Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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but in response to a request of Massilia for protection against the
incursions of Ligurian tribes east of the Rhone; this was in 155 b.c.
d5 : we should say ' of.'

7. paene: 'almost.' nostrl: 157, c. vastari: 'to be laid
waste.' 221, a. liberl edrum : l their children. 1



I, ii] The Campaign against the Helvetians 29

Eodem tempore, quo AeduT, Ambarri, necessarii et
consanguine! Aedu5rum, Caesarem certiorem faciunt, sese, 10
depopulatis agris, ndn facile ab oppidls vim hostium pro-
fit bere. Item Allobroges, qui trans Rhodanum vicos
possessidnesque habebant, fuga se ad Caesarem recipiunt,
et demdnstrant, sibi praeter agri solum nihil esse reliqul.

Quibus rebus adductus Caesar non exspectandum sibi is
statuit, dum, omnibus fortunis sociorum consumptis, in
Santonos Helvetil pervenirent.

8. servitutem: 'slavery,' the penalty of capture. 10, f. ab-
duci : ' (to be) led away.' expugnari : ' (to be) taken by assault.'
non debuerint : ' ought not.' 197, b. Why debeant in the direct form ?
177, b, and 357, b.

9. quo : 147, a. Aedui : sc. legatos mittunt. necessarii :
* relatives,' including connections by marriage. 154, &•> and 91, a.

10. consanguinel : 'kinsmen,' comprising only blood relations.
Notwithstanding their close relationship with the Aeduans, the
Ambarri had a separate coinage (Fig. 16).

11. depopulatis agris : '(their) lands had been ravaged and.'
How lit.? 59, b, and 144, b, (2). B. 112, b\ A. 190, £; H. 222,2.
prohibere : 214, a, and 213, a.

12. trans Rhodanum : i.e. on the north side of the Rhone, probably
west of the Mill-race Gorge.

13. fuga: 136, b. se recipiunt : ' made their escape.'

14. demonstrant: 'stated.' 175, b. sibi . . . nihil esse re-
liqul: 'that they had nothing left' 213, a. sibi: 111. B. 190;
A. 373; H. 430. agri solum: ' the bare ground ' ; how lit.? re-
liqui : used as a noun, dependent on nihil. 97, a. B. 201.

15. Quibus: 167. non exspectandum [esse] sibi: 'that he
ought not to wait.' 73, e, and 89, c How lit. ? sibi: 110.

16. dum . . . consumptis: 'until everything that the allies had
should have been destroyed, and.' How lit.? 144, b, (2).

17. Santonos: 'the (country of) the Santoni'; previously (chap.
10, 1. 2), spelled ' Santones.' Caesar was inconsistent in the spelling of
this name, which appears in Roman letters on a coin; see Vocab.
under Santones. The name survives in that of the city Saintes.
19, e, and 282. pervenirent: 190, b. B. 293, m, 2; A. 553;
H. 603, 11, 2.



30 Caesar's Gallic War tB.c.58

Caesar cuts to pieces one division of the Helvetians at the Arar.

12. Flumen est Arar, quod per fines Aedu5rum et Se-
quanorum in Rhodanum Influit, incredibili lenitate, ita ut
oculis, in utram partem fluat, iudicari non possit. Id
Helvetii ratibus ac lintribus iunctis transibant.




Figure 37. — The Saone at Tre'voux, looking upstream.

12. i. Flumen est Arar: < There is a river, the Arar. 1 90, a.
Arar: now Sa6ne (pronounced son). 18, e. quod: antecedent?
per fines : for a part of its course the Arar formed the boundary between
the Aeduans and the Sequanians, who engaged in violent strifes over
the right, claimed by both, to levy tolls on passing vessels. The country
along the Arar furnished the best quality of bacon, which was exported
to Rome.

