Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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amplitudo, -inis, [amplus], f.,
breadth, size; greatness, dignity.
[amplitude.

amplius, [comp. of ample, from am-
plus], sup. amplissime, adv.,
more, further.

amplus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, adj., large in extent, great,
extensive; distinguished, splendid,
noble, prominent. As noun, am-
plius, comp., n., more, amplius
obsidum, more hostages (vi. 9).
[ample.

an, inter, conj., or, or rather, or in-
deed, -ne . . . an, or utrum . . ,
an, whether . . . or.



an-, see ambi-.

Anartes, -ium, m., pi., (an-ar> tez), a
tribe on the Tibiscus ( Theiss), in
Dacia {Hungary).

Ancalites,-um, m.,pl.,(an-cal' j-tez),
a British tribe, v. 21.

anceps, -cipitis, [an- -f cap in
caput], adj., two-headed, twofold,
double, anceps proelium, battle
on two fronts.

ancora, -ae, [AyKvpa], f., anchor.
in ancoris, at anchor, [anchor.

Andecumborius, -i, m., (an" d;-
com-bo' ri-us), a leader among the
Remi.

Andes, -ium, or Andi, -orum, m.,
pi., (an' dez, or an' dl), a Gallic
people north of the Liger {Loire).

anfr actus, -as, [an-, cf. frangrS],
m., curve in a path or road, bend,
turn. vii. 46.

angulus, -I, m., corner, v. 13. [an-
gle.

anguste, comp. -ius, sup. -issime,
[angustus], adv., closely, in close
quarters ; scantily, sparingly.

angustiae, -arum, [angrustus], f.,
pi., narrow place, narrow part,
dtfile, narrowness ; straits, difficul-
ties, perplexity ; scarcity.

angustus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimu3, [cf. ango, squeeze'], adj.,
contracted, narrow, close. Neut.
as noun, angrustum, -1, crisis (ii.

25).

anima, -ae, f., breath ; soul, life (vi.
14). [animate.

animadversio, onis, [animad-
verts], f., consideration; punish-
ment (C. in. 60). [animadversion.

animadverto, -tere, -ti, -sus, [ani-
mus + adverts], 3, turn the mind
to, attend to ; notice, observe, perceive.
in eum animadverts, inflict pun-
ishment upon him, as we say "at-
tend to him." 1. 19. [animadvert.



animal



11



appeto



tal, -alis, [anima], n., living
being, animal, vi. 17, 19. [ani-
mal.

animus, -i, m., soul, mind, conscious-
ness ; disposition, feelings ; courage,
spirit, temper, resolution. esse in
animd, to intend, [animus

annotinus, -a, -um, [annus], adj.,
of the year before, last year's, v. 8.

annus, -I, m., year, [annual.

annuus, -a, -um, [annus], adj., of a
year, yearly, annual, i. 16. [an-
nuity.

-anser, -eris, m., goose, v. 12.

ante, adv. and prep. :

(1) As adv., in front; before,
previotisly. ante quam, before.
paulo ante, a little while before, a
short time previously, paucis ante
diebus, a few days before.

(2) As prep, with ace, before,
in front of, in advance of

antea, [ante + ea], adv., previously,

before, formerly.
antecedo, -cedere, -cessi, [ante +

cedo], 3, go in advance, outstrip ;

anticipate (C. III. 6) ; surpass, excel.

[antecedent.
antecursor, -oris, [antecurro], m.,

lit., fore-runner ; pi., advance

guard, vanguard (v. 47).
antefero, -ferre, -tuli, -latus, [ante

+ fer5], irr., carry in front ; place

before, prefer (v. 44) .
antemna, -ae, f., sail-yard, [anten-
nae.
antepono, -pSnere, -posui, -posi-

tus, [ante -f- pono] , 3, place before ;

prefer, value above (iv. 22).
antesignanus, -i, [ante sig-num],

m., one in front of a standard ; pi.,

antesigrnani, -orum, soldiers before

the standards (C. III. 84).
anteverto, -tere, -ti, [ante +

verto], 3, place before, take prece-
dence.



antiquitus [antiquus], adv., in for-
mer times, long ago, anciently.

antiquus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [ante], adj., old, former,
old-lime, ancient, [antique.

Antistius, -i, m., Gaius Antistius
Reginus (an-tis' ti-us re jl' nus), a
lieutenant of Caesar.

