Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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num], f * getting wood. v. 39.

lignator, -oris, [lignor, from lig-
num], m., wood- culler. PL, men
sent to get wood, wood foragers (v. 26).

lilium, -i, n., lily. vii. 73. [lily.

linea, -ae, [lineus, from linum], f.,
line. vii. 23. [line.

Lingones, -um, m., pi., (ling' go-
nez), a Gallic people west of the Se-

lingua, -ae, f., tongue; language (i. 1,
47). [language.

lingula, -ae, [dim. of lingua], f.,
tongue of land. iii. 12.

linter, -tris, f., boat, skiff.

linum, -i, n.,ffax. iii. 13.

lis, litis, f., strife ; lawsuit ; damages,
adjudged by legal process (v. 1).

Liscus, -i, m., (lis' kus), chief magis-
trate (vergobret) of the Aeduans in
58 B.C.

Litaviccus, -i, m., (lit-a-vik' us), a
prominent Aeduan.

littera, -ae, f., letter, character, of the
alphabet. PI. litterae, -arum,
writing (vi. 14) ; letter, despatch.
litterae publicae, public records
(v. 47). [letter.

litus, -oris, n., shore of the sea, strand,
beach, [littoral.

locuples, -etis, [locus, cf. plenus],
adj., wealthy, opulent. C. ill. 59.

locus, -i, m., pi. loca, -orum, n.,
place, ground; position, situation;
room; social position, rank, stand-
ing; opportunity ; pi. loca often
region, country, [local.

locutus, see loquor.

longe, comp. longius, sup. longis-
sime, [longus], adv., at a distance,
far, by far. Comp., of space,
further ; of time, further, longer.
quam longissime, as far as possible.

longinquus, -a, -um, comp. -ior,
[longus], ad]., far removed, remote,
distant; long-continued, prolonged,
lasting, [longinquity.




longitudS, -inis, [longus], f., length.

longurius, -i, [longus], m., long pole.

longus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, adj., long, extended, dis-
tant; used of either space or time,
navis long-a. battleship, galley.

loquor, loqui, locutus, 3, dep., speak,
say. [loquacious.

ldrica, -ae, [cf. lorum, leather strap~\,
{., cuirass of leather; breastwork
(v. 40; vii. 72, 86). [loricate.

Lucanius, -1, m., Quintus Lucanius
(lu-ka' ni-us), a brave centurion.

v. 35-
Lucflius, -1, m., a Roman name. Lu-

cilius Hirrus (lu-sil' i-us hir' us),

a leader on the side of Pompey in

the Civil War. C. in. 82.
Lucius, -I, m., (lu' sh[y]us), a Roman

first name; abbreviation, L.
Lucterius, -1, m., (luk-te' ri-us), a

Cadurcan, a helper of Vercingetorix

in the great uprising of 52 B.C.
luctus, -us, [lfige6], m., mourning,

lamentation. C. II. 7.
Lugotorix, -igis, m., (lu-got' o-riks),

a British chief, v. 22.
luna, -ae, f., moon, [lunar.
Luna, -ae, f., moon as a divinity,

moon-goddess, vi. 21.
Lutecia, -ae, f., (lu-te' sh[y]a), a

city of the Parisii on an island in the

Seine, Paris, vi. 3; vii. 57, 58.
lux, liicis, f., light, daylight, prima

luce, at daybreak.
luxuria, -ae, [luxus, excess], f., high

living, luxury, ii. 15. [luxury.


M., with proper names = Marcus.
M as a designation of number = 1000.
maceria, -ae, [cf. macer5, soften], f.,

originally wall of soft clay ; wall of

loose stone (vii. 69, 70.)

machinatio, -6nis, [machinor, con-
trive], i., mechanical appliance,
machine, [machination.

maestus, -a, -um, sup. -issimus, [cf.
maereo, be sad], adj., sad, dejected.

magis, sup. maxime, [cf. magnus],
adv. in comp. degree, more, rather.
eo magis, all the more. Sup. ma-
xime, very greatly, exceedingly,
chiefly, especially, quam maxime,
as much as possible.

magister, -tri, m., master of a ship.
captain (C. in. 43). [master.

magistrates, -us, [magister], m.,
magistracy, civil office ; one holding a
magistracy, magistrate, [magistrate.

magnificus, -a, -um, comp. magnifi-
centior, sup. -issimus, [magnus,
cf. faciS], adj., splendid, magnifi-
cent, vi. 19. [magnificent.

magnitudo, -inis, [magnus], f.,
greatness, extent ; size, bulk ; of winds
and waves, violence, [magnitude.

magnopere, [for magno opere, abl.
of magnum + opus], adv., very
much, greatly, specially, deeply ; ear-
nestly, urgently.

magnus, -a, -um, comp. maior, sup.
maximus, adj., great, large, power-
ful ; of wind, violent; of voices,
loud (iv. 25). Sup., greatest, very
great, largest, very large. As noun,
mai5res, -um. m., pi., forefathers,
ancestors, maiores natu, lit. those
older by birth, the old men, elders
(ii. 13,28; iv. 13). [maximum.

maiestas, -atis, [maior], f., great-
ness, dignity, vii. 17. [majesty.

maiorgs, -um, see magnus.

malacia, -ae, [naXaKta], {., calm, dead
calm. iii. 15.

male, comp. peius, sup. pessimS,
[malus, bad], adv., badly, ill, un-

maleficium, -i. [maleflcus], n., mis-
chief, wrong doing, outrage, harm.




malo, malle, malui, [magris +
void], irr., prefer, choose rather \ had

malus, -I, m., upright pole, upright ;
of a ship, mast. iii. 14; vii. 22.

mandatum, -I, [part, of mando], n.,
commission, order; command; in-
junction, instruction, [mandate.

mando, -are, -avi, -atus, [manus +
do], 1, commit, entrust, commission ;
order, direct, [mandatory.

Mandubii, -orum, m., pi., Mandu-
Hans, Mandubii (man-dii' bi-I), a
Gallic people north of the Aeduans;
chief city Alesia, now Alise-Ste-

Mandubracius, -I, m., (man-du-bra'-
sh[y]us), a British chieftain, loyal to
Caesar, v. 20, 22.

mane, adv., in the morning.

maned, manere, mansi, mansurus,
2, stay, remain; continue, [manse.

manipularis, -e, [manipulus], adj.,
of a maniple. As noun, manipu-
laris, -is, m., soldier of a maniple,
fellow-manipular. vii. 47, 50.

manipulus, -i, [manus + ple in
pled, the first standard of a maniple
being a handful of hay raised on a
pole], m., company of soldiers, man-
iple, one-third of a cohort, [maniple.

Manlius, -i, m., Lucius Manlius
(man'li-us), a proconsul in Gaul,
iii. 20.

mansuefacio,-facere, -feci, -factus,
pass, mansuefio, -fieri, [mansu-
etus, tame, + facio], 3, make
tame, tame. vi. 28.

mansuetudo, -inis, [mansuetus,
tame'], f., gentleness, compassion.

manus, -us, f., hand ; of troops, band,
force, [manicure.

Marcelllnus, -i, m., P. Cornelius
Lentulus Marcellinus (len' chu-lus
mar-se-li' nus), a quaestor in Caesar's
army in the Civil War. C. ill. 64.

Marcellus, -i, m., Gaius Claudius
Marcellus (kla' di-us mar-sel' us),
one of the consuls in 49 B.C. C. I. 6.

Marcius, -i, m., Marcius Rufus
(mar' si-us ru' fus), a quaestor in
Curio's army (C. II. 43).

Marcomani, -orum, m., pi., (mar-
kom'a-nl), a Germanic people.

Marcus, -i, m., (mar' kus), a Roman
first name, our Mark.

mare, -is, n., the sea. [marine.

maritimus, -a, -um, [mare], adj.,
of the sea, by the sea, near the sea ;
maritime, sea-. maritimae res,
naval operations (iv. 23). [mari-

Marius, -i, m., Gaius Marius (ma'-
ri-us), a great Roman general; born
157 B.C., near Arpinum, died 86 B.C.;
famous for his victories over Jugur-
tha, and the Cimbrians and Teutons;
seven times consul, remaining to the
end the bitter foe of the aristocratic
party, i. 40.

Marrucini, -orum, m., pi., (mar-
u-si' ni), a people of Central Italy,
on the Adriatic coast. C. II. 34.

Mars, Martis, m., Mars (marz), god
of war (vi. 17). [March.

mas, maris, m., male. vi. 26. [male.

Massilia, -ae, [Mcuro-aX/a], f., (ma-
sil'i-a), a city in southern Gaul,
founded by Greeks from Phocaea;
now Marseilles. C. 11. 3, 7.

Massilienses, -ium, [Massilia], m.,
pi., inhabitants of Massilia, Massil-
ia ns.

matara, -ae, f., javelin, spear, i. 26.

mater, -tris, f., mother. matres
familiae, matrons, [maternal.

materia, -ae, and m&teries, ace. (vii.
24) materiem, [mater], f., mate-
rial, stuff; timber, wood ; woodzvork
(vii. 23). [material.

materior, -ari, [materia], 1, dep.,
procure timber, get wood. vii. 73.




Matisco, -onis, f., (ma-tis'ko), an
Aeduan city on the Arar (Sadne),
now Mdfon. vii. 90.

matrimonium, -1, [mater], n., mar-
riage, [matrimony.

Matrona, -ae, f., Matrona (mat' ro-
na), Marne, a tributary of the Se-
quana {Seine), into which it flows
four miles above Paris, after a course
of more than two hundred miles, i. 1.

mature, comp. maturius, sup. ma-
turrime, [matiirus], adv., early.
quam maturrime, as early as pos-
sible (i. 33).

maturesco, [matiirus], -ere, matu-
rui, 3, become ripe, ripen, vi. 29.

maturo, -are, -avi, -atus, [matu-
rus], 1, make haste, hasten, [matu-

maturrime, see mature.

matiirus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
maturrimus, adj., ripe ; early (iv.
20). [mature.

Mauritania, -ae, (ma-re-ta' ni-a), a
country of northern Africa reaching
from Numidia west to the Atlantic
Ocean. C. 1. 6.

maxime, [maximus], see magfis.

maximus, see magnus.

Maximus, see Fabius (1).

medeor, -eri, 2, dep., heal ; remedy,
provide for .(v \ 24). [medicine.

mediocris, -ere, [medius], adj., com-
mon, ordinary ; of distance, moder~
ate, short, [mediocre.

mediocriter, comp. mediocrius
[mediocris], adv., moderately, in a
slight degree.

Mediomatrici, -orum, m., pi., (me"-
dj-o-mat' rj-si), a Gallic people near
the Rhine.

mediterraneus, -a, -um, [medius
-f terra], adj., inland. v. 12.

medius, -a, -um, adj., middle, in the
midst, mid-, media nox, midnight.

de media nocte, just after mid-
night, [medium.

Meldi, -drum, m., pi., (mel' di), a
Gallic people on the Matrona
{Marne) , east of the Parisii. v. 5.

melior, adj., see bonus.

melius, adv., see bene.

membrum, -I, n., limb, [member.

memini, -isse, def., remember, bear
in mind. iii. 6; vii. 37.

memor, -oris, adj., mindful, remem-
bering. C. ir. 6.

memoria, -ae, [memor], f., memory,
recollection, remembrance. memo-
ria tenere, to recollect, memoria
proditum, reported, handed down,
by tradition (v. 12). [memory.

Menapii, orum, m., pi., (me-na'-
pi-T), a people in the northeast part
of Belgic Gaul.

mendacium, -I, [mendax,/dfo],n.,
lie, falsehood, [mendacious.

mens, mentis, f., mind ; temper (iii.
19); attitude of m in d, feeling ( i . 41;
vii. 64). et mente et animo,
heart and soul (vi. 5). [mental.

mensis, -is, m., month.

mensura, -ae, [metior], f., measur-
ing (vi. 25) ; measure. ex aqua
mensura, water-clock (v. 13).

mentio, onis, [men in memini], f.,
mention, vi. 38. [mention.

mercator, -5ris, [mercor, trade],
m., trader, merchant.

mercatura, -ae, [mercor, trade], {.,
traffic, trade; pi., commercial trans-
actions (vi. 17).

merces, -edis, f., pay, hire. i. 31.