2. incrgdibili lgnitate : 'of incredible sluggishness. 1 143, a. B.
224; A. 415 ; H. 473, 2. incrgdibili: 74, /•

3. oculis : ' with the eye.' 92, a, and 181, a. in utram par-
tem : 'in' (lit. 'into') 'which direction. 1 23, a. fluat: 204, (3>-
B. 300, 1; A. 574; H. 649,11. iudioari: '(to) be determined. 1
221, a. possit: the subject is the indirect question in . . .fluat* hut
trans, 'it can not, 1 etc. Near Trdvoux, 14 miles north of Lyons, the



i, 12] The Campaign against the Helvetians 31

Ubi per exploratores Caesar certior factus est, tres iam 5
partes copiarum Helvetios id flumen traduxisse, quartam
fere partem citra flumen Ararim reliquam esse, de tertia
vigilia cum legionibus tribus e castrls profectus ad earn
partem pervenit, quae nondum flumen transierat. E5s
impeditos et inopinantes aggressus, magnam partem eorum 10
concidit; reliqui sese fugae mandarunt atque in proximas
silvas abdiderunt. Is pagus appellabatur Tigurinus ; nam
omnis civitas Helvetia in quattuor pagos divlsa est.

current of the Sadne is to-day for a short distance as sluggish as in
Caesar's time (Fig. 37) ; and here the Helvetians probably crossed the
river.

4. lintribus iunctis : ' by (means of) small boats fastened together' ;
the floats thus constructed, as well as the rafts, could be easily poled
across in the still water. 15, a, and 131, a.

5. exploratores : ' scouting parties.' 327 . tr§s . . . traduxisse :
trans, as if Helvetios iatn tres partes (' three quarters') copiarum
trans id flumen diixisse. 11 4, a. B. 179, 1; A. 395; H. 413.

7. citra : ' on this side of,' i.e. the east side. 122, a. Ararim :
18, e. de tertia vigilia : 242, d.

8. legionibus tribus: about 11,000 men. 137, b. castrls :
probably not far from Sathonay, east of the Saone, above its junction
with the Rhone. See Map 1. profectus : 61, a, (3).

9. Eos : 160, b.

10. impeditos et inopinantes: < hampered and off their guard.'
The fighting men, scattered throughout the encampment, were completely
surprised and had no chance to form a line of battle ; the Roman soldiers
plied their savage short swords rapidly and effectively. 322, e.
aggressus : < attacking.' 57, c, and 226, c.

1 1 . concidit : how different from concidit t reliqui : 154, a -> an d
171, a. mandarunt : = mandaverunt ; lit. i committed themselves
to flight,' where we should say 'took to flight.' 64, a, (1). in : trans.
' in ' ; lit. ' into,' on account of the idea of motion in abdiderunt, as if we
should say they (went) ' into the neighboring woods ' (and) ' concealed
themselves.'

12. pagus: i canton,' properly a territorial division, here used of
the inhabitants. Tigurinus : 148, a.

13. civitas; 288, a. divlsa: 148, c.



32 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 68

Hie pagus Gnus, cum domo exlsset, patrum nostrorum
ismemoria L. Cassium consulem interfecerat.et eius exerci-

tum sub iugum miserat. Ita sive casu slve consilio deorum

immortalium, quae pars clvitatis Helvetiae Tnsignem ca-

lamitatem populo Romano intulerat, ea princeps poenas

persolvit.
20 Qua in re Caesar non solum publicas, sed etiam privates

iniurias ultus est, quod eius soceri L. Pisonis avum, L.

Pisonem legatum, Tigurini eodem proelio, quo Cassium,

interfecerant.

Caesar, bridging the Arar, crosses. The Helvetians send envoys.

13. Hoc proelio facto, reliquas copias Helvetiorum ut
consequi posset, pontem in Arari faciendum curat atque
ita exercitum traducit.

14. domo : 130, b. B. 229, \,b\ A. 427, 1 ; H. 462, 4. exlsset :
68, b, and 185, c.

15. memoria: 'within the memory.' 147, b. B. 231; A. 423;
H. 487. L. Cassium . . . miserat : see chap. 7,11. 15-17, and Notes.

16. sive . . . sive : 235, b. cSsu : < by chance.' 20, a, and
135, a. deorum : 8, d.

1 7. quae pars : trans, as if ea pars civitatis Helvetiae, quae. 165, c.
insignem: 'notable.' 25, a. calamitatem : 'disaster.'

18. populo : 104, a. princeps persolvit : ' was the first to pay.'
152, b. poenas : 92, a.