Antonius, -1, m., Marcus Antonius,
(mar' kus an-to' ni-us), Mark An-
tony (born 8^, died 30 B.C.), a
lieutenant of Caesar in Gaul in 52
and 51 B.C., and afterwards in the
Civil War ; member of the Second
Triumvirate, and rival of Octavianus.
vii. 81; C. in. 89.

aperio, -perire, -perul, -pertus, 4,
open, uncover, vii. 22. [aperient.

aperte, -ius, -issime, [apertus],
adv., openly, clearly, manifestly.

apertus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup. -is-
simus, [part, of aperio], adj., open,
uncovered ; exposed, unprotected.
loca aperta, open country, latus
apertum, open flank, exposed flank.

Apollo, -inis, m., (a-pol' o), a divinity
worshiped by the Greeks and Ro-
mans, identified by Caesar with a
Gallic deity, vi. 17.

Apollonia, -ae, ['AiroXXw^fa], f.,
(ap-o-15'ni-a), a city in the Roman
province of Macedonia, near the
Adriatic Sea, about fifty miles south
of Dyrrachium. C. in. 75.

apparo, -are, -avi, -atus, [ad +
paro], 1, prepare, make ready, get
ready, [apparatus.

appello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsus, [ad
+pello], 3, drive to, bring in; of
ships, make for, put in, land.

appello, -are, -avi, -atus, i, address,
accost, call to, appeal to; call by
name, name, [appellate.

appeto, -petere, -petivi, or -ii, -pe-
titus, [ad + peto], 3, strive after,
seek ; approach, draw near, [appetite.



Appius



12



Ariminum



Appius, -I, m., (ap' i-us), a Roman

first name.
applied, -plicare, -plicavi or -plicui,

-plicatus, [ad + plic5J, fold, join.

se applicare ad, to lean against

(vi. 27). [applicant.
apporto, -are, -avi, -atus, [ad +

port5], 1, carry to, bring, v. I.
approbo, -are, -avi, -atus, [ad -f

probO], 1, approve, favor, [approve.
appropinquo, -are, -avi, -atum est,

[ad + propinquo], 1, approach,

come near, draw near.
appulsus, see appelia.
Apr., - = Aprllis. i. 6.
Aprilis, -e, adj., of April.
aptus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup. -issi-

mus, adj., fitted, adapted, suited ;

suitable, appropriate, ready, [apt.
apud, prep, with ace. only, at, with,

near, close to, by; among, in the

presence of.
aqua, -ae, f., water. [aqueous.
aquatio, -onis, [aquor], f., obtaining

water, iv. 11.
aquila, -ae, f., eagle ; as an eagle of

silver or gold on the end of a pole

formed the chief ensign of the legion,

eagle, standard, [aquiline.
Aquileia, -ae, f., (ak-wj-le' ya), a city

at the head of the Adriatic Sea. I. 10.
aquilifer, -eri, [aquila + ferO], m.,

bearer of the eagle, eagle-bearer.
Aquitania, -ae, f., (ak-wj-ta'ni-a),

one of the three main divisions of

Gaul.
Aquitanus, -a, -um, adj., of Aqui-
tania. As noun, Aquitanus, -i,

m., Aquitanian (iv. 12); pi., Aqui-

tanians, Aquitani, (ak-wi-ta' nl),

inhabitants of Aquitania. i. 1 ; iii.

21.
aquor, -ari, -atus, [aqua], I, dep.,

obtain water, get water. C. III. 97.
Arar, -aris, ace. -im, m., Arar (a' rar)

River, now Sabne (son). It rises in



the Vosges (v5zh) Mts., and flows
southward into the Rhone.

arbiter, -tri, m., witness; referee,
commissioner (v. 1). [arbiter-

arbitrium, -i, [arbiter], n., decision,
arbitrament ; authority.

arbitror, .ari, -atus, [arbiter], 1,
dep., think, consider, believe, [arbi-
trate.

arbor, -oris, f., tree, [arbor-vitae.

arcesso, -sere, -sivi, -situs, 3, cause
to come, fetch ; send for, summon,
call in, invite.

ardeo, -ere, arsi, arsQrus, 2, be on
fire ; be ablaze, be aroused; be eager,
desire ardently, [ardent.

