 3, fig. 484 (p. 11 56) . 56

47. Site of the battle with the Helvetians. Photograph, G. R. S. . 59

48. Gallic shield, of wickerwork. Drawing by R. Suarez after De-

chelette, Manuel, II. 3, fig. 493 (p. 1169) .... 60

49. Pike iron. Drawing by R. Suarez, from a cast in the collection

of the University of Michigan ; original in the Museum of

St. Germain ......... 61

50. Roman pike irons, found at Alesia, now in the Museum of St.

Germain. Photograph, G. R. S 63

51. Carts about a corral. Drawing by R. Suarez .... 64

52. Care of Roman wounded, relief on the column of Trajan, in

Rome. From a plate of H. Rheinhard .... 65

53. Writing tablets. Ancient wall painting. Museo Borbonico, vol.

1, pi. 12 69

54. Helvetian silver coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 38, no. 9355 . 71

55. Sequanian silver coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 16, no. 5351 . 73

56. View across the Rhine valley, from the site of Ariovistus's camp.

Photograph, G. R. S 76

57. Pottery found at Bibracte, now in the Museum of St. Germain.

Photograph, G. R. S 83



668 List of Illustrations



PAGK



58. Aeduan gold coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 15, no. 4837 . . 86

59. The Doubs (Dubis) below Besancon (Vesontio). Photograph,

G. R. S 89

60. The loop of the Dubis (Doubs) at Vesontio. C. Stoffel, Guerre

de Cesar et cT Arioviste, ^. 48 . . . . . 91

61. The Doubs River twenty-two miles above Besancon (Vesontio).

Photograph, G. R. S. 94

62. Centurion, with his decorations. Cybulski, Tabulae, VII . . 96

63. Gold coin of the Leuci. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. yj, no 9018 . 100

64. Modern canal in the plain of Alsace, near Strassburg. Photo-

graph, G. R S 103

65. Hill of Plettig. Photograph, G. R. S 106

66. The Conference between Caesar and Ariovistus. Gurlitt, An-

schauungstafeln, III . . 113

67. Ancient German sword with] its wooden scabbard. De'chelette,

Manuel, II. 3, fig. 469 (p. 1 133) 124

68. Scene in Belgium : the Meuse, below Namur. Photograph,

G. R. S. . 131

69. Bronze coin of the Remi. De la Tour, Atlas, pi 32, no. 8040 . 132

70. Gold coin of the Bellovaci. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 32, no. 7878 135

71 . Bronze coin of the Ambiani. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 33, no. 8472 137

