Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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(vi. 27); erect, [erect (verb).

eripio, -ripere, -ripui, -reptus, [ex
+ rapid, seize], 3, lake away, snatch
away; rescue, save (i. 53). se
eripere, to rescue one's self, make
one's escape.

erro, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, -wander : he
mistaken, delude one's self. [err.

error, -oris, [errS], m., wandering ;
mistake (C. ill. 73). [error.

erumpo, -rumpere, -rupi, -ruptus.
[ex + rumpo,/w,^'], 3, burst forth.
sally forth, iii. 5. [erupt.

gruptio, -Snis, [erumpo], f., a burst-
ing forth ; sally, sortie, [eruption.

essedarius, i. [essedum '], m.. fighter
from a chariot, chariot-fighter.




essedum, -I, n., two-wheeled war-
chariot, iv. 32, 33; v. 9, 16, 17.

Esuvii, -orum, m., pi., (e-su'vi-I), a
people in northwestern Gaul.

et, conj., and. et . . . et, both . . .

et*-»m [et + iam], conj., also ; even.
non solum . . . sed etiam, not only
. . . but also.

etsi [et + si], conj., although, though,
even if.

evado, -vadere, -vasi, -vasurus,
[ex + vado], 3, escape. iii. 19.

evello, -vellere, -velli, -vulsus, [ex
+ vellS, plucky, 3, pull out. i.


evenio, -venire, -veni, -venturus,
[ex + venio], 4, turn out, happen.
iv. 25.

eventus, -as, [cf. evenio], m., out-
come, result; chance, fortune (vi.
42); fate, accident (iv. 31). [event.

evocatus, -1, [part, of evoco], m.,
veteran volunteer, a soldier serving
voluntarily after the completion of
his time of service, vii. 65.

evoco, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex -f-
voco], 1, call out, call forth, call,
summon; invite (v. 58). [evoke.

evolo, -are, -avi, [ex + volo, fly~\,
\, fly forth, rush out, dash out.

ex, often before consonants e, prep,
with abl., from, out of, down from ;
since, after ; of; by reason of, by, be-
cause of, in consequence of; accord-
ing to, with, in, on. ex una parte,
on one side.

In composition ex becomes ef be-
fore f , e before b, d, g, i consonant,
1, m, n, and v.

exactus, see exigo.

exagito, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex +
agitS, freq. of ago], 1, disturb,
harass, ii. 29; iv. I.

examino, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex-

amen, tongue of a balance^, I, weigh,
v. 12. [examine.

exanimo, -are, -avi, -atus, [exani-
mus], 1, deprive of life, kill ; pass.,
be out of breath, weakened, exhausted
(II. 23, in. 19; C. III. 92).

exardesco, -ardescere, -arsi, -arsu-
rus, [ex + ardescoj, 3, take fire-
be incensed (v. 4).

exaudio, -dire, -divi, -ditus, [ex +
audio], 4, hear distinctly, hear

excedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessiirus,
[ex + cedo], 3, go out, leave, with-
draw, depart, [exceed.

excellens, -entis, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [excellS], adj., surpass-
ing, excellent. C. in. 99. [excellent.

excello, -cellere, participial adj. ex-
celsus, 3, be eminent, surpass, vi.
13. [excel.

excelsus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [part, of excello], adj.,
high (vi. 26). [excelsior.

excepto, -are, -avi, -atus, [freq. of
excipio], 1, catch up with the hands,
take hold of '(vii. 47).

exceptus, see excipio.

excido, -cidere,-cidi,-cisus, [ex -f
caedo], 3, cut out ; cut down (vii.
50). [excise.

excipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptus,
[ex + capiS], 3, takeout ; take up
(vii. 3) ; take in (vii. 28) ; cut off,
catch (vi. 28, 35 ; vii. 20); receive,
zvithsland (i. 52, iii. 5, iv. 17, C. III.
92); cope with, encounter (iii. 13);
take the place of, relieve, succeed,
follow (v. 16; vii. 51, 88, C. 11, 7,
in. 87). [except.

excito, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex -}- cit6,
move~\, 1, erect, raise rapidly (iii. 14;
v. 40) ; stir up, rouse, spur on;
kindle (vii. 24). [excite.