Mercurius, -i, [cf. merx, merchan-
dise'}, m., Ma\urv, messenger of
the gods, patron of traders and
thieves, promoter of eloquence, and
conductor of souls to the lower
world; also, patron divinity of ath-
letes and athletics, vi. 17.




mereo, -ere, -ui, -itus, and mereor,
-eri, -itus, 2, dep., deserve, merit;
serve (vii. 17). [merit.

meridianus, -a, -um, [meridies],
adj., of mid-day . merldiano fere
tempore, about noon (v. 8). [me-

meridies, -el, [medi-die, loc.J, m.,
mid-day ; south (v. 13).

meritum, -1, [part, of mereo], n.,
desert, merit, service, [merit.

meritus, see mereor.

Messala, -ae, no., Marcus Valerius
Messala (va-le' ri-us me-sa' la), con-
sul, 61 B.C. i. 2, 35.

Messana, -ae, [Meo-tn^], f., (me-
sa' na), a city of northeastern Sicily,
now Messina. C. II. 3.

-met, enclitic, self; see ego.

metior, metlrl, mensus, 4, dep.,
measure, measure out, distribute.

Metius, -1, m., Marcus Melius (me'-
sh[y]us), an envoy of Caesar to

Metlosedum, -1, n., (met-lo-se'dum),
a town of the Senones, on an island
in the Sequana (Seine), 28 miles
above Paris; later called Melodunum,
now Melun.

meto, metere, messui, messus, 3,
reap. iv. 32.

metus, -us, m.,fear, apprehension.

meus, -a, -um, [me], adj., my, mine.

miles, -itis, m., soldier, foot soldier.

militaris, -e, [miles], adj., of a sol-
dier, military. res militaris, art
of war. [military.

militia, -ae, [miles], f., military ser-
vice, vi. 14, 18; vii. 14. [militia.

mille or M, indecl. adj., a thousand.
As noun, milia, -um, n., pi., thou-
sand, thousands, [mile.

Minerva, -ae, f., (mi-ner' va), god-
dess of wisdom and the arts; identi-
fied with a Gallic divinity (vi. 17).

minime, see parum.

minimus, -a, -um, see parvus.

minor, -us, see parvus.

Minucius, see Basilus.

minuo, -uere, -ui, -iitus, 3, lessen,
diminish, reduce; of the tide, ebb
(iii. 12); of controversies, settle, put
an end to (v. 26; vi. 23). [minute.

minus, see parum.

miror, -ari, -at us, [mirus], 1, dep.,
wonder, wonder at. i. 32; v. 54.

mirus, -a, -um, [miror], adj., won-
derful, remarkable, marvellous.

miser, -era, -erum, comp. -ior, sup.
miserrimus, adj., wretched, unfor-
tunate, pitiable; poor (vi. 35). As
noun, miseri, -orum, m., pi., the
wretched (ii. 28). [miser.

misericordia, -ae, [misericors], f.,
pity, compassion, mercy.

miseror, -ari, -atus, [miser], i,dep.,
lament, deplore, i. 39; vii. I.

missus, -us, [mitto], m., used only
in abl. sing., a sending, despatching.
missu. Caesaris, being sent by
Caesar (v. 27; vi. 7).

missus, -a -um, see mitto.

mitissime, [mitis, mild'], adv., sup.,
very gently, very kindly. quam
mitissime potest, in as kind a
manner as possible (vii. 43).

mitto, mittere, misi, missus, 3,
send, despatch ; release, let go ; of
weapons, throw, hurl, shoot, [mis-

mobilis, -e, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
[cf. moveo], ad)., fickle, changeable.
iv. 5. [mobile.

mobilitas, -tatis, [mobilis], f., quick-
ness of movetnent, speed (iv. ^> C.
II. 6) ; instability, changeableness
(ii. 1). [mobility.

mobiliter, [mobilis], adv., easily
(iii. 10).

moderor, -ari, -atus, [modus], 1,
dep., keep under control (iv. 33);
manage, control '(vii. 75). [moderate.




modestia, -ae, [modestus], f., self-
control ; subordination (vii. 52).

modo, [modus], adv., only, merely,
even ; cf time, lately, just now (vi.
39, 43). non modo . . . sed
etiam, not only . . . but also.