72. View across the Aisne near where Caesar's camp was. Photo-

graph, G. R. S. 139

73. Slinger, supplied with pebbles. Cybulski, Tabulae, VI . . 142

74. View toward the Miette from the site of Caesar's camp. Photo-

graph, G. R. S 145

75. View across the Aisne toward Pontavert. Photograph, G. R. S. 147

76. Leaden slingshot, inscribed. Ephemeris Epigraphica, vol. 6,

pi. 8, no. 6 . . . . 148

77. Bronze coin of the Suessiones. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 41, no. 7704 152

78. Hill town in France, having a situation similar to that of Novio-

dunum. Photograph, G. R. S 153

79. A Nervian gold coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 35, no. 8755 . 156

80. A characteristic bit of the country through which Caesar made

his three-day march. Photograph, G. R. S. . . 157

81. A Viromanduan bronze coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 34, no. 8570 158

82. Hedges near the river Sambre. Photograph, G. R. S. . .161

83. View across the fields in the direction from which Caesar's bag-

gage was coming. Photograph, G. R. S. . . . 164

84. Roman trumpet, tuba. Cybulski, Tabulae, V . . . .165



List of Illustrations 669



PAGE



85. Roman helmet, with crest. Cybulski, Tabulae, V . . .168

86. Open ground along the Sambre over which the Nervians ad-

vanced ; looking toward the site of Caesar's camp, which

is now in part covered by woods. Photograph, G. R. S. . 171

87. Typical hedges near the site of the battle at the Sambre. Pho-

tograph, G. R. S 175

88. View on the Sambre, near the site of the battle. Photograph,

G. R. S 179

89. Bronze coin of the Atuatuci. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 36, no. 8885 182

90. Site of the stronghold at Namur. Photograph, G. R. S. . 183

91. Coin of the Coriosolites. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 22, no. 6654 . 188

92. The great St. Bernard Pass and the famous hospice. Photo-

graph . 191

93. Valley of the Dranse. Photograph, Earle M. Parker . . 193

94. View of the Loire River with the town of Decize. Photograph,

G. R. S. 201

95. A tongue of land on the Venetan coast. Photograph, E. M. P. 206

96. A denarius struck by Decimus Brutus. Original, British Museum 211

97. Venellan gold coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 24, no. 6925 . 215

98. Roman cavalryman. Cybulski, Tabulae, VII .... 220

99. Bronze coin struck by Adiatunnus. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. n,

no. 3605 . * 222

100. Gold coin of the Morini. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 35, no. 8704 . 229

101. A typical landscape on the lower Rhine. Photograph, Neue

Photographische Gesellschaft, Berlin ..... 233

102. A Treveran gold coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 35, no. 8799 . 235

103. Falls of the Rhine at SchafFhausen. Photograph, Neue Photo-

graphische Gesellschaft 239

104. Along the Meuse below Namur. Photograph, G. R. S. . . 243

105. The slopes of the Rhine valley. Photograph, Neue Photo-

graphische Gesellschaft 247

106. The Moselle at Beilstein ; ruins of the castle at the right. Pho-

tograph, Neue Photographische Gesellschaft . . .251

107. Foot of chalk cliffs north of Dover, at low tide. Photograph,

G. R. S . . .261

108. St. Margaret's Bay, between Dover and the open shore to the

northeast where Caesar landed. Photograph, G. R. S. . 267

109. Ancient British shield, of bronze, enameled. British Museum

Guide to the Antiquities of the Early Iron Age (1905), pi. 1 269

1 10. Cliffs on the English coast, north of Dover. Photograph, G. R. S. 273



670 List of Illustrations



PAGE



in. Gold coin of Cunobelinus. J. Evans, Coins of the Ancient

Britons, pl. 9, no. 3 ; De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 44 . . . 277

112. British war chariot. From a plate of H. Rheinhard . . 280

113. Gold coin of the Menapii. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 35, no. 8743 285

114. View across Belgium's fertile fields. Photograph, G. R. S. . 287

115. British gold coin. J. Evans, Coins, pl. D. 6; De la Tour,

Atlas, pi. 41 298

116. British bronze helmet, found in the Thames at Waterloo Bridge,

London. British Museum Guide to the Antiquities of the
Early Iron Age, fig. 67 ...... 298

117. Scene in a Roman camp. Ad. Lehmann, Kulturgeschichtliche

Bilder 303

118. Gold coin of the Eburones. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 36, no. 8859 314

1 19. Looking down into a depression in Belgium thought by some to

be the valley where the ambuscade took place. Photo-
graph, G. R. S 317

120. Statue of Ambiorix, at Tongres. Photograph, G. R. S. . . 322

121 . Gold coin of the Atrebatians. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 34, no. 8588 332