excludo, -cludere, -clusi, -clusus,
[ex + claudo], 3, shut out, shut




off, cut off ; hinder, prevent, [ex-

excogito, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex +
cSg-ito], i, think out, think of. v.
31. [excogitate.

excrucio, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex +
crucio, from crux, cross], I, tor-
ment, torture, [excruciate.

eircubitor, -oris, [excubo], m.,
soldier in bivouac; watchman, sen-
tinel, vii. 69.

excubo, -cubare, -cubui, [ex +
cubo, lie down], 1, lie out of doors,
bivouac ; keep watch, keep guard.

exculco, are, [ex + calcS, from
calx, heel], 1, tread down, pack
down by stamping, vii. 73.

excursio, -5nis, [ex, cf. curro], f.,
a running out ; sally, sortie (ii. 30).

excursus, -us, [excurro], m., a run-
ning forth ; onset, attack (C. III.
92). [excursus.

excusatio, -onis, [excuso], f., ex-
cuse, apology, defence, vi. 4.

excuso, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex, cf.
causa], 1, excuse, make excuse for.
iv. 22. [excuse.

exemplum. -i, [cf. eximo], n., ex-
ample, precedent ; as an example to
warn others, kind of punishment (1.
31). [example.

exeo, -ire, -ii, -itum est, [ex -f eo],
irr., go forth, go out ; withdraw, leave.

exerced, -ercere, -ercui, -ercitus,
[ex -f arceo], 2, exercise, practice ;
train, discipline, [exercise.

exercitatio, -onis, [exercitS, freq.
of exerce6J, f., practice, exercise,

exercitatus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [exercitC, freq. of ex-
erceo], adj., practiced, experienced,

exercitus, -as, [exerceS], m., army,
as a trained and disciplined body.

exhaurio, -haurire, -hausi, -haus
tus, [ex + hauriO, draw up~], 4,
take out. v. 42. [exhaust.

exigo, -igere, -egl, actus, [ex +
ago], 3, drive out ; of time, spend,
complete, end (iii. 28; vi. 1); of
money, demand, require (C. I. 6).

exigue [exiguus], adv., barely,
hardly, vii. 71.

exiguitas, -atis, [exig-uus], f., small-
ness (iv. 30); scantness (iv. I);
small number, fnvness (iii. 23);
shortness (ii. 21, 33).

exiguus, -a, -um, sup. -issimus,
[exigo], adj., small, scanty, little.

eximius, -a, -um, [cf. eximS], adj.,
distinguished, excellent, ii. 8.

existimatio, -onis, [existimS], f.,
opinion, judgment (i. 20; v. 44);
good name, reputation (C. I. 7).

existimo, are, -avi, -atus, [ex -f
aestimo, compute], 1, reckon; think,
consider, judge, suppose, believe.

exitus, -us, [exeo], m., a going out,
egress (vii. 44); passage (vii. 28);
conclusion, end ; issue, event, out-
come, [exit.

expedio, -pedire, -pedivi, -peditus,
[ex, cf. pes], 4, disengage, set
free ; get ready, make ready, [ex-

expeditio, -5nis, [expediO], f., rapid
march, v. 10. [expedition.

expedltus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [part of expediS], adj.,
with light equipment, unencumbered,
light-armed ; convenient, easy, legi-
ones expeditae, legions in light
marching order, without baggage.
As noun, expeditus, -i, m., soldier
with light equipment, light-armed

expello, -pellere, -puli, -pulsus,
[ex -(- pell6], 3* &rn* out, drive
away, remove, [expel.




experior, -periri, -pertus, 4, dep.,

put to the test, try. [expert.
expiS, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex + pio,

appease], I, atone for, tnake amends

for. v. 52. [expiate.
expleo, -plere, -plevi, -pletus, [ex

+ pleo,///], 2, fill up, fill full; fill

out, complete.
explicS, -are, -avi and -ui, explici-

tus, explicaturus, [ex + plico,

fold'], 1, unfold; of troops, with se,

deploy (C. m. 93). [explicate.
explSrator, -oris, [exploro], m.,

scout, patrol.
exploratus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.