modus, -1, m., measure, amount (vi.
22); plan (v. 1); manner, fashion,
style, ad nunc modum, after this
manner, in this way. eius modi,
of such a character, of that kind,
quern ad modum, in what way,
how; in whatever way, just as (i. 36).
mod5, abl., with a dependent geni-
tive, after the manner of, as (iv. 17,
27). nullS modS, by no means
(vi. 12). omnibus modis, by all
means, in every way (vii. 14).

moenia, -ium, n., pi., walls of a city,
fortifications as a whole.

moles, -is, f., mass, massive structure ;
dam, dike (Hi. 12). [mole.

moleste, comp. -ius, sup. -issime,
[molestus, troublesome], adv., with

molimentum, -i, [cf. mSlior, from
mSles], n., great effort, i. 34.

molitus, see molo.

mollio, -ire, -ivi, -itus, [mollis], 4,
soften; make easy (vii. 46).

mollis, -e, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
adj., pliant, gentle ; smooth (v. 9);
weak, yielding (iii. 19); effeminate.

mollitia, -ae (vii. 77), and (vii. 20)
mollities, -ei, [mollis], f., weak-
ness, irresolution.

molo, -ere, -ui, -itus, 3, grind.

momentum, -i, [for *movimen-
tum, cf. moveS], n., movement;
thrust, forward movement (C. II. 6);
influence (vii. 85); importance,
account (vii. 39). [moment.

Mona, -ae, f., (mo' na), the Isle of
Man, in the Irish Sea. v. 13.

moneo, -ere, -ui, -itus, 2, advise,
warn, remind, admonish.

mons, montis, m., mountain, moun-
tain-range, elevation, height, sum-
mus mSns, top of the height (i. 22).
radices montis, foot of the moun-
tain or height (i. 38; vii. 36).

mora, -ae, f., delay.

moratus, -a, -um, see moror.

morbus, i. [cf. morior, mors], m.,
disease, sickness, vi. 16, 17. [mor-

Morini, -orum, m., pi., (mor' i-ni), a
Belgic people, on the seacoast op-
posite Kent.

morior, mori, mortuus, 3, dep.,die.
i. 4; vi. 13. [mortuary.

Moritasgus, -i, m., (mor-i-tas' gys),
a chief of the Senones. v. 54.

moror, -ari, -atus. [mora], 1, dep.,
delay, wail, stay; hinder, delay,
check, impede, [moratorium.

mors, mortis, f., death, [mortal.

mortuus, -a, -um, see morior.

mos, mSris, m., usage, custom, way,
wont, practice. PI., customs, man-
ners, [moral.

Mosa, -ae, f., Mosa (m5' sa), Meuse,
or Maas, which rises in the western
spurs of the Vosges, pursues a north-
erly course till joined by the Waal,
then flows westward into the North

mdtus, -us, [moveS],m., movement,
motion; disturbance, revolt, upris-

moveo, movere, mSvi. mStus. 2,
move, set in motion, remove ; of feel-
ings, disturb; stir, touch (vii. 76).
castra movere, to break camp.

mulier, -eris, f., woman.

miilio, -Snis. [mtllus], m., muleteer,
mule-driver, vii. 45.

multitudo, -mis, [multus], f., great




number, host, large body; crowd.

multo, -are, -avi, -atus, [multa, a
fine\, i, punish ; deprive of, by way
of punishment (vii. 54, C. in. 83).

multo, multum, comp. plus, sup.
plurimum, [multus], adv., much,
by far, greatly. multum posse
or valere, to have great power, in-

multum, adv., see multo.

multus, -a, -um, adj., comp. plus,
sup. pltirimus, much; pi., many.
As noun, m., pi., multi, -5rum,
many (people) ; plfires, -ium, more,
quite a number, several ; neut., sing.,
multum, much; plus, more ; plu-
rimum, very much: neut., pi.,
multa, many things, many consider-
ations, [plural.

miilus, -I, m., mule. vii. 45. [mule.