20. Qu5 : 167. non solum . . . sed etiam : tS6, d.

21. ultus est: 61, a, (3), and 176, a. quod . . . interfg-
cerant : i.e. quod Tigurini, eodem proelio quo ( 'ostium {inttrfictrami ),
interfecerant LUcium Pisonem legation, avum Lucii Pisonis, eius
(Caesar's) soceri. Lucius Calpurnius Piso, consul in 58 B.C., was the
father of Caesar's fourth wife, Calpurnia, whom be had married in the
previous year. 253. soceri : 7, b.

22. proelio: 147, b. B. 230, 2 ; A. 424, d\ H. 486. 1.

13. 1. Hoc proelio facto: trans, as if post hoc proclium.
144,o,(2).

2. consequi: 'to pursue.' 61, a, (3). posset: 1 .<>(!, a. pontem
faciendum curat : « he (Caesar) had a bridge built,' i.e. by the me-



I, 13]



The Campaign against the Helvetians



33



Helvetii, repentlno eius adventu commotl, cum id, quod
ipsi diebus xx aegerrime confecerant, ut flumen translrent, 5
ilium uno die f ecisse intellegerent, legatos ad eum mittunt ;
cuius legationis Dlvic5 princeps fuit, qui bello Cassian5
dux Helveti5rum f uerat. Is ita cum Caesare egit :




Figure 38. — The Rhone below Geneva.



chanics, fabrl, of whom there were a number enrolled in the legions ;
it was doubtless a pontoon bridge. 229, b, and 810, b. B. 337, 8,
b,2; A. 500, 4; H. 622. in: 'over.'

4. repentino: i unexpected.' commotl : ' alarmed/ cum,
etc. : trans, as if cum intellegerent ilium (Caesar) iino die f ecisse (* had
accomplished ') id quod, etc' 178, and 185, c.

5. XX: viginti. 38, b. ut flumen translrent: a substantive
clause explaining id; trans, 'the crossing of the river. 1 203, (4).

7. cuius legationis : ' and of this delegation.' 1 167. princeps :
10, b. bello Cassiano: 'in the war with Cassius/ 147, b. As the
defeat of Cassius took place in 107 B.C., at the time of which Caesar was
writing, 58 B.C., Divico must have been between 70 and 80 years old.
The Helvetians preferred to avoid a conflict with Caesar, but the tone
of Divico's language made a mutual understanding impossible.

8. cum Caesare egit : ' treated with Caesar.' 137 » c.



34 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

Si pdcem popidus Romdnus cum Helve tits faceret, in earn

10 partem ituros atque ibi futuros Helvetios, ubi eds Caesar

constituisset atque esse voluisset ; sin bello persequi perse-

verdret, reminisceretur et veteris incommodi pop nil Romdni

et pristinae virtutis Helvetiorum.

Quod improviso unum pdgum adortus esset, cum ei, qui

is flumen transissent, suis auxilium ferre non possent, ne ob

earn rem aut suae magnopere virtuti tribueret aut ipsos de-

9-13. Direct form: Si pacem populus Romanus cum Helvetils facict, in
earn partem ibunt atque ibi erunt Helve til, ubi eos {til) constitueris atque esse
volueris ; sin bello persequi perseverabis, reminlscere et veteris incommodi
popull Roman! et pristinae virtutis Helvetiorum.

9. faceret, ituros [esse], futuros [esse] : 89, c, and 218, (i), a.
B. 314, 1; A. 589; H. 642,643^

10. ubi: = in qua.

1 1 . constituisset, voluisset : in the direct form, future perfect
indicative; the tense is influenced by the* tense of egit. 177, a. B.
319, B, «; H. 644, 2. bello: 131, a. persequi: sc. eos, 'to
assail (them). 1 61, a, (3), and 221, a. perseverSret : '(Caesar)
should continue.'

12. reminiscergtur : 'he should remember. 1 216. B. 316; A.
588; H. 642. veteris: 26, a. incommodi: the defeat of Cas-
sius. Why genitive? 108, a. B. 206, 2 ; A. 350, c ; H. 454.