-issimus, [part, of exploroj, adj.,

established, certain, settled, sure.

Neut. as noun in pro explorato, lit.

for a certainty, as certain (vi. 5).
exploro, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, search

out, investigate, explore; spy out,

reconnoitre ; gain, secure. [ex-
expSnS, -ponere, -posui, -positus,

[ex + pono], 3, set out, put out;

place in full viezv, array (iv. 23);

from ships, set on shore, land; set

forth, state, explain, [expose.
exports, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex-f

portoj, I, carry away. iv. 18.

exposed, -poscere, -poposci, [ex -f

posco], 3, earnestly request, clamor

for. vii. 19; C. ill. 90.
exprimo, -primere, -press!, -pres-

sus, [ex + premo], 3, press out;

force out (i. 32) ; raise, increase

(vii. 22). [express.
expugnatio, -5nis, [expugno], f.,

storming, assault, vi. 41.
expugnS, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex +

pugno], 1, take by storm, take by

assault, capture.
expulsus, see expello.
exqulro, -quirere, -quisivi, -quisi-

tus, [ex + quaero], 3, seek out,

search out (i. 41); ask for, inquire
into (iii. 3). [exquisite.

exquisitus, see exqulro.

exsequor, -sequi, -secutus, [ex -f
sequor], 3, dep., follow up ; main-
tain, enforce (i. 4). [execute.

exserS, -serere, -serul, -sertus, [ex
+ ser5], 3, thrust out; thrust out
from one's garments, bare (vii. 50) .

exsertus, see exsero.

exsisto, -sistere, -stiti, [ex-f-sisto],
3, appear ; spring up, arise, ensue ;
of a horn, project (vi. 26). [exist.

exspectS, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex +
specto], 1, look out for, %v ait for,
await ; look to see, expect, [expect.

exspoliS, -are, -avi, -atus, [ex +
spolioj, 1, deprive, rob. vii. 77.

exstinguo, -sting-uere, -stinxi,
-stinctus, [ex + stinguo], 3,
quench completely, v. 29. [extin-

exsto, -stare, [ex + st5], 1, stand
out, project, v. 18. [extant.

exstruS, -struere, -struxi, -struc-
tus, [ex + struo, pile], 3, pile up,
heap up ; rear, build, construct, make
(vii. 72).

exsul, -ulis, m. and f., outlaw, exile.

v -55-

exter or exterus, -a, -um, comp.
exterior, sup. extremus, [ex],
adj., outward, outer. Sup. extre-
mus, last, extreme, at the end. As
noun, extremi, -orum, m., pi., the
rear (v. 10); neut. sing, in ad ex-
tremum, at the end, finally (iv. 4).

externus, -a, -um, [exter], adj., out-
ward ; foreign (C. II. 5). [external.

exterreo, -ere, -ui, -itus, [ex-fter-
reo, scare], 2, greatly frighten, ter-

extimesco. -timescere, -timui, [ex
+ timesc6, fear], 3, fear greatly,
dread, iii. 13.




extorqueo, -torquere, -torsi, -tor-
tus, [ex +torqueo, twist], 2, force
from ; wrest from (vii. 54). [extort.

extra [exter], prep, with ace, out-
side of beyond\ without, [extra.

extraho, -trahere, -traxi, -tractus,
[ex -f- traho, draw], 3, draw out ;
draw out to no purpose, waste (v.
22). [extract.

extrudo, -triidere, -trusl, -trusus,
[ex -f- trudo], 3, thrust out ; shut
out (iii. 12). [extrude.

exuo, -uere, -ui, -utus, 3, strip, strip
off, despoil, deprive.

exuro, -urere, -ussl, -astus, [ex +
uro, burn], 3, bum up. i. 5.

faber, fabri, m., skilled workman,
mechanic, artisan, v. 11. [fabric.
Fabius, -I, m., (fa' bi-us) :

(1) Quintus Fabius Maximus
(mak' si-mus), called Allobrogicus
(al-o-broj' j-kus), in honor of his vic-
tory over the Allobroges, Arver-
nians, and Ruteni in the year of his
consulship, B.C. 121. i. 45.

(2) Gaius Fabius, a lieutenant of
Caesar in the Gallic War, and in the
first year of the Civil War.