122. Bronze coin of the Carnutes. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 38, no. 7064 346

123. Sacred stones called Menhirs. Photograph, Earle M. Parker . 349

124. Gallic bracelets, of bronze. D^chelette, Manuel, fig. 517

(p. 1220) ... 352

125. Bronze-trimmed burial bucket, imported into Britain from Gaul.

British Museum Guide to the Antiquities of the Early Iron
Age, fig. 25 ... 353

126. Coin of the Boians, struck east of the Rhine. De la Tour, Atlas,

pi. 39, no. 9419 357

127. Caribou with one horn. Provincial Museum at Victoria, B. C.

Photograph, kindly loaned by Charles Shelden . . 360

128. Horns of a Moose. E. Thompson Seton, Life Histories of

Northern Animals, vol. 1 361

129. Low ground northeast of Bourges, ancient Avaricum. Photo-

graph, G. R. S 373

130. Section of Caesar's works at Avaricum. Napoleon III, Atlas,

pl. 20 374

131. Vercingetorix viewing the burning of Avaricum. Gurlitt, An-

schauungstafeln, IV 380

132. Gergovia, slope down toward White Rock. Photograph, G. R. S. 383

133. Gold coin of the Parisii. De la Tour, Atlas, pl. 31, no. 7816 . 390

134. Coin of the Senones, bronze. De la Tour, Atlas, pl. 30, no. 7467 391



List of Illustrations 671



135 The hill of Alesia, seen from the southeast. Photograph,

G.R.S 397

136. A Roman soldier cutting timber. Daremberg et Saglio, Dic-

tionnaire des antiquites grecques et romaines, fig. 6277, after

an ancient relief 4 02

137. A "goad, 11 stimulus. Daremberg et Saglio, Dictionnaire, fig.

6639 4°4

138. Barbed hooks found at Alesia, now in the Museum of St. Ger-

main. Photograph, G. R. S . 404

139. Gold coin of the Aulerci Cenomani. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 23,

no. 6829 4°5

140. Coin of Verica, or Virica, son of Commius. J. Evans, Coins

of the Ancient Britons, pi. 2, no. 10; De la Tour, Atlas,

pi. 42 407

141. Alise-Ste-Reine, on the site of Alesia, seen from the south.

Photograph, G. R. S 409

142. Statue of Vercingetorix, at Alesia. Photograph, G. R. S. . 415

143. A characteristic bit of the slope at Alesia. Photograph,

G.R.S 417

144. Heads and butts of lances found at Alesia, now in the Museum

of St. Germain. Photograph, G. R. S 420

145. Denarius with portrait of Vercingetorix. Original coin in the

British Museum 424

146. Denarius, with a galley : Q. Nasidius. British Museum . . 427

147. Pompey, marble bust in the Jacobsen Museum, Copenhagen.

Photograph, kindly furnished by the Director . . . 444

148. Cuirass of a legionary soldier. Cybulski, Tabulae, V . . 447

149. Banner, vexillum. Cybulski, Tabulae, V . . . . . 449

150. Symbols of Victory. From an ancient relief. Museo Bor-

bonico, vol. 3, pi. 58 461

151. Goddess of Victory bearing a Gallic war trumpet. Relief. Ma-

zois, Les ruines de PompSi, I, pi. 26 . . . . . 477

152. Ancient Roman calendar, of marble. Naples Museum. Museo

Borbonico, vol. 2, pi. 44 584

153. Denarius, Aeneas fleeing from Troy ; Caesar. British Museum 587

154. Roman boy, head of bronze statue in the Metropolitan Museum,

New York. Photograph, kindly furnished by Miss Gisela

M. A. Richter 588

155. Silver coin of Augustus, with civic crown. British Museum . 590

156. Marble trophy on the Capitoline hill, Rome. Photograph . 591



672 List of Illustrations

PAGE

157. Denarius with symbols of office of Pontifex Maximus ; Caesar.

British Museum ........ 592

158. Denarius with Concordia ; Caesar. British Museum . . 594

159. Aureus with symbols of victories over the Gauls; Caesar.

British Museum 595

160. Denarius with portrait of Pompey. British Museum . . 596

161 . Denarius, commemorating Gallic and Spanish victories ; Caesar.

British Museum 599

162. Denarius with portrait of Caesar. British Museum . . . 600
1.63. Denarius with temple of Clementia. British Museum . . 600

164. Denarius with elephant ; Caesar. British Museum . . . 602

165. Gem with portrait of Caesar. From a photograph kindly fur-

nished by the Imperial German Archaeological Institute in
Rome 602

166. A case for books. Ancient wall painting. Museo Borbonico,

vol. 1, pi. 12 603

167. Denarius commemorating the assassination of Caesar. British

Museum .......... 605

168. Denarius, Gallia conquered, personified. British Museum . 608

169. Silver coin of Massilia. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 3, no 791 . 61 1

170. Early British silver coin. J. Evans, Coins of the Ancient

Britons, pi. E, no. 1 ; De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 41 . . 611