Arduenna, -ae, f., (ar-du-en' na), the
Ardennes, a forest-covered range of
hills in the northeastern part of
France, extending also into Belgium.

arduus, -a, -um, adj., steep, high;
hard, difficult, [arduous.

Arecomici. -orum, m., pi., (ar-e-
kom' i-sl), a division of the Volcae,
in the Province.

Arelas, -atis, f., (aV e-las), a town in
Southern Gaul, on the Rhone, north
of Massilia; now Aries. C. 11. 5.

Aremoricus. -a, -um, [Celtic, are =
ad, + mori, = mare, ' by the s e a'],
adj., Aremorican, name applied to a
group of small states along the
northwest coast of Gaul (Aremo-
ricae civitatis) .

argentum, -i, n., silver (vi. 28); sil-
ver-ware (vii. 47 ; C. in. 96). [ar-
gent.

argilla, -ae, f., clay. v. 43. [argilla-
ceous.

aridus, -a, -um, sup. -issimus, [areS,
be dry], adj., dry. As noun, ari-
dum, -i, n., dry land, shore, [arid.

ariSs, -ietis, m., rmm ; battering-ram
prop, buttress (iv. 17). [Aries.

Ariminum, -I, n., (a-rim' i-num), a
town in Italy on the Adriatic, the



Ariovistus



13



asper



northernmost city in Italy proper;

now Rimini. C. I. 8.
Ariovistus, -I, m., (a" ri-o-vis' tus),

a German king, defeated by Caesar,

58 B.C.
Aristius, -I, m., Marcus Aristius, (a-

ris' ti-us), a military tribune, vii.

42, 43-

arma, -orum, n., pi., implements;

implements of war, arms, armor,

weapons ; of a ship, equipment, tackle

(Hi. 14). ad arma concurrere,

• to rusk to arms. [arms.

armamenta, -orum, [arm6], n., pi.,
implements ; equipment ; of a ship,
rigging, [armament.

armatura, -ae, [anno], f., armor,
equipment, levis armaturae pe-
dites, light infantry. levis ar-
maturae Numidae, light-armed
Numidians (ii. 10). [armature.

armatus, -a, -um,sup. armatissimus,
[part, of anno], adj., armed, in
arms, equipped. As noun, armati,
-orum, m.,pl., armed men, warriors,
soldiers.

armo, -are, -avi, -atus, [arma], I,
provide with weapons, arm; of a
ship, equip, fit out. [arm.

Arpineius, -I, m., Gains Arpineius,
(ar-pi- ne' yus), a Roman knight,
envoy of Caesar to Ambiorix. v. 27,
28.

arripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptus, [ad
4- rapio], 3, lay hold of snatch.
v. 33-

arroganter, comp. -ius, [arrogSns],
adv., presumptuously, arrogantly.

arrogantia, -ae, [arrog-ans], {^pre-
sumption, insolence, [arrogance.

ars, artis, f., skill ; art, science (vi.
17). [art.

art§, comp. artius, sup. artissime,
[artus], adv., closely, tightly.

articulus, -i, [dim. of artus, joint],
Td., joint, knuckle, vi. 27. [article.



artificium, -i, [artifex, artist], n.,an
art, trade; skill; craft, cunning.
[artifice.

artus, -a, um, comp. -ior, sup. artis-
simus, adj., close ; of woods, dense
(vii. 18).

Arvernus, -a, -um, adj., of the Ar-
verni, Arvemian. As noun, Ar-
verni, -orum, m., pi., Arvernians,
the Averni, (ar -ver' ni), a powerful
people about the upper part of the
Elaver (Allier) ; their chief city,
Gergovia, was unsuccessfully be-
sieged by Caesar. Fig. 194.




Figure 194. — Arvernian coin.

Gold. Obverse, Apollo. Reverse, two-
horse chariot, copied from a coin of Philip,
father of Alexander the Great ; Greek name,
"Of Philip," misspelled.

arx, arcis, f., citadel, stronghold.

ascendo, -scendere, -scendi, -scen-
sus, [ad 4- scand5, climb], 3, as-
cend, climb up ; mount, [ascend.

ascensus, -as, [ascends], m., as-
cent, climbing ; approach.

ascisco, asciscere, ascivi, ascitus,
[ad 4- scisco, approve], 3, ad-
mit to association with one's self,
accept.