(3) Lucius Fabius, a centurion,
killed at Gergovia. vii. 47, 50.

(4) Fabius, the Paelignian, a sol-
dier in Curio's army. C. 11. 35.

facile, comp. facilius, sup. facillime,
[facilis], adv., easily, readily.

facilis, -e, comp. facilior, sup. facilli-
mus, [cf. faciS], adj., easy, not diffi-
cult, not hard, [facile.

facinus, -oris, [faciS], n., action;
wicked action, misdeed, crime.

facio. facere, feci, f actus, 3, do,
make; act, perform, accomplish,
form; bring about, cause ; furnish,
give. For pass., fi6, fieri, f actus
sum, see fi5. certiorem facere,

to inform. imperata facere, to
obey commands. iter facere, to
march. vim facere, to use vio-
lence (1. 8, v. 7). [factor.

f actio, -onis, [facio J, f., party, polit-
ical party ; league, [faction.

factii, pass, supine of facio.

factum, -i, [facio], n., deed, action,
achievement, [fact.

facultas, -atis, [facilis], f., ability,
capability; opportunity, chance;
abundance ; supply (ill. 9). PI.,
resources, wealth, [faculty.

fagus, -i, {., beech-tree. v. 12.

fallo, falfere, fefelli, falsus, 3, de-
ceive, cheat ; disappoint.

falsus, -a, -um, [part, of fallS], adj.,
false, ungrounded, [false.

falx, falcis, f., sickle ; sickle-shaped

fama, -ae, [cf. fari, to speak], {., re-
port, rumor, common talk; reputa-
tion, fame (vii. 77). [fame.

fames, -is, f., hunger, starvation.

familia, -ae, [famulus, servant], {.,
body of slaves in one household,
household; family (vii. ^3) ', includ-
ing the whole body of serfs and re-
tainers under the authority of a
nobleman, retinue (i. 4). pater
familiae, head of a family, house-
holder (vi. 19); patres familiae,
heads of families (C. n. 44). m&tres
familiae, matrons (i. 50; vii. 26,
47, 48). antiquissimS, familia, of
a very old family (vii. 32). am-
plissima familia, of a very distin-
guished family (vii. 37). [family.

familiSris, -e, comp. -ior. sup. -issi-
mus, [familia], adj., belonging to a
family, private. r§s familiaris,
private property, estate, private for-
tune (i. 18; vii. 14, 64). As noun,
familiaris, -is, m.. intimate friend,
companion, [familiar.




familiaritas, -atis, [familiaris], f.,
intimacy, close friendship, [famili-

fanum, -i, n., shrine. C. I. 6. [fane.

fas, only nom. and ace. sing, in use,
[cf. fari, to speak], indecl., n., right
according to the laws of God and
nature, fas est, it is right, allow-
able, lawful ; of an event, it is pre-
destined (i. 50).

fascis, -is, m., bundle of reeds or
twigs; especially pi., fasces, -ium,
the fasces, a bundle of rods with an
axe, carried before the highest mag-
istrates as an emblem of authority
(C. in. 71).

fastigate [fastigatus], adv., sloping ;
slanting (iv. 17).

fastigatus, -a, -um, [cf. fastigium],
adj., sloping, sloping down. ii. 8.

fastigium, -i, n., of a roof, top ; of a
hill, summit, peak (vii. 69); sloping
side, slope, descent, declivity.

fatigo, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, weary.
C. in. 95. [fatigue.

fatum, -1, [cf. fari, to speak], n.,fale,
destiny, i. 39. [fate.