171. Africa, personified. Silver plate in the Louvre. A. Mau and

F. W. Kelsey, Pompeii: Its Life and Art, 2d edit.,

fig. 187 614

172. Light-armed soldier in the Roman army. Cybulski, Tabulae, VI 617

173. Soldier's shoe. H. Lindenschmit, 7> -acht und Bewaffnung ties

roemischen Heeres, Taf. 10 . . . . . .621

174. Legionary's helmet, galea, without the crest. Cybulski,

Tabulae, V 622

175. Roman oblong shield, scutum. Cybulski, Tabulae, V . . 622

176. Roman pike, restored. Vjesnik, vol. 12 (191 2), p. 93 623

177. Spanish sword, gladius, in scabbard, vagina. Cybulski,

Tabulae, V 623

178. Roman dagger, pugio. Cybulski, Tabulae, V . . . . 624

179. Cavalryman's helmet, cassis. Cybulski, Tabulae, V . . 624

180. Denarius, with standards. British Museum .... 625

181. Horn, cornu. Cybulski, Tabulae, V ..... 626

182. Modern shell trumpet with iron mouthpiece. From Boscoreale,

near Pompeii. Collection of the University of Michigan . 626



List of Illustrations 673



PAGE



183. Scout, speculator. Daremberg et Saglio, Dictionnaire, fig. 5790,

after an ancient relief . . . . . . .627

184. Roman trenching tool, spade, found in the remains of the Ro-

man camp at the Saalburg. Forrer, Reallexikon, Taf. 182 628

185. View of a Roman camp. Gurlitt, Anschauungstafeln, 1 . . 629

186. Acies triplex. E. Kalinka, Das roemische Kriegswesen in

C'dsars gallischen K limp fen (1906), fig. 27 . . .631

187. Roman standard-bearer. Cybulski, Tabulae, VII . . . 632

188. Wall hook, falx muralis, found in the remains of a Gallic wall at

Besancon (Vesontio). Daremberg et Saglio, Diction-
naire, fig. 2873 634

189. Head of a catapult, restored. Museum of St. Germain. Pho-

tograph, kindly furnished by M. S. Reinach . . . 635

190. Gallic sword and scabbard, found at Alesia ; the handle has

rusted away. Revue archeologique, vol. 10 (1864), pi. 22 . 638

191. Roman inkstand, reed pen, and book. Ancient wall painting.

Museo Borbonico, vol. 1, pi. 12 639



VOCABULARY PAGE



192. Silver coin of the Allobroges. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 7, no.

2879 9

193. Gold coin of the Ambiani. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 33, no. 8380 9

194. Arvernian gold coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 11, no. 3614 . 13

195. Electrum coin of the Bituriges. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 13, no.

4072 16

196. Silver coin of the Boians, struck in northern Italy. De la

Tour, Atlas, pi. 51, no. 9910 16

197. Bronze coin of the Carnutes. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 20, no.

6391 18

198. Fortuna, marble statue in Rome. Photograph ... 49

199. Silver coin, "Three Gauls." De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 7, no. 4798 50

200. Bust of Jupiter, discovered at Pompeii. A. Mau and F. W.

Kelsey, Po?npeii : Its Life and Art, 2d edit., fig. 22 . .64

201. Bronze coin of the Lexovii. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 28, no.

7156 66

202. Ancient transport. Relief at Pompeii. Photograph . . 74

203. Roman document, with seals, restored. A. Mau and F. W.

Kelsey, Pompeii: Its Life and Art, 2d edit., fig. 275 . 78

204. Gold coin of the Parisii. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 31, no. 7782 . 82

205. Silver coin of the Pictones. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 13,

no. 4446 87



674 List of Illustrations

VOCABULARY PAGB

206. Gold coin of the Redones. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 22, no. 6756 99

207. Silver coin of the Santones. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 13,

no. 4520 103

208. Silver coin of the Segusiavi. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 7,

no. 4622 105

209. View in the Vale of Tempe. Photograph . . . .113

210. Gold coin of the Venelli. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 20, no. 6927 . 120

211. Viromanduan bronze coin. De la Tour, Atlas, pi. 34,

no. 8577 .... ..... 123



VOCABULARY

In the preparation of this Vocabulary Meusel's Lexicon Caesarianum has been
of greatest service; Lodge's Vocabulary of High School Latin has also been
helpful. For the less obvious Latin etymologies Walde's Lateinisches Etymolo-
gisches Worterbuch (second edition) has generally been followed; for the Eng-
lish derivatives, The Century Dictionary and The New English Dictionary.

For the Key to the English Pronunciation of Proper Names, and in other mat-
ters of English pronunciation, the Editor was indebted to Professor George Hempl.

ABBREVIATIONS
A list of Abbreviations is given on the following page.

ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION OF PROPER NAMES

After each Proper Name in the Vocabulary a Key to the English Pronunciation
is given, thus :

Matrona, -ae, f., (Mat'ro-na)

The English long vowels (so called) have above them a macron or some mark
indicative of quality; the short stressed vowels have no mark at all; the obscure
unstressed vowels have a dot under them, thus :



a as in


1 fate.'


e as in ' hated.' *


o as in ' democrat.' *


a " "


' fat.'


e " " <h<?r.'


u " " '«se.'


a " "


'idea.'*


I ** " * p/ne.'



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 56 of 73)