13. pristinae :' old-time. 1 virtutis: 75, c, and 81.

14-21. Direct form: Quod improviso unum pagum adortus es, cum
el, qui flumen transierant, suis auxilium ferre n5n possent, noil ob earn rem
aut tuae magnopere virtuti tribuere, aut nos despicere ; (nos) ita a patribus
maioribusque nostrls didicimus, ut magis virtute contenddmus quam dolo aut
insidils nitdmur. Quare noil committer e ut is locus, ubi constiterimus (future
perfect), ex calamitate popull RomanI et internecione exercitus nSmen capiat
aut memoriam prodat.

14. Quod: 198, b. improviso: 'suddenly. 1 pagum: what
canton? see chap. 12. adortus esset, transissent : 214, a.

15. suis: <to their (countrymen). 1 154, a. possent: subjunc-
tive also in the direct form. 185, c.

16. rem : the 'fact 1 expressed by the clause Quod . . . adortus esset.
magnopere : adv., takes the place of a direct object; 'that he should
not presume overmuch. 1 virtuti: 104, b. tribueret: 216. B.



i, 14] The Campaign against the Helvetians 35

spiceret ; se ita a patribus maioribusque suis didicisse, ut
magis virtute contenderent, quam dolo aut insidiis niteren-
tur. Quare ne committeret, ut is locus, ubi constitissent, ex
calamitdte populi Romdni et internecione exercitus nomen 20
caperet aut memoriam proderet.

Caesar lays down conditions; the Helvetians scornfully reject them.

14. His Caesar ita respondit :

Eo sibi minus dubitdtionis da?'i, quod eds res, quds legdtl

316; A. 588, N. 2; H. 642. aut . . . aut: 235, a, and b. ipsos :
« them,' i.e. Helvetids. 162, b.

17. ita ... ut: 197, b. maioribus : < forefathers.' 154, a>
didicisse: 'had learned. 1 178. ut . . . contenderent : 'to fight.'
197, a. B. 284, 1 ; A. 537, 1 ; H. 570.

18. magis: 'rather.' 35. quam [ut] niterentur : 'than to rely
upon.' dolo aut insidiis: 'deceit or ambuscades.' 131, c. B.
218,3; A. 431; H. 476, 3.

19. Quare : 237, a. ne committeret, ut is locus . . . caperet :
'he should not allow that place to take'; how lit.? committeret:
cf. tribueret, 1. 16. ubi constitissent : 'where they should have
taken their stand,' in order to fight the Romans.

20. internecione: 'annihilation.' exercitus: 'of an army,' i.e.
Caesar's army. nomen : so the name Bloody Brook, in Massachusetts,
commemorates an Indian massacre.

21. caperet: 56, and 203, (3). B. 297, 1 ; A. 568, n. 1 ; H. 571,
3. memoriam proderet: i.e. memoriam calamitatis poster is
proderet ('transmit').

14. 1. His: legdtis Helvetiorum. 104, b.

2-7. Direct form : E5 mihi minus dubitationis datur, quod eas res, quas
commemordvistis, memoria tenco, atque eo gravius fero, quo minus merlto
populi R5manl acrid erunt ; qui si alicuius iniuriae sibi c5nscius fuisset, ndn
fuit difficile cavere ; sed eo deceptus est, quod neque commissum [esse] a se
intellegebat, quare timeret, neque sine causa timendum [esse] putdbat.

2. Eo : 'for this reason,' explained by the following ^«^-clause.
135, a, and 160, c. sibi . . . dari : ' that he had less hesitation,'
lit. 'that less of hesitation is given to him.' 97, b. B. 201, 2; A.
346, a, 3; H. 442. sibi: 158, a, and 104, a.



36



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 58



Helvetil commemordssent, memorid teneret, atque eo gravius
ferre, quo minus merito populi Romdtii accidissent ; qui si
salicuius iniuriae sibi conscius fuisse t, non fuisse difficile
cavere ; sed eo deceptum, quod neque commission a se intelle-
geret, quare timeret, neque sine causa timendutn putdret.