Faustus, -i, see Sulla.

faveo, favere, favi, fauturus, 2, be
favorable, be inclined toward, favor,
countenance, [favor.

fax, facis, f., torch, firebrand, vii.

felicitas, -atis, [felix, happy^], {.,
good fortune (i. 40, C. III. 73); suc-
cess (vi. 43). [felicity.

feliciter, comp. felicius, sup. felicis-
sime, [felix], adv., with good for-
tune, luckily, happily (iv. 25; C. I. 7).

femina, -ae, {., woman ; female, vi.
21, 26. [feminine.

femur, -oris and -inis, n., thigh, v.
35; vii. 73. [femoral.

fera, -ae, [ferus, wild], {., wild beast,
wild animal, vi. 25, 28.

ferax, -acis, comp. feracior, sup.

feracissimus, [fero], adj., fertile,
productive, ii. 4. [feracious.

fere, adv., almost, nearly; with words
denoting time, about; for the most
part, as a rule, usually, generally.

fero, ferre, tuli, latus, irr., bear,
carry, bring ; endure, support, suf-
fer, hold out against; bear away ;
obtain, receive; assert, report, say
(vi. 17). signa ferre, to advance.

ferramentum, -i, [ferrum], n., iron
tool. v. 42.

ferraria, -ae, [ferrum], f., iron mine.
vii. 22.

ferreus, -a, -um, [ferrum], adj., of
iron, iron, ferreae mantis, grap-
pling-hooks (C. 11. 6). [ferreous.

ferrum, -i, n., iron (v. 12); figura-
tively, the iron, with a barbed point,
at the end of a pike (i. 25), svwrd
(v. 3°)-

fertilis, -e, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
[fer5], adj., fertile, fruitful, pro-
ductive, vi. 24; vii. 13. [fertile.

fertilitas, -atis, [fertilis], L, produc-
tiveness, ii. 4. [fertility.

ferus, -a, -um, adj., wild ; rude, sav-
age, fierce, [fierce.

fervefacio, -facere, -feci, -f actus,
[ferveo + facio], 3, make hot, heat,
heat red-hot. v. 43; vii. 22.

ferveo, -ere, 2, be boiling hot, be heated,
glow. Present Participle as Adj.,
fervens, -tis, red-hot (v. 43).

fibula, -ae, [cf. figo, fasten], f.,
clasp ; brace, bolt (iv. 17).

fidelis, -e, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
[fides], adj., faithful, trustworthy
(vii. 76); true, loyal (iv. 21).

fides, -ei, f., good faith, fidelity, loy-
alty; pledge of good faith, promise ;
confidence, trust; protection, alli-
ance, [faith.

fiducia, -ae, [fidus], f., reliance, con-
fidence, assurance, [fiduciary.




figura, -ae, [cf. flngro], f., form,
shape, [figure.

filia, -ae, f., daughter.

flliua. -I, m., son. [filial.

fingo, flng-ere, finxi. fictus, 3, form,
shape; conceive, imagine, think of
( vl - 37) > invent, devise (iv. 5); of
the features, change, control (i. 39).

flnio, finire, finivi, finitus, [finis],
4, bound, define (iv. 16); measure,
limit (vi*. 18, 25). [finite.

finis, -is, m., limit, border, boundary,
end. PI., borders, hence territory,
country, land, [finis.

flnitimus, -a, -urn, [finis], adj., bor-
dering on, neighboring, adjoining.
As noun, finitimi, -orum, m., pi.,
neighbors, neighboring peoples.

fio, fieri, factus, irr., used as pass, of
faciS, be made, be done ; be per-
formed, (11. 5); become, take place,
happen; come about, come to pass.
certior fieri, to be informed.

flrmiter, [firmus], adv., steadily,
firmly, iv. 26.

firmitudo, -inis , [firmus] , f . , strength,
solidity; rigidity, iii. 13; iv. 17.

firmo, -are, -avi, -atus, [firmus], 1,
make firm, strengthen, fortify, vi. 29.

firmus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup. -issi-
mus, adj., strong, firm ; steadfast,
powerful, [firm.

fistuca, -ae, f., rammer, pile-driver.
iv. 17.

Flaccus, -i, (flak us), see Valerius
(2) and (7).

flagito, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, ask ear-
nestly, importune, demand, i. 16.

flamma, -ae, f., blazing fire, flame,
fire. v. 43; vi. 16. [flame.

flecto, flectere.flexi, flexus, 3, boul,
turn, curve, iv. ^3', vi. 25. [flex.