Asia, -ae, £ Atria], f., the Roman prov-
ince Asia, (a' sh[y]a, or a.' zh[y]a),
including Phrygia, Lydia, Caria, and
Mysia in Asia Minor. C. ill. 53.

aspectus, -us, [aspicio, look at], m.,
appearance, sight, look, [aspect.

asper, -era, -erum, comp. -ior, sup.
-rimus, adj., rough, uneven ; fierce^
violent (v. 45).



assiduus



14



auriga



assiduus, -a, -um, [ad 4- sed, sid, in
sede6, sit], a.d).,conlinuous, constant,
incessant, [assiduous.

assisto, -ere, astiti, [ad + sisto],
3, stand near, stand by ; appear (vi.
1 8). [assist.

assuefacio, -facere, -feci, -f actus,
[assuetus + faciO], 3, accustom,
habituate, familiarize, train.

assuesco, -suescere, -suevi, -sue-
tus, [ad -f suesco, become accus-
tomed], 3, become accustomed to.
assuescere ad homines, to be-
come domesticated (vi. 28).

at, conj., but, yet, but yet, at least.

atque, ac, [ad + -que], conj. :

(1) Copulative, and, and also,
and even, and in particular.

(2) Comparative, after words of
likeness or unlikeness, as, than.
idem atque, par atque, the same
as.

Atrebas, -5tis, m., an Atrebatian ;

pi., Atrebatians, the Atrebates, (at-re-

ba' tez), a Belgic people.
Atrius, -i, m., Quintus Atrius (a'tri-

us), an officer in Caesar's army. v.

9, 10.
attenuo, -are, -&vl, -&tus, [ad +

tenu5 from tenuis], I, make thin;

weaken, reduce in strength (C. III.

89). [attenuate.
attexo, -ere, -texui, attextus, [ad

+ tex5], 3, weave to, join on. v. 40.
Attianus, -a, -um, [Attius], adj., of

Attius, referring to P. Attius Varus.

C. 11. 34.
at ting 5, -tingrere, -tigi, -tactus, [ad

+ tango J, 3, touch upon, touch;

reach; of territorial divisions, border

on, extend to, adjoin.
Attius, -i, m., /'. Attius Varus (at' j-us

va' rus), a lieutenant of Pompey in

Africa. C. 11. 34.
attribuo, -uere, -ui, -utus, [ad -f

tribuO], 3, assign, allot, [attribute.



attuli, see afferS.

Atuatuca, -ae, f., (at-ii-af ii-ka), a
stronghold in the territory of the
Eburones.

Atuatuci, -6rum, m., pi., (at-u-at'
u-sl), a warlike people on the left
bank of the Meuse, descended from
the Cimbrians and Teutons.

auctor, -oris, [augreS], m., origina-
tor, instigator; adviser, promoter,
favorer, [author.

auctoritas, -tatis, [auctor], f., in-
fluence, weight; prestige, authority,
power, [authority.

auctus, -a, -um, comp. auctior,
[augreS], adj., increased ; rich. i. 43.

audacia, -ae, [audax], f., boldness,
daring, recklessness, [audacity.

audacter, comp. audacius, sup. au-
dacissime, [audax], adv., boldly,
courageously, fearlessly.

audeo, audere, ausus sum, 2, semi-
dep., venture, dare, risk ; attempt.

audio, -ire, -ivi or -ii, -itus, 4, hear,
listen to; hear of. Present parti-
ciple as Adj. in diets audiens
esse, to be obedient to the word of
command, to obey, [audience.

audltio, -onis, [audiO], f., report,
rumor, hearsay., [audition.

augeo, augrere, auxi, auctus, 2,
semi-dep., increase, enlarge, aug-
ment, add to.

Aulercus, -I, m., an Aulercan (vii.
57); pi., the Aulerci (a-ler'si), a
people of Central Gaul, of which
Caesar mentions three branches,
Brannovices (vii. 75), Cenomani
(vii. 75), and EburovicSs (iii. 17,

v". 75)-
Aulus, -I, m., (a' lus), a Roman first

name,
aureus, -a, -um, [aurum], adj., of

gold, golden, v. 12. [oriole.
auriga, -ae, [aurea, bridle, + ag:5],

m., charioteer, driver, iv. ^^.



auris



15



Belgae



auris, -is, f., ear. [aural

Aurunculeius, -i, m., Lucius Au-
runculeius Cotta, (a" rung-ku-le' yus
kot' a), a lieutenant of Caesar, killed
by the Eburones.