Munatius, see Plancus.

mundus, -I, m., world, universe.
vi. 14. [mundane.

municipium, -I, [municeps], n.,free
town, municipality, [municipal.

munimentum, -1, [munio], n., forti-
fication, defence, barrier, ii. 17.

munio, -Ire, -Ivi, -Itus, [moenia], 4,
fortify ; protect, make secure. mu-
nire iter, to construct a road (vii.

munitio, -5nis, [munio], f., a forti-
fying, building of fortifications;
works of fortification, fortification,
intrenchment, defences. munitiSni
castrorum, for the fortifying of the
camp (v. 9). [munition.

munitus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.,
-issimus, [part, of munio], adj.,
fortified, protected, secure. muni-
tissima castra, a camp very
strongly fortified (v. 57).

munus, -eris, n., duly, service, func-

tion; present, gift (i. 43). munus
militiae, military service (vi. 18).

muralis, -e, [murus], adj., of a wall,
wall-. muralis falx, wall-hook
(iii. 14). murale pilum, zvall-
pike (v. 40; vii. 82). [mural.

murus, -i, m., wall; rampart, line of
works (i. 8). [mure, immure.

museums, -i, [dimin. of mus], m.,
little mouse; in military language,
long shed, mousie. vii. 84. [muscle.

mutilus, -a, -um, adj., maimed,

mutuor, -ari, -atus, [mutuus], 1,
dep., obtain a loan of, borrow. C.
ill. 60.


nactus, -a, -um, see nanciscor.

nam, conj., introducing an explanation
or reason, for.

-nam; enclitic, possible; see quis-

Nammeius, -i, m., (na-me'yus), a
Helvetian sent as envoy to Caesar,
i. 7.

Namnetes, -um, m., pi., (nam' ne-
tez), a Gallic state north of the
mouth of the Liger {Loire); the
name survives in Nantes, iii. 9.

namque [nam + -que], conj., for
indeed, for truly, and {with good rea-
son) for.

nanciscor, -clscl, nactus, andnanc-
tus, 3, dep., come tipon,find, obtain;
get, secure, get hold of

Nantuates, -um, m., pi., (nan-tu-a'-
tez), a Gallic people southeast of
Lake Geneva.

Narbo, -5nis, m., (nar'bo), capital
of the Province, which was later
named from it, Gallia Narbonensis ;
originally a city of the Volcae Are-
comici, but made a Roman colony
in 1 18 B.C. ; now Narbonne. iii. 20;
vii. 7.




lascor, nascl, natus, 3, dep., be
born, produced ; is found (v. 12);
rise (ii. 18); arise (vi. 22; vii. 43).

Nasidianus, -a, -um, adj., ofNasid-
ius. C. 11. 7.

Nasidius, -I, m., Lucius Nasidius
(na-sid' j-us), a naval commander on
the side of Pompey in the Civil War.
C. II. 3, 4.

Nasua, -ae, m., (nash' u-a), a chief-
tain of the Suebi. i. 37.

natalis, -e, [natus], adj., of birth.
dies natalis, birth-day (vi. 18).

natio, -onis, [nascor], i., birth; peo-
ple, tribe, [nation.

nativus, -a, -um, [cf. natus], adj.,
natural, native, vi. 10. [native.

naturaliter, [naturalis], adv., by
nature, naturally. C. ill. 92.

natura, -ae, [natus, from nascor],
f., nature, character ; natural fea-
tures, situation ; nature of things,
Nature, natura et opere, natu-
rally and artificially. v. 9, 21.

natus, -us, [cf. nascor], m., used only
in abl. sing., birth, maiores natu,
see magnus.

nauta, -ae, [for * n a v i t a from navis] ,
m., sailor, seaman, iii. 9; v. 10.

nauticus, -a, -um, [= vavriKbf], adj.,
naval, nautical, [nautical.

nivalis, -e, [navis], adj., naval.
As noun, navalia, -ium, n., pi.,
shipyards. C. 11. 3. [naval.

navicula, -ae, [dim. of navis], f.,
boat, skiff (i. 53); small ship (C.


navigatio, -5nis, [navigfS], f., navi-
gation, sailing; voyage, [naviga-

navigium, -I, [navigS], n., vessel,
boat. See speculatdrius.

navigo, -are, -avi, -atus, [navis, cf.

ago], 1, sail, go by water, [navi-
navis, -is, f., ship, vessel ; for river
navigation, barge, navis longa,
battleship, galley, navis oneraria,
a transport (Fig. 202). [nave.

