Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsus, 3,
drive out, drive off ; rout, defeat.

Pelusium, -1, [Ylr)\o6a tov], n., (pe-lii'-
shi-um), a city and fortress in Egypt,
at the easternmost mouth of the Nile.
C. in. 103.

pendo, pendere, pependi, p§nsus,
3, weigh out; pay. [pendent.

penes, prep, with ace, in the power
of, in the possession of.

penitus, adv., