Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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nihil [ne, = ne, + hilum, trifle], n.,
indecl., nothing ; as adverbial ace,
= emphatic non, not at all. [ni-

nihild setius, see setius.

nihilum, -I, [ne, = ne, + hilum], n.,
nothing. nihilo, abl. of degree of
difference, lit. by nothing; nihilo
minus, none the less.

nimius, -a, -um, [nimis], adj., exces-
sive, too great, vii. 29, C. III. 96.

nisi [ne, = ne, + si], conj., if not,
unless, except.

Nitiobroges, -um, m., pi., (nish-i-
ob' ro-jez), a people in Northern

nitor, niti, nixus and nisus, 3, dep.,
strive, endeavor ; rely upon, depend
on (i. 13).




nix, nivis, f., snow. vii. 8, 55.

nobilis, -e, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
[cf. nSsco], adj., noted, renowned
(vii. 77); of high rank, noble (i. 2,
18; v. 22; vii. 67). As noun, n5-
biles, -ium, m., pi., nobles, men of
rank (i. 44; vi. 13); nobilissimus,
-I, m., man of highest rank ; pi., men
of highest rank (i. 7, 31). [noble.

nobilitas, -tatis, [nobilis], f., no-
bility, rank (ii. 6); collective (for
nSbiles), nobility, nobles, men of
rank, [nobility.

nocens, -entis, comp. nocentior,
sup. -issimus, [part, of noceo],
adj., guilty. As noun, nocentes,
-um, m., pi., the guilty (vi. 9).

noceo, -ere, -ui, -iturus, 2, hurt, do
harm, injure.

noctu, [cf. nox], adv., by night, at
night, in the night.

nocturnus, -a, -um, [cf. nox], adj.,
by night, of night. nocturnus
labor, the toil of the night (vii. 83).
nocturnum tempus, night-time
(v. 11, 40). [nocturnal.

nodus, -I, m., knot; node, on the
joint of an animal (vi. 27). [node.

nolo, nolle, nolui, [ne + vol6], irr.,
be unwilling, not wish, not want.
n51i, nolite, with inrin., do not.

nomen, -inis, n., name, appellation,
title; reputation, renown; account.
su5 nomine, on his oiun account
(i. 18), on their own account (vii.
75). [noun.

nominatim [nominS], adv., by name.

nomino, -are, -avi, -atus, [n5men],
1, name, call by a name (vii. 73);
mention (ii. 18). [nominate.

non, adv., not, no. n5n nihil, to
some extent, somewhat ( iii. 17). n5n
nullus, some, several. n5n num-
quam, sometimes.

nonaginta, or xc, indeclinable num.
adj., ninety.

nondum [n5n -f dum], adv., not yet.

non nihil, sec non

non nullus, -a, -um, see n6n.

non numquam, see n5n.

nonus, -a, -um, [novem], numeral
ord. adj., ninth, [noon.

Noreia, -ae, f., (no-re' ya), chief city
of the Norici (nor' i-si), now A'eu-
markt. i. 5.

Noricus, -a, -um, adj., of the Norici,
A T orican (i. 5). As noun, Norica,
-ae, f., Norican woman (i. 53).

nos, see ego.

nosed, noscere, novi, n5tus, 3, ob-
tain a knowledge of, learn ; in tenses
from the pf. stem, know, be familiar
with, be acquainted with.

nosmet, see egomet.

noster, -tra, -trum, [n5s],pron. adj.,
our, our own. As noun, nostri,
-orum, m., pi., our men, our side.

notitia, -ae, [notus], f., knoivledge,
acquaintance, [notice.

noto, -are, -avi, -atus, [nota, mark],
I, brand (C. III. 74); reprimand,
check (C. 1. 7). [note.

notus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup. -issi-
mus, [part, of n5sc6], adj., known,
ivell-known, familiar.

novem, or viiii, indeclinable num.
adj., nine.

Noviodiinum, -i, [Celtic word, =
* Newtown '], n., (no" vi-o-du' num),
name of three towns :

(1) Of the Aeduans, on the right
bank of the Liger (Loire); now
Nevers. vii. 55.