Figure 202. — Ancient transport.

The transport is just entering the harbor,
gliding into still water. The helmsman sits
at the stern, and one of the two steering-
paddles is plainly seen ; the sailors are furl-
ing the large sail. From a relief on a tomb
at Pompeii, symbolizing entrance into a haven
of rest, after the stormy voyage of life.

navo, -are, -avi, -atus, [(gr)navus,
busy'], I, do with zeal.

nS, adv., not. ne . . . quidem, not
. . . even.

nS, conj., that . . . not, lest, not to,
after words of fearing, that; after
words of beseeching, ordering, com-
manding, not to. ne quis, that no
one. ne qua spes . . . that no hope.
deterrere ne . . . to frighten from.

-ne, enclitic interrog. particle, whether.
-ne . . . an, or -ne . . . -ne (vii.
14), whether . . . or.

nee, conj., see neque.

necessario, [necessarius], adv., of
necessity, ufia?oida/>ly.

necessarius, -a, -um, [necesse],
adj., needful, necessary; argent, press-
ing. As noun, necessarius. -I. in.,
relative, kinsman (i. II, C. in. 82).




necesse, indecl. adj., necessary, un-
avoidable, inevitable.

necessitate, -tatis, [necesse], f., ne-
cessity, need, urgency, [necessity.

necessitudo, -inis, [necesse], f.,
close relationship, friendship . i. 43.

necne, [nee + -ne], conj , or not.
utrum . . . necne, whether or not (i.

neco, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, put to death,
kill, destroy, [noyade.

necubi, [ne + * c ubi for ubi], conj.,
that nowhere, lest, anywhere, vii. 35.

nefarius, -a, -um, [nefas], adj., exe-
crable, atrocious, [nefarious.

nefas [ne, = ne, + fas], n., indecl.,
a crime against divine law, impious
deed. nefas est, it is wrong, it is
not permitted (vii. 40).

neglego, -legere, -lexi, -lectus,[nec
-+- lego], 3, disregard, leave out of
consideration, be indifferent to ; neg-
lect (iii. 27; iv. 38 ; overlook, leave
unnoticed (i. 35, 36; iii. 10). [neg-

nego, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, deny, say
not, say no, often = dicit non; re-
fuse (v. 6, 27). [negative.

negotiator, -oris, [negotior], m.,
wholesale dealer, wholesaler. C. III.
103. [negotiator.

negotior, -arl, -atus, [negStium],
I, dep., transact business. nego-
tiandi causa, in order to carry on
business (vu. 3,42, 55). [negotiate.

negotium, -I, [neg-, = ne,+ otium],
n., business, enterprise, task; effort,
trouble, difficulty, nihil negotii, no
trouble, (v. 38).

Nemetes, -um, m., pi., (nem' e-tez),
a Germanic people, settled west of
the Rhine.

nemo, dat. nemini, [ne + * h e m =
homo], m., no one, nobody.

nequaquam [ne + quaquam, any-
where^, adv., not at all, by no means.

neque or nee [ne, = ne, + -que],
adv., nor, and . . . not. neque . . .
neque or nee, neither . . . nor.

ne . . . quidem, see ne.

nequiquam [ne + quiquam], adv.,
in vain, to no purpose, ii. 27.

Nervicus, -a, -um, adj., of the Ser-
vians. Nervicum proelium, bat-
tle with the Servians (iii. 5).

Nervius, -i, m., a Servian (v. 45).
PI., Nervii, -orum, the Servians,
Servii (ner' vi-i), a warlike people
of Belgic Gaul.

nervus, -i, m., sinew, muscle (vi. 21);
pi., power, force (i. 20). [nerve.

neu, see neve.

neuter, -tra, -trum, gen. neutrius,
[ne + uter], pron. adj., neither.
As noun, neutri, -orum, m., pi.,
neither side (vii. 63), neither force
(ii. 9). [neuter.

neve or neu, [ne + -ve, or'], conj.,
or not, and not, and that not, nor.
neu . . . -que, and not . . . but
(ii. 21). neu . . . et, and not
. . . but (v. 34).

nex, necis, f., death by violence.

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 65 of 73)