3. commemorassent : 64, a, (1). memoria teneret : 'he
remembered. 1 131, a. eo gravius ferre, quo minus : sc. se, 'that
he felt all the more indignant ' (lit. ' that he bears them by that the
more heavily'), 'the less.' 140. B. 223 ; A. 414, a\ H. 479.

4. merito populi Roman!: 'in accordance with what was due to'
(lit. 'the desert of) 'the Roman people. 1 136, c. B. 220, 3. acci-
dissent : ' they had happened.'




2lli,a. qui: —pppulus Romanus,
'it,' or 'they.' 167.

5 . alicuius : from aliqul. 49, a.



B. 204,



A.



iniuriae : 102.

349, «; H.451, 1. aibi: 109, a.
fuisse : why fuit in the direct
form ? 208, b. B. 304, 3, a ; A.
437, a; H. 583,3.

6. cavere : * to take precau-
tions, 1 lit. 'to be on guard, 1 against
reprisals, which the Roman people
would have expected if they had in
any way wronged the Helvetians
eo: as in 1. 2. dgceptum :

e ion (i.e. populum Roma n ion) dt -
ceptitm esse, 'that they had been
deceived. 1 neque . . . putaret :
<on the one hand they understood that nothing bad been done by
them which should cause them to fear, and on the other they thought
that they ought not to be afraid without cause. 1 How lit. ? com-
missum [esse] : impersonal, but trans, with neque as if et nihi 1 cotn-
mi'ssum esse.

7. timgret : subjunctive also in the direct form ; trans, quat v
as if propter quod. 194, a. B. 283, 1 ; A. 535, a; H. 591, 4-
timendum [esse] : impersonal, lit. ' it ought not to be feared.'
75, e.



Figure 39. — Rusted Gallic swords
and scabbards, found in France.



1, 14] The Campaign against the Helvetians 37

Quod si veteris contumeliae obliviscl vellet, num etiam
recentium iniuriarum, quod, eo invito, iter per provinciam
per vim temptassent, quod Aeduos, quod Ambarros, quod 10
Allobrogas vexassent, memoriam deponere posse ?

Quod sua Victoria tarn insolenter gloriarentur, quodque
tarn diii si impune iniurias tulissc admlrarentur, eddem

8-1 1. Direct form : Quod si veteris contumeliae obliviscl void, num
etiam recentium iniuriarum, quod, me invito, iter per provinciam per vim
temptdvistis, quod Aedu5s, quod Ambarros, quod Allobrogas vexdvistis,
memoriam deponere possum ?

8. Quod : lit. 'as to which,' referring to the thought of the preced-
ing sentence; trans. ' Even. 1 118, d. veteris: 28, b. contume-
liae : ' indignity,' the destruction of Cassius's army, in 107 B.C. 103, a.
B. 206, 2; A. 350, b; H. 454. vellet: 218, (1), a. num . . .
posse: 179, b, (1).

9. recentium iniuriarum: dependent on memoriam in 1. 11 ; 'of
fresh outrages,' specified in the following appositional clauses intro-
duced by quod, 'that. 1 198, b, and 214, a- B. 299, 1, a\ A. 572; H.
588, 3. eo : = Caesare; 'in despite of him,' lit. 'he (being) unwill-
ing.' 144, b, (5). B. 227, 1 ; A. 419, a ; H. 489.

10. temptassent : 64, a, (1). quod, quod: sc. vexdssent.
239, a, and 89, a.

11. Allobrogas: 19, f. deponere: 'put aside. 1 221, a.

12-17. Direct form: Quod vestrd vict5ria tarn Insolenter gloridmini,
quodque tam diu vos impune iniurias tulisse admirdminl, eodem pertinet.
Consuerunt enim di immortdles, quo gravius homines ex commutatione rerum
doleant, qu5s pr5 scelere e5rum ulclscl volunt, his secundiores interdum res
et diuturni5rem impunitatem concedere.

12. Quod: 'The fact that'; the two clauses introduced by quod
stand as subject of pertinere. 198, b, and 214, a. sua victoria:
'of their victory' over the Romans under Cassius, 107 B.C. 135, a,
and 81. insolenter: 'arrogantly.' 34, a. gloriarentur: 'they
were boasting.' 214, a-

13. tam . . . tulisse : 'that they so long had kept on perpetrating
wrongs without punishment.' How lit.? admirarentur : 'they
marveled.' 61, a, (1). eodem pertinere: 'pointed in the same
direction,' toward impending retribution for the wrongs committed by
the Helvetians.