(2) Of the Bituriges, south of
Cenabum. vii. 12, 14.

(3) Of the Suessiones, on the
Axona (Aisne). ii. 12.

novitas, -tatis, [novus], f., novelty,

niWHiSSt strangeness.
novus, -a, -um, adj., new, fresh,

strange. Sup. novissimus, List, at




the rear. As noun, novissiml,
-orum, m., pi., those at the rear, the
rear. novissimum agmen, rear
of the line of march, the rear.

nox, noctis, f., night, multa nocte,
late at night, when the night was far
spent, [nocti- in noctivagant, etc.

noxia, -ae, [noxius, -a, -um, hurt-
ful^, f., hurt, offence, crime (vi. 1 6).

nubo, nubere, nupsi, supine nup-
tum, 3, veil one's self for marriage,
marry, wed. i. 18. [nuptial.

nudo, -are, -avi, -atus [nudus], I,
strip, make bare; clear (ii. 6);
expose, leave unprotected.

nudus, -a, -um, adj., naked, bare;
unprotected (i. 25). [nude.

nullus, -a, -um, gen. nullius, dat.
nulli, [ne, = ne, + ullus], adj.,
none, no. As noun, especially in
the dat., m., no one.

num, interrogative particle, expecting
the answer No.

numen, -inis, [cf. nuo, nod~\, n.,
divine will ; divine majesty (vi. 16).

numero, -are, -avi, -atus, [nume-
rus], 1, count, reckon. C. III. 53.

numerus, -1, m., number, amount;
estimation, account (vi. 13). ob-
sidum numero, as hostages (v. 27).

Numidae, -arum, [vo/j.ds, "wanderer.,
pi. vofv&8ei\, m., pi., Numidians, a
people in Northern Africa, in the
country now called Algeria, famous
as archers, and employed by Caesar
as light-armed troops (ii. 7, 10, 24).
Numidians under Juba destroyed the
army of Curio in 49 B.C. (C. 11. 39,

nummus, -I, m., piece of money, money,
coin. v. 12. .

numquam [ne, = ne, + umquam],
adv., never, not at any time.

nunc, adv., now, at present.
nuncup6,-are,-avl, -atus, [nomen,

cf. capio], 1, name publicly ; of

vows, offer publicly (C. I. 6).
nuntio, -are, -avi, -atus, [nuntius],

I, announce, report ; give orders (iv.

11). Impers. nuntiatur, word is

brought, it is reported.
nuntius, -1, m., messenger, agent (i.

44); message, tidings, [nuncio.
nuper, sup. nuperrime, adv., lately,

nutus, -us, [nu5, nod], m., nod,

nodding (v. 43); bidding, command

(i. 31; iv. 23).


Ob, prep, with ace, on account of, for.
ob earn causam, for that reason.
ob earn rem, on that account, there-
fore, quam ob rem, wherefore
(1. 34); for what reason (i. 50).

obaeratus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, [ob,
cf. aes], adj., in debt. As noun,
obaeratus, -I, m., debtor, serf{\. 4).

obduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductus,
[ob + duc5], 3, lead forward ; of
a trench, prolong, extend (ii. 8) .

obeo, -ire, -ii, -itus, [ob + eo], irr.,
go to meet; attend to. omnia per
se obire, to see to everything in per-
son (v. n).

obicio, -icere, -ieci, -iectus, [ob+
iacio], 3, throw before; place in
front, place ; put in the way, expose ;
of taunts, cast up at, fruit of (C. ill.
96); of difficulties, present (vii. 59).

obiectatio, -onis, [obiect5], f., re-
proach. C. in. 60.

obiecto, -are, -avi, -atus, [freq. of
obicio], 1, accuse of; twit of (C. III.

obiectus, -a, -um, see obicio.

obitus, -tis, [cf. obeo], m., destruc-
tion, ii. 29. [obituary.




oblatus, see offero.

oblique, [obliquus], adv., obliquely,

with a slant, iv. 17.
obliquus, -a, -um, adj., slanting,

crossivise. vii. 73. [oblique.
obliviscor, -II vise! , -Htus, 3, dep.,

forget, [oblivion.

obses, -idis, [cf. obsideS], m. and

{., hostage.
obsessid, onis, [cf. obsideo], f.,

siege (vii. 36); blockade (vi. 36).

obsessus, see obsideo.
obsideo, -sidere, -sedi, -sessus, [ob

Figure 203. — A Roman document, tied and sealed.

The writing is on the two inside faces of the two tablets, which were securely tied together.
The seals of the 8 witnesses were stamped in wax over the ends of the cord, a groove of
suitable width being cut in the wood of the tablets for the purpose.

The names of those who stamped their seals were written with ink on the wood at the
right, in the genitive case. The number of witnesses was often 7 (cf. p. 467), sometimes 8.
as here, sometimes 9 or more.

The illustration is from a charred tablet found at Pompsii, restored; it was sealed about
100 years after Caesar's death.

The names of the first three and last three witnesses are: L. LAELIUS FUSCUS, SEXTUS
NELIUS DEXTER, and L. NAEVOLEIUS NYMPHUS. The fourth and fifth names are uncertain.

obsecro, -are, -avi, -atus, [ob +
sacro, from sacer], I, beseech in
the name of that which is sacred,
implore, beg. [obsecrate.

obsequentia, -ae, [obsequens], f.,
compliance, complaisance, vii. 29.

observo, -are, -avi, -atus, [ob +
servS], 1, watch, observe (vii. 16);
keep track of (vi. 18); heed, comply
with (i. 45; v. 35). [observe.

4- sede5], 2, besiege, blockade; of

roads, seize upon, block (iii. 23, 24;

v. 40). [obsess.
obsidio, -onis, [cf. obsideS], f., siege,

blockade; oppression (iv. 19).
obsigno, are. -avi, -atus, [ob +

signS], 1, seal up, teal (Fig. 203).
obsisto. -sistere, -stiti, [ob +

sistdj, 3, wiAstand, vii. 29.
obstinate [obstinatus, part, of ob-




stin5, persist], adv., firmly, stead-
fastly, persistently, v. 6.

obstrictus, -a, -um, see obstring-6.

obstringo, -stringere, -strinxi,
-strictus, [ob + stringo, tie], 3,
bind, place under obligation, i. 9,


obstruo, -struere, -struxi, -striic-
tus, [ob + struo, pile], 3, block up,
stop up. v. 50, 51; vii. 41. [ob-

obtempero, -are, -avi, -atus, [ob +
tempero], 1, submit to, obey.

obtenturus, fut. act. part, of obtineo.

obtestor, -ari, -atus, [ob -f- testor],
1, dep., call as witness, appeal to;
implore, adjure.

obtineo, -tinere, -tinui, -tentus,
[ob + teneo], 2, hold fast, main-
tain, keep, retain, hold (i. 3); get
possession of, obtain (i. 18; vi. 12);
possess, occupy, inhabit (i. 1). [ob-

obtrectatio, -onis, [obtrecto], f.,
disparagement. C. I. 7.

obvenio, -venire, -veni, -ventiirus,
[ob + veni5], 4, fall in with, en-
counter (ii. 23); fall to the lot of,
faH to (vii. 28, 81, C. 1. 6).

obviam, [ob -f ace. of via], adv., in
the zuay, against, obviam Caesari
proflciscitur, goes to meet Caesar
(vii. 12).

occasio, -onis, [cf. occido], f., op-
portunity, favorable moment ; sur-
prise (vii. 45). [occasion.

occasus, -us, [cf. occidS], m., going
down, setting, sSlis occasus, sun-
set, the west (i. I ; iv. 28).

occidens, -entis, [part, of occido],
adj., of the sun, setting. occidens
s51, the west (v. 13). [Occident.

occido, -cidere, -cidi, [ob + cado],
3, fall (vi. 37).

occido, -cidere, -cidi, cisus, [ob +
caedo], 3, kill, slay.

occisus, -a, -um, see occidS.

occultatio, -onis, [occulto], f., con-
cealment, vi. 21.

occulte, comp. -ius, sup. -issime,
[occultus], adv., secretly, in secret.

occulto, -are, -avi, -atus, [freq. of
occulo, cover], 1, hide, conceal;
keep secret.

occultus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [part, of occulo, cover],
adj., hidden, secret, concealed. As
noun, ex occulto, from ambush, in
ambush (vi. 34) ; se in occultum
abdere, to go into hiding (vii. 30);
in occulto, in hiding, in conceal-
ment (ii. 18; vi. 35; vii. 27, 35), in
a secret place (i. 31, 32). [occult.

occupatio, -onis, [occupo], f., em-
ployment, engagement, [occupation.

occupo, -are, -avi, -atus, [ob, cf.
capio], 1, seize upon, seize, take pos-
session of; fill, occupy (ii. 8); of the
attention, engage, occupy. occu-
patus, -a, -um, as adj., engaged;
busied (ii. 19). [occupy.

occurro, -currere, -curri, rarely -cu-
curri, -cursurus, [ob -f curro],
3, run to meet, come to meet, meet;
meet with, fall in with, encounter ;
match, offset (vii. 22); come into
mind, occur (vii. 85). [occur.

Oceanus, -I, ['Oxea^s], m., Ocean,
considered by Caesar as one body
of water, including the Atlantic
Ocean, the English Channel, and
the North Sea; the sea. [ocean.

Ocelum, -i, n., (5s' e-lum), a town of
the Graioceli in the Alps, west of
modern Turin, i. 10.

octavus, -a, -um, [octo], numeral
ord. adj., eighth, [octave.

octingenti, -ae, -a, or DCCC, [octo
+ centum], num. adj., eight hun-

octo, or VIII, indeclinable num. adj.,
eight. [October.




octodecim, or xvm, [oct5 + de-
cern], indeclinable num. adj.,

Octodurus, -I, m., (ok-to-dii' rus),
chief town of the Veragri, in the
Rhone valley southeast of Geneva.
Hi. i.

octogSnl, -ae, -a, or LXXX, [octS],
distrib. num. adj., eighty in each

octoginta, or LXXX, [octS], inde-
clinable num. adj., eighty.

octonl, -ae, -a, [oct6], distrib. num.
adj., eight each, eight at a time.

oculus, -I, m., eye. [oculist.

6di, Sdisse, osurus, def., hate.

odium, -I, [odi], n., hatred, [odium.

offendo, -fendere, -fendi, -fensus,
3, hit against ; hurt, wound (i. 19).
Impersonal, offendi posset, injury
could be inflicted, a disaster might
occur (vi. 36); esset offensum,
a reverse had been experienced (C.
in. 72). [offend.

offensio, -5nis, [offendS], f., hurt-
ing, wounding ; reverse.

offero, -ferre, obtuli, oblatus, [ob
-f fer6], irr., bring before ; offer,
present; put in one's way, afford.
se of ferre, to offer one's self (vii.
89), expose one's self (vii. 77), rush
against (iv. 12). [offer.

officium, -i, [for *opificium, ops
+ fac in faci5], n., service, duty ;
allegiance; sense of duty (i. 40).

Ollovico, -Qnis, m., (o-lov' i-k5), a
king of the Nitiobroges. vii. 31.

omitto, -mittere, -misi, -missus,
[ob -f mittS], 3, lay aside, throw
away (vii. 88); neglect, disregard {\\.
17). omnibus omissis rebus,
laying aside everything else (vii. 34).

omnind, [omnis], adv., altogether;
after negatives, at all ; with numer-

als, in all, altogether, only. nihil
omnino, nothing at all.

omnis, -e, adj., every, all ; as a whole.
As noun, pi., omnes, -ium, m., all
men, all; omnia, -ium, n., all
things, everything, [omnibus.

onerarius, -a, -um, [onus], adj., of
burden; 9ee navis. [onerary.

onero, -are, -avi, -atus, [onus], 1,
load. v. 1. [onerate.

onus, -eris, n., load, burden, weight ;
cargo (v. 1). [onus.

opera, -ae, [opus], f., effort, work,
pains ; service, aid, assistance, dare
operam, to take pains, [opera.

opinio, -onis, [opinor, think], {.,
idea, notion ; good opinion, reputa-
tion ; expectation. opinio timo-
ris, impression of fear. itistitiae
opinio, reputation for fair dealing
(vi. 24). [opinion.