Ausci, -orum, m., pi., (&' si), a people
in the eastern part of Aquitania.
iii. 27.

ausus, see audeS.

aut, conj., or. aut . . . aut, either
. . . or. aut . . . aut . . . aut,

either . . . or . . . or.

a'utem, conj., but, hozuever, on the
contrary ; and now, moreover.

autumnus, -i, m., autumn, [autumn.

auxiliaris, -e, [auxilium], adj., aux-
iliary. As noun, auxiliares,
-ium, m., pi., auxiliary troops,
auxiliaries (iii. 25). [auxiliar.

auxilior, -arl, -atus, [auxilium], 1,
dep., render aid, assist, help.

auxilium, -i, [cf. augeS], n., help,
aid, assistance ; relief, remedy, re-
source. PI., auxilia, auxiliary
troops, auxiliaries, allied forces.

Avaricensis, -e, adj., of Avaricum,
at Avaricum. VII. 47.

Avaricum,-!, n., (a-var'i-kum), larg-
est and most strongly fortified city of
the Bituriges, now Bourges; besieged
and taken by Caesar, the inhabitants
put to the sword.

avaritia, -ae, [avarus, greedy], f.,
greed, covetous ness. [avarice.

aveho, -vehere, -vexi, -vectus,
[a + vehS], 3, carry off, carry
away.

a versus, -a, -um, sup. aversissimus,
[part of averto], adj., turned away ;
behind, in the rear, [averse.

averto, -tere, -ti, -sus, [a -f- vertS],
3, turn away, turn aside, avert;
divert, alienate, estrange, [avert.

avis, -is, f., bird. iv. 10. [aviation.

avus, -i, m., grandfather.

Axona, -ae, f., faks' o-na), a river in



the southern part of Belgic Gaul,
now Aisne.



Bacenis, -is, (sc. silva), f., (ba-
se' njs), a forest in Germany, vi. 10.

Baculus, -i, m., Publius Sextius Ba-
culus, (bac' u-lus), one of the bravest
of Caesar's centurions. He distin-
guished himself in the battle with the
Nervians (11. 25) ; his advice saved
the day when Galba was attacked in
the Alps (in. 5) ; and his heroic re-
sistance checked a surprise attack on
Cicero's camp (vi. 38).

Bagradas, or Bagrada, -ae, m.,
(bag'ra-das), an important river of
Roman Africa, now Medjerda. C.
n. 38.

Baleares, -ium, [= paXiapeis, sling-
e)-s~\,m., pi., (bal-e-a'rez), natives of
the Balearic Islands, off the east coast
of Spain; famous as slingers. ii. 7.

balteus, -i, m., belt, sword-belt.

Balventius, -i, m., Titus Balventius,
(bal-ven' sh[y]-us), a brave centu-
rion, v. 35.

barbarus, -a, -um, [ == pdppapos], adj.,
foreign, strange; rude, savage, un-
civilized. As noun, barbari, -Srum,
m., pi., strangers, foreigners; na-
tives, barbarians, [barbarous.

Basilus, -i, m., Lucius Minucius Bas-
ilus, (mi-nu'sh[y]us bas' j-lus), an
officer of Caesar, afterwards one of
the conspirators against him ; mur-
dered in 43 B.C. on account of cruelty
to his slaves.

Batavi, -Srum, m., pi., the Batavians,
Batavi, (ba-ta' vi), a people dwelling
near the mouth of the Rhine, iv.
10.

Belgae, -arum, m., pi., the Belgians,
Belgae, (bel'je), inhabitants of one
of the three main divisions of Gaul,
divided into many small states.



Belgium



16



Boii



Belgium, -i, n., (beY ][y]um) , the land
of the Belgians, Belgic Gaul, Bel-
gium, v. 12, 25. [Belgium.
bellicosus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [bellicus], adj., warlike,
fond of war. i. 10. [bellicose.
bellicus, -a, -um, [bellum], adj., of
war, martial, military, vi. 24.

bello, -are, -avi, -atus, [bellum], I,
wage war, carry on war, fight.

Bellovaci, -5rum, m., pi., (be-lov'-
a-sl), a powerful Belgic people.

bellum, -1, n., war, warfare, bellum
gerere, to wage war. bellum In-
ferre, to make war. bellum pa-
rare, to prepare for war.

bene, comp. melius, sup. optime,
[bonus], adv., well, ably, success-
fully.

beneficiarius, -I, [beneficiarius, -a,
-um, from beneflcium], m., privi-
leged soldier, who, by order of the
commander, was exempt from or-
dinary tasks and detailed for special
duties (C. in. 88). [beneficiary.

beneficium, -I, [bene + faci5], n.,
kindness, favor, service, [benefice.

benevolentia, -ae, [benevolus], f.,
good will, friendly disposition, kindly
feeling, friendship, [benevolence.

Bibracte, -is, n., [bi-brak' te], capital
of the Aeduans, situated on a moun-
tain now called Mont Beuvray
(height, 2,690 ft.).

Bibrax, -actis, f., (bl' braks), a town
of the Remi, north of the Axona
{Aisne). ii. 6.

Bibroci, -6rum, m., pi., (bib' ro-sI),a
people in the southern part of Britain,
v. 21.

biduum, -I, [bi-, = bis, cf. di§s], n.,
space of two days, two days.

biennium, -i, [bi-, = bis, cf. annus],
n., period of tivo years, tiuo years'
time. i. 3. [biennial.

BigerrionSs, -6num, m., pi., (bi" jer-



ri-6'nez], a people in Aquitania

iii. 27.
bini, -ae, -a, [bis], distributive adj.,

two by two, two each, by twos, tivo.
bipedalis, -e, [bi-, - bis, -f pedalis,

from pes], adj., two feet in width,

length, or height ; two feet thick (iv.

17).

bipertito, [bipartitus, bi-, = bis, +

partitus], adv., in two divisions.

i. 25 ; v. 32. [cf. bipertite.
bis, [for duis, cf. duo], num. adv.,

twice.
Bituriges, -um, m., pi., (bit-u-ri' jCz),

a people in Central Gaul (Fig. 195).




Figure 195. — A coin of the
Bituriges.

Electrum, gold alloyed with silver.

Obverse, head of crude but bold design.

Reverse, above the horse, a bird; under-
neath, a three-leaf ornament. This coin may
possibly belong to the Pictones.

Boduognatus, -i, m., (bod" u-og-na'
tus), a leader of the Nervians. ii.
23-

Boii, -orum, m., pi., Boians, Boii (bo'
i-i), a Celtic people once widely dif-




Figure 196. — Coin of the Boians.
Silver, struck in Cisalpine Gaul.
Obverse, a laurel wreath encircles the head
Reverse, the horseman wears a crown.



bonitas



17



calamitas



fused over Central Europe (Fig.
196).

bonitas, -tatis, [bonus] , f. , goodness,
excellence; of land, fertility (i. 28).

bonus, -a, -um, comp. melior, sup.
optimus, adj., good, advantageous ;
pleasant, well-disposed, friendly. As
noun, bonum, n., profit, advantage ;
pi., bona, -orum, goods, property,
possessions, [bonus ; optimist.

bos, bovis, gen. pi. bourn, m. and f.,

• ox, bull, cow. [bovine.

bracchium, -I, [= /3/mxta"], n., arm,
forearm.

Brannovices, -um, (bran-o-vi' sez),
m., pi., see Aulerci.

Bratuspantium, -I, n., (brat-us-pan'
sh[y]um), a stronghold of the Bello-
vaci. ii. 13.

brevis, -e, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
adj., short, brief [brief.

brevitas, -tatis, [brevis], f., short-
ness (ii. 20); smallness, small stature
(ii. 30). [brevity.

breviter, comp. -ius, sup. -issime,
[brevis], adv., briefly, with few
words, concisely, vii. 54.

Britanni, -orum, m., pi., natives of
Britain, Britons.

Britannia, -ae, f., (bri-tan' i-a), Brit-
ain.

Britannicus, -a, -um, adj., of Brit-
ain, British, v. 4.

bruma, -ae, [for *brevuma, sup.
of brevis, sc. dies], f., winter sol-
stice, shortest day ; winter (v. 13).

Brundisium, -i, [Ppevrdatov], n.,
(brun-dizh' km), a city of Italy on
the Adriatic, the principal port of
embarcation for Greece ; now Brin-
disi. C. in. 87.

Brutus, -i, m., Decimus Junius Brutus
Albinus, (jun' yusbru'tus al-bi' nus),
an officer of Caesar, both in the Gallic
and in the Civil War ; afterwards a
conspirator against him.



biicinator, -oris, [bucina, trumpet\
m., trumpeter. C. 11. 35.



C, in expressions of number, = 100.

C, see Gaius.

Cabtirus, -i, m , Gaius Valerius
Caburus, (va-le'ri-us ka-bu'rus), a
Gaul who received the Roman citi-
zenship.

cacumen, -inis, n., end, point (vii.
73) ; peak, summit, [cacuminous.

cadaver, -eris, [cf. cad5], n., corpse,
dead body, [cadaver.

cado, cadere, cecidi, casurus, 3,
fall; be slain, die. [chance.

Cadiirci, -orum, m., pi., (ka-der'
si), a people in Aquitania. Sing.
Cadurcus, -i, m., a cadurcan (vii.

5).

caedes, -is, [caedo], f., killing;
slaughter, murder, massacre.

caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesus, 3,
cut, cut down ; cut to pieces, slay.

caelestis, -e, [caelum], adj., heav-
enly. As noun, caelestes, -ium,
m., pi., the gods (vi. 17). [celestial.

caelum, -i, n., heaven, the heavens, the
sky. C. 11. 5.

caerimonia, -ae, f., religious cere-
mony, sacred rite. vii. 2. [cere-
mony.

Caerosi, -orum, m., pi., (se-r5'si),
a people in Belgic Gaul. ii. 4.

caeruleus, -a, -um, adj., deep blue,
dark blue. v. 14. [cerulean.

Caesar, -aris, m. :

(1) Gaius Julius Caesar (ga'yus
jul' yus se' zar).

(2) Lucius Julius Caesar, consul
in 64 B.C., a distant relative of the
great Caesar, under whom he served
as lieutenant, in 52 B.C. vii. 65.

caespes, -itis, m., sod, turf
calamitas, -t&tis, f., loss, damage;
disaster, defeat, [calamity.



Caleti



18



carus



Caleti, -5rum, also Caletes, -um,
m., pi., (kal' e-ti, kal' e-tez), a peo-
ple near the mouth of the Sequana
(Seine),

callidus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [calleo, be skillful], adj.,
skillful ; tactful, crafty (iii. 18).

calo, -onis, m, soldier's servant,
camp servant.

campester, -tris, -tre, [campus],
adj., of level ground, flat, level.

campus, -i, m., plain, [campus.

Camulogenus, -I, m., (kam-u-loj' e-
nus), an Aulercan, commander of the
Parisii against Labienus.

Caninius, -i, m., Gaius Caninius Reb-
ilus, (ka-nin' i-us reb' j-lus), a lieu-
tenant of Caesar's in the latter part
of the Gallic War, and in the Civil
War ; made consul by Caesar for a
few hours to fill a vacancy on the last
day of December, B.C. 45. vii. 83,
90 ; C. n. 34.

cano, canere, cecini, 3, sing ; of a
musical instrument, sound, play.

Cantabri, -orum, m., pi., Canla-
brians, Cantabri (kan' ta-brl"), a war-
like people in northern Spain.

Cantium, -I, n., Kent, Cantium, (kan-
sh[y] um), a district in the southeast
part of England.

capillus, -i, [cf. caput], m., hair of
the head, hair, [capillary.

capio. capere, cepi, captus, 3, take,
get ; seize, capture ; occupy, take pos-
session of; select, win over, charm,
captivate ; receive ; of vessels, reach,
make; deceive (i. 40). initium
capere, to begin, consilium ca-
pere, to form a plan. dolSrem
capere, to be grieved, [capture.

Capitolium. -I, n., the Capitol, the
temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva
on the Capitoline hill in Rome; some-
times referring to the hill as a whole,
the Capitoline hill. C. 1.6. [Capitol.



capra. -ae, [caper], f., she-goat.

captivus, -a, -um, [cf. capio], adj.,
taken prisoner, captured (C. II. 5).
As noun, captivus, -i, m., captive,
prisoner (vi. 43). [captive.

captus, -a, -um, see capio.

captus. -us, [capio], m., capacity ;
understanding, notion (iv. 3).

Capua, -ae, f., (kap' u-a), a city in
Italy, in Campania. C. ill. 71.

caput, -itis, n., head ; by metonymy,
person, man, life, safety ; of a river,



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 58 of 73)