Fleglnas, -atis, m., Gaius Fleginas
(fle-ji'nas), a Roman knight killed in
action near Dyrrachium. C. ill. 71.

fleo, flere, flevi, fletus, 2, weep, shed
tears, cry.

fletus, -as, [fleo], m., weeping.

flo, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, blow. v. 7.

florens. -entis, comj). -entior, sup.
-entissimus, [floreS, blooni\, adj.,
flourishing, prosperous (1. 30, 1 v. 3) ;
influential (vii. 32).

flos, fioris, m., flower, vii. 73.

fluctus, -us, [cf. fluS], m., wave.

flumen, -inis, [cf. fluS], n., flowing
water, current ; stream, river, ad-
verso flumine, up the stream.

fluo, fluere, flaxi, sup. flaxum, 3,
flow. [flux.

fodio, fodere, f5di, fossus, 3, dig,
dig out. vii. 73.

foedus, foederis, n., treaty, compact,
league, vi. 2.

foramen, -inis, [foro, bore], n., hole.
C. in. 53.

fore= futurum esse; see sum.

forem = essem; see sum.

forls, [foris, door], adv., out of doors ;
outside of a city, without (vii. 76).

forma, -ae, f., shape, form. [form.

fors, fortis, [cf. fer5], f., chance, luck,
accident, ii. 21; vii. 87.

fortasse, [forte], adv., perhaps, pos-
sibly. C. in. 60.

forte [abl. of fors], adv., by chance,
by accident ; perchance, perhaps.

fortis, -e, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
adj., strong; brave, courageous, [fort.

fortiter, comp. fortius, sup. fortis-
simo, [fortis], adv., bravely, boldly,

fortitiido, -inis, [fortis], f., courage,
bravery, i. 2. [fortitude.

fortulto, [abl. of fortuitus, from
forte], adv., by chance, [fortuitous.

fortuna, -ae, [fors], f., luck, lot, fate,
chance, fortune; good fortune; the god-
dess Fortune (Fig. 198) ; PI., fortunes
(111. 12; v. 3; vi. 7; vii. 77); pos-




sessions, property (i. n; v. 43; vi.
35; vii. 8). [fortune.

Figure 198. — The Goddess Fortune
as conceived by the Romans.

Marble Statue, in Rome. The goddess
wears a broad diadem. Her left hand holds
a cornucopia, filled with good things for those
whom she favors. Her right hand grasps a
steering paddle, with which, noiselessly but
remorselessly, she guides the affairs of man-
kind ; the steering-paddle rests upon a globe
symbolizing the world.

Some such picture as this presented itself
to Caesar's mind when he vividly personified
fortuna, which in certain passages of his text
(as v. 44) is sometimes written with a capital
letter. But his vision was too broad and his
mind too philosophical to believe in Fortuna
as those did who worshipped at her shrine.

fortunatus, -a, -urn, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [part, of fortunS, from
fortuna], adj., prosperous, fortu-
nate, vi. 35. [fortunate.

forum, -I, n., market-place, vii. 28.

fossa, -ae, [cf. fodio], f., trench, in-
trenchment. [fosse.

fovea, -ae, f., pit, pitfall, vi. 28.

frango, frangere, fregi, fractus, 3,
break ; dash to pieces, wreck (iv. 29) ;
crush, dishearten (i. 31). [fracture.

frater, -tris, m., brother ; pi. as a
name of honor applied to allies,
brethren (i. 33, 445 "• 3)-

fraternus, -a, -um, [frater], adj., of
a brother, brotherly, [fraternal.

fraudo, -are, -avi, -atus, [fraus], 1,
cheat; embezzle (C. III. 59, 60).

fraus, fraudis, f., deception, imposi-
tion, vii. 40. [fraud.

fremitus, -us, [cf. fremS, roar~], m.,
uproar, noise, din.

frequens, -entis, comp. frequentior,
sup. -issimus, adj., in large num-
bers, crowded, [frequent.

fretum, -i, n., strait, f return Sici-
liae, Sicilian strait, strait of Mes-
sina (C. 11. 3).

fretus, -a, -um, adj., relying on, de-
pending on ; followed by abl.

frigidus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [frigeo, be cold~\, adj.,
cold. iv. 1. [frigid.

frigus, frigoris, n., cold, cold weather.
PL, cold seasons, cold climate.

frons, frontis, f., forehead; front.
a media fronte, in the middle of
the forehead (vi. 26). [front.