oportet, oportere, oportuit, 2, im-
pers., it is necessary, it is needful ; it
behooves; ought; is proper (vii. 33).

oppidanus, -a, -um, [oppidum],
adj., of the toxvn. As noun, oppi-
dani, -orum, m., pi., toivnspeoplc,
inhabitants of the town.

oppidum, -i, n., fortified town, city ;
fortified enclosure, stronghold (v. 21).

oppleo, -ere, -evi, -etus, [ob +
ple5], 2, fill completely. C. ill. 73.

oppono, -pone re, -posui, -positus,
[ob + pon5], 3, place over against,
set against, oppose, [oppose.

opportune, sup. -issime, [opportu-
nus], adv., conveniently, seasonably,

opportunitas, -atis, [opportanus],
f., fitness, favorableness, seasonable-
ness; favorable situation, advan-
tage, [opportunity.

opportunug, -a, -um, comp. -ior,
sup. -issimus. adj., fit, suitable, fa-
vorable, advantageous, [opportune.

oppositus, -a, -um, [part, of op-




p5n5], adj., placed opposite ; lying

in the way (vii. 56). [opposite.
opprimo, -primere, -press!, -pres-

sus, [ob + premo], 3, weigh down;

overwhelm, crush ; take by surprise,

surprise, fall upon, [oppress.
oppugnatio, -orris, [oppugns], f.,

storming of a city or camp, assault,

attack, besieging.
oppugno, -are, -avi, -atus, [ob +

pugno], 1, attack, assault ; storm,

besiege ; take by storming.
ops, opis, nom. and dat. sing, not in

use, f., help, power, might. PL,

opes, -um, help (vi. 21); resources,

means, wealth ; influence ; strength

(vii. 76). [opulent.
optatus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.

-issimus, [part, of opt5], adj., de-
sired ; welcotne (vi. 42).
optime, see bene,
optimus, see bonus,
opus, n., used only in nom. and ace,

necessity, need. opus est, there is

need, it is necessary.
opus, operis, n., work, labor ; that

produced by labor, structure, works ;

line of zvorks, fortification. Cf.

quantus. [opus.
ora, -ae, f., coast, shore. ora mari-

tima, sea-coast (iv. 20); place put

for people, inhabitants of the coast,

people along the sea (Hi. 8, 16).
oratio, -Snis, [5ro], f., speech, words,

remarks, plea, [oration.
orator, -oris, [oro], m., speaker;

envoy (iv. 27). [orator.
orbis, -is, m., circle. in orbem

consistere, to form a circle (v. 33).

orbis terrarum, the world (vii. 29).

Orcynia, -ae, f., (or-sin' i-a) , with

silva, the Hercynian forest, vi. 24.
ordo, -inis, m., row, series; layer

(vii. 23); rank, order; century

(half a maniple), company (i. 40,

v. 35) ; officer commanding a cen-
tury, centurion, [order.

Orgetorix, -igis, m., (or-jet' o-riks),
a Helvetian nobleman who formed a
plot to seize the supreme power.

Oricum, -i, ['Slpucdv'], n., (or'i-cum),
a seaport on the east coast of the
Adriatic, now Palaeocastro, on the
bay of Valona. C. in. 90.

oriens, -entis, [part, of orior], adj.,
rising. oriens sol, rising sun ;
the east (i. 1; v. 13; vii. 69). [orient.

orior, oriri, ortus, 4, dep., rise, arise;
begin, spring from ; start from (i.
39). oriente sole, at sunrise
(vii. 3). orta lace, at daybreak
(v. 8).

ornamentum, -I, [6rn5], n., decora-
tion; distinction, honor (i. 44; vii.
15). [ornament.

ornatus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [part, of 5rn5], adj.,
equipped, [ornate.

orno, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, furnish,
equip ; provide (vii. 33).

oro, -are, -avi, -atus, [os, mouth~\, 1,
plead, beg, entreat, [orate.

ortus, -us, [orior], m., rising. or-
tus solis, sunrise (vii. 41).

ortus, see orior.