38 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

pertinere. Consuesse enim deos immortdles, quo gravius
is homines ex commutdtione rerum doleant, quos pro scelere
eorum ulclscl velint, his secundiores interdum res et diutumi-
orem impunitdtem concedere.

Cum ea ita sint, tamen, si obsides ab els sibi dentur, utl

ea, quae polliceantttr, fac turds intellegat, et si Aeduls de

20 iniurils, quds ipsls socilsque eorum intulerint, item si Allo-

brogibus satisfaeiant, sese cum els pdcem esse facturum.

Dlvico respondit :

Ita Helvetios a maioribus suls Institutos esse, utl obsides

14. Consuesse: 'are wont.' 64, a, (2), and 176, b\ also, 214* <*•
deos: 8, d. quo: 193, b. B. 282, \, a\ A. 531, 2, a ; H. 568, 7.
gravius : * more bitterly. 1 34, a.

15. ex commutatione rerum: 'in consequence of reverses. 1
How lit.? doleant: * may suffer. 1 scelere: 'wickedness. 1 13, e.

16. ulclscl: 223, b. his: ' to those, 1 antecedent of quos in 1. 15.
secundiores r§s : ' a more prosperous estate. 1 diuturniorem :
'more prolonged. 1 76, b.

17. impunitatem : 'escape from punishment. 1 106, a. con-
cedere : after Consuesse in 1. 14. 221, a, and 113, b.

18-21. Direct form: Cum haec ita sint, tamen, si obsides a vobls mihi
dabuntur, utl ea, quae polliceminT, vos facturos [esse] iniellegam, et si
Aeduls de iniurils, quas ipsls sociisque e5rum intulistis, item si Allobrogibus
satisfacietis, vdblscum pacem fact am.

18. Cum: 'Although. 1 187. B. 309; A. 549; H. 598. ea;
haec in the direct form. 160, a. tamen: 236, a.

19. ea: object of facturos [esse~\, with which supply eos as subject.
polliceantur : 'they promised. 1 61, a, (2). Aeduls: dat. after
satisfaciant . 105. d6 : 'for. 1

20. ipsls : the Aeduans. sociis : the Ambarri.

21. satisfaciant: ' they should make restitution. 1 79, b.

23-25. Direct form: Ita Helvetil a maioribus suis institutt sunt, utl ob-
sides accipere, non dare, consuerint; huius rei populus Romdnus est testis.

23. Ita institutos esse : 'had inherited such traditions. 1 How
lit.? utl . . . consuSrint: 'that they were accustomed. 1 64, a,
(2), and 197, b.



I, 15] The Campaign against the Helvetians 39

accipere, non dare, consuerint ; eius ret populum Romdnum
esse testem. 25

Hoc responso dato, discessit.

Tlie Helvetians resume their march, defeating Caesar's cavalry;
Caesar follows.

15. Postero die castra ex eo loco movent. Idem facit
Caesar equitatumque omnem, ad numerum quattuor mi-
lium, quern ex omnl provincia et AeduTs atque eorum
socils coactum habebat, praemittit, qui videant, quas in
partes hostes iter faciant. Qui, cupidius novissimum 5
agmen Insecuti, alieno loco cum equitatu Helvetiorum
proelium committunt ; et paucl de nostrls cadunt.

Quo proeli5 sublati Helvetii, quod quingentis equitibus



25. esse testem: 'was a witness'; we should say ' could furnish
testimony.'

26. Hoc responso dato: 'after making this reply.' 144, b, (2).
discessit : i he (Divico) withdrew.'

15. 1. Postero: 'the following.' 33. movent: sc. Helvetii.
175, b. Idem : neuter accusative. 4&-

2. equitatum : ' his cavalry.' 157, a, and 309, b.