fructuosus, -a, -um, sup. -issimus,
[fructus], adj., fruitful, fertile.
i. 30.

fructus, -as, m., fruit, product ; profit,
interest, income (vi. 19) ; advantage,
gain, reward (vii. 27, 86). [fruit.

fruges, -um, f., pi., produce, crops,
fruits, i. 28. [frugal.

frumentarius, -a, -um, [f rumen-
turn], adj., relating to grain or sup-
plies of grain ; productive of graifi (i.
10). res framentaria, supply of
grain, supplies.




frumentatio, -pnis, [frumentor), f.,
obtaining of grain, expedition in
quest of grain.

frumentor, -art, -atus, [f rumen-
turn], i, dep., get grain, forage.

frumentum, -I, n., grain; pi. often
crofs of grain, grain-crops.

fruor, frul, fructus, 3, dep., enjoy ;
followed by abl. iii. 22.

frustra, adv., in vain, without effect ;
for nothing, without reason, [frus-

Fufius, -I, m., Gaius Fufius Cita (fu'
fj-us si' ta), a Roman knight, vii. 3.

fuga, -ae, f., flight, in fug-am dare,
to put to flight, rout.

fugio, fugere, fugi, 3, flee, run away,
make off ; avoid, shun (vii. 30) ;
escape (vii. 38).

fugitivus, -a, -um, [fugio], adj.,
fleeing, runaway. As noun, fugi-
« tivus, -i, m., runaivay slave (i. 23).

fugo, -are, -avi, -atus, [fuga], I,
put to flight, rout. vii. 68.

fumo, -are, [fumus], 1, smoke, vii.
24. [fume.

fumus, -1, m., smoke, ii. 7; v. 48.

funda, -ae, f., sling.

fundi tor, -5ris, [funda], m., slinger.

fundo, fundere, fadi, fusus, 3, pour
(vii. 24); scatter, rout (iii. 6).

funebris, -e [funus] , adj., funeral.
As noun, funebria. -ium, neuter plu-
ral, funeral rites (vi. 19).

fungor, fungi, functus, 3, dep., dis-
charge, perform, vii. 25. [function.

funis, -is, m., rope ; rope cable (ill.
13, iv. 29, v. 10); halyards (in. 14).

hums, -eris, n., funeral, vi. 19. [fu-

furor, -Sris, [furO. rage], m., rage,
madness, fury, [furor.

furtum, -i, [far, thief ], n., theft.

fusilis, -e, [cf. funds], adj., molten;

of clay, kneaded, molded. v. 43.
futiirus, -a, -um, see sum.

Gabali, -orum, m., pi., (gab'a-ll). a
people in Southern Gaul, subject to
the Arvernians. VII. 7, 64, 75.

Gabmius, -I, m., Aulus Gabinius (ga-
bin'j-us), consul with Lucius Cal-
purnius Piso, 58 B.C. i. 6; C. III.

gaesum, -i, n., heavy javelin used by
the Gauls, iii. 4.

Gaius, -i, abbreviation C, m., Gaius
(ga' yus), sometimes in English writ-
ten Caius, a Roman first name.

Galba, -ae, m., (gal'ba) :

(1) Servius Sulpicius Galba, a
lieutenant of Caesar in the earlier
part of the Gallic War, Praetor at
Rome in 54 B.C.; afterwards named
among the conspirators who took
Caesar's life. iii. 1-6.

(2) Galba, a ruler of the Sues-
siones. ii. 4, 13.

galea, -ae, f., helmet, it. 21.

Figure 199. — Coin struck at Lug-
dunum, now Lyons.

Silver, issued by order of Galba, latter
half of first century a.d. Inscription, TRES
GALLIa[e], 'Three Gauls.' The identifica-
tion of the heads is uncertain ; an eaf of wheat
projects in front of each.

Gallia, -ae, [Gallus]. f., Gallia
(^gal' j-a), (,'<rul, used of Transal-
pine Gaul, and of the middle one of
its three parts, Celtic Gaul (i. 1);




also of Cisalpine Gaul, and of the
Province ; once in the plural, Gal-
liae, as referring to the several di-
visions (iv. 20). After Caesar's

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 62 of 73)