6s, oris, n., mouth ; face (v. 35; vi.
39; C. in. 99). [oral.

Osismi, -orum, m., pi., (o-sis' mi), a"
small state in the northwest corner
of Gaul.

ostendo, -tendere, -tendi, -tentus,
[obs, for ob, + tendo], 3, show, dis-
play ; point out, set forth, declare.

ostentatio, -Snis, [ostento], f., dis-
play, show; ostentation (vii. 53).
ostentationis causa, in order to
attract attention (vii. 45). [osten-

ostento, -are, -avi, -atus, [freq. of
ostendo], I, display, show; with
se, show off (vii. 19).




otium, -I, n., rest, quiet, peace.
ovum, -I, n., egg. iv. 10. [oval.

P. with proper names = Publius.

pabulatid, -dnis, [pabulor], f., for-
aging, getting fodder . [pabulation.

pabulator, -dris, [pabulor], m.,
forager, v. 17.

pabulor, -ari, -atus, [pabulum], 1,
dtp., forage, obtain fodder.

pabulum, -i, n., fodder, forage.

pacatus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [part, of paco], adj.,
peaceful, quiet, [pacate.

paco, -are, -avi, -atus, [pax], 1,
pacify, tranquillize, [pacable.

pactum, -1, [paciscor], n., agree-
ment; manner, way (vii. 83).

Padua, -I, m., (pa' dus), Po, the great
river of Northern Italy, v. 24.

Paelignus, -a, -um, Paelignian, of
the Paeligni (pe-lig' ni), a people of
Central Italy, whose chief city was
Corfinium. C. 11. 35.

Paemani, -drum, m., pi., (pe-ma' ni),
a people in Belgic Gaul. II. 4.

paene, adv., almost, nearly.

paenitet, -ere, -uit, 2, impers., it
makes sorry, it causes regret, [peni-

pagus, -1, m., district, canton, gener
ally referring to the inhabitants
rather than to the country ; clan.

palam, adv., openly, publicly.

palma, -ae, f., palm of the hand;
hand (vi. 26, C. ill. 98). [palm.

paludatus, -a, -um, wearing a gen-
eral's cloak (palud&mentum); as
we say, in uniform. C. 1. 6.

paliis, -udis, f., marsh, swamp, bog.

paluster, -tris, -tre, [palus], adj.,
marshy, swampy (vii. 20).

pando, pandere, pandl, passus, 3,
spread out ; of hair, dishevel (vii.
48). passls manibu8, with hands

panis, -is, m., bread ; pi., loaves of
bread (C. in. 48). [pantry.

par, paris, adj., like, similar, same ;
equal ; corresponding (vii. 74).
par atque, same as. [par.

par atus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [part, of paro], adj.,
ready, prepared ; provided.

parce, comp. -ius, [parous], adv.,
sparingly, vii. 71.

pared, parcere, peperci and parsi,
parsurus, 3, use sparingly (vii. 71 );
with dat., spare, give quarter to.

parens, -entis, [parid], m. and f.,
parent, [parent.

parents, -are, -atus, [parens], 1,
offer a sacrifice in honor of deceased
parents or relatives; take vengeance
for the death of any one, avenge
(vii. 17).

pared, parere, parui, 2, obey ; sub-
mit to, be subject to.

parid, parere, peperi, partus, 3,
bring forth ; obtain, get, acquire.

Parisii, -drum, m., pi., (pa-rish'[y]I),
a Gallic people on the Sequana
(Seine) ; the name survives in Boris.

Figure 204. — A coin of the Parisii.

Gold. Obverse, head with decorative
treatment of the hair.

Reverse, chariot design conventionalized,
the outline of the horse alone being distinctive.

paro, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, prepare,

make rradv, make ready for ; obtain.
secure, [pare.




pars, partis, f., part, portion, share,
number; region, district, division;
side, direction ; party, faction (vi.
ii, 1. 15). pars maior, the ma-
jority, una ex parte, on one
side, in omnes partes, in every
direction, [part.