4. coactum habebat: 229, a. B. 337, 7; A. 497, £ ; H. 431,3.
qui videant: 'to see'; how lit.? 193, a. B. 282,2; A. 531,2; H.
590. videant : plural because the subject qui is plural, on account
of the idea of equites in the antecedent equitatum. 164, d, and 238, h.
quas in partes : ' in what direction.' How lit. ? 48, a.

5. faciant: 204, (2). B. 300, 1; A. 574; H. 649, 11. Qui:
167. cupidius : ' too eagerly.' 153, a. novissimum agmen :
the 'rear' of the Helvetians. 27, b, and 12, e.

6. insecuti: 61, a, (3). alieno loco : ' on unfavorable ground,'
probably too hilly to admit of free movement. 145, c, and 6, c.

7. de nostrls : trans, as if nostrorum. 97, d. From paucl . . .
cadunt we infer that the rest made good their escaps through flight.
The kind of weapons used by the Helvetians may be inferred from the
spear heads and dart heads shown in Fig. 40.

8. sublati: 'elated'; see tollo in the Vocab. quingentis: 36.
equitibus : 131, b.



40



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 58



tantam multitudinem equitum pmpulerant, audacius sub-
iosistere non numquam et novissimo agmine proelio nostros
lacessere coeperunt. Caesar suos a proelio continebat, ac
satis habebat in praesentia hostem rapinls, pabulationibus
populationibusque prohibere.

Ita dies circiter quindecim iter fecerunt, uti inter novissi-

9. propulerant : 'had routed'; but the 4000 cavalry of Caesar
were Gauls, only the officers being Romans. audacius : ' with greater
boldness.' 34, a. subsistere : ' to halt, 1 as they were marching.

10. novissimo agmine : ' with (their) rear, 1 attacking the Romans
who were following them. 131, b, and 152, a. proelio: 131, a.
nostros: 'our men. 1 154, a.




~?^




=S!i



Figure 40. — -Gallic spear heads and dart heads.

Of iron, of various types. Nos. 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 were found in the Helvetian country
near Lake Neuchatel ; no- 6 was found on the site of Bibracte.



11. lacessere: 'to harass. 1 coepSrunt : 72, b. suos: 'his
soldiers. 1 154, a.

12. satis habgbat : 'considered (it) sufficient 1 ; the object of
habebat is prohibere, and satis is used as a predicate accusative. 115,
a. in praesentia: ' for the present. 1 rapinls, pabulationibus
populationibusque : ' from pillaging, foraging, and laying waste ' the
country. 92, a, and 127, a. B. 214, 2 ; A. 401 ; H. 464.

14. Ita : 197, b. di5s : 118, a. B. 181 ; A. 423; H. 417.



1, 16] The Campaign against the Helvetians 41

mum hostium agmen et nostrum primum non amplius 15
quinls aut senis milibus passuum interesset.

The Aeduans do not bring grain ichich they have promised;
Liscus discloses treachery.

16. Interim cotidie Caesar Aeduos frumentum, quod
essent publice pollicitl, flagitare. Nam propter frigora, non
modo frumenta in agrls matura non erant, sed ne pabuli
quidem satis magna copia suppetebat ; eo autem frumento,
quod flilmine Aran navibus subvexerat, propterea minus 5
uti poterat, quod iter ab Aran Helvetii averterant, a quibus

15. primum [agmen] : ' van. 1 328. amplius: ' more. 1 subject of
interesset. 154, a.

16. qulnis, senis: distributive, ' five or six miles 1 each day. 86.
milibus : 129, a ; 243, b, and 38, a. B. 217 ; A. 406 ; H. 471 . inter-
esset : ' intervened. 1 66, a.

16. 1. Interim: 'Meanwhile. 1 Aeduos, frumentum : 116, a.

B. 178, 1, a\ A. 396; H. 411. quod essent pollicitl: 'which (he
said) they had promised ^ ; Caesar the writer presents the statement of
Caesar the commander as if it were quoted from someone else. 214, b.
B. 323; A. 592, 3; H. 649, 1.

2. public§ : ' in the name of the state. 1 flagitare : 'kept demand-
ing. 1 182. B. 335; A. 463 ; H. 610. frigora: 'cold seasons, 1 the
spring being later than in Italy. 92, c.



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 6 of 73)