Parthi, -orum, m., pi., the Parthians,
a Scythian people in the region of
the Caspian Sea. C. III. 82.

particeps, -cipis, [pars, cf. capi5],
adj., sharing in. C. III. 60. [par-

partim, [ace. of pars], adv., partly \
hi part.

parti or, partiri, partltus, [pars], 4,
dep., divide, divide up, share. Part,
partltus in a passive sense, divided,
shared, [partite.

partus, see pario.

parum, comp. minus, sup. minime.
adv., too little, not enough. Comp.,
less. Sup., least, very little ; not at
all, by no means, [minus.

parvulus, -a, -um, [dim. of parvus],
adj., very small ; very young ; slight,

parvus, -a, -um, comp. minor, sup.
minimus, adj., small, trifling, in-
significant. Comp., smaller, less.
As noun, minus, n., less; mini-
mum, n., the least, [minimum.

passim, [passus, from pando], adv.,
in all directions (jv. 14); here and
there (C. 11. 38).

passus, -as, m., step, pace ; as a meas-
ure of length, pace (reckoned as a
double step, from the place where
either foot is raised to the place
where the same foot rests on ground
again), = 5 Roman feet, or 4 feet,
\o\ inches by English measurement,
mille passus. mile ; pi., milia
passuum, miles, [pace.

passus, see pando.

passus, see patior.

patefacio, -facere, -feci, -factu3,
pass., patefio, -fieri, -factus, [pa-
teo + facio], 3, lay open, open.

patens, -entis, comp. patentior,
[part, of pateoJ,adj., open, [patent.

pateo, patere, patui, 2, be open, lie
open, stand open ; extend.

pater, -tris, m., father. PL, patres,
-um, fathers, forefathers, [paternal.

patiens, -entis, [patior], adj., comp.
patientior, sup. patientissimus,
long-suffering, patient. C. ill. 96.

patienter, comp. patientius, [pati-
ens], adv., patiently, vii. 77.

patientia, -ae, [patiens], f. t endur-
ance (vi. 24); forbearance (vi. 36).

patior, pati, passus, 3, dep., suffer,
bear, endure ; permit, allow, [pas-

patrius, -a, -um, [pater], adj., of a
father ; ancestral, of {their) fore-
fathers (ii. 15).

pa tr onus, -1, [pater], m., protector,
patron, vii. 40. [patron.

patria, -ae, [patrius, sc. terra'], f.,
native land, fatherland (C. II. 7).

patruus, -1, [pater], m., father's
brother, uncle on the father's side.

paucitas, -atis, [paucus], f., fewness,
small number, [paucity.

paucus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, adj., little; p\.,few. As
noun, pauci, -orum, m., pi., few,
only a few ; n., pi., pauca, -orum,
a few zvords\\. 44).

paulatim, [paulum], adv., little by
little, by degrees ; gradually ; one by
one (iv. 30).

paulisper, [paulum, per], adv.,
for a short time, a little while.

paulo, [abl. of paulus], adv., by a
little, just a little.

paululum [paulus], adv., a very
little, only a little, ii. 8.




paulum, [neut. ace. of paulus], adv.,
a little, somewhat.

pax, pacis, f., peace, [peace.

pecco, -are, -avi, -atus, i, do wrong.

pectus, -oris, n., breast, [pectoral.

pecunia, -ae,[cf. pecus, cattle'], f.,
property ; money. PL, pecuniae,
contributions of money (C. I. 6).

pecuniarius, -a, -um, [pecunia],
adj., of money, pecuniary, [pecuni-

pecus, -oris, n., cattle, general term
for domestic animals; flesh of cattle,
meat (iv. i).

pedalis, -e, [pes], adj., measuring a
foot, a foot thick, iii. 13. [pedal.

pedes, -itis, [pes], m., foot-soldier.
PL, pedites, -um, infantry.

pedester, -tris, -tre, [pes], adj., on
foot. pedestres copiae, infan-
try, [pedestrian.

peditatus, -as, [pedes], m., in-

Pedius, -I, m., Quintus Pedius (pe'-
di-us), nephew of Julius Caesar,
under whom he served as lieutenant
in the Gallic and Civil Wars. He
was consul in 43 B.C. ii. 2, 1 1.

peior, see malus.

pellis, -is, f., skin, hide, [pelisse.

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 66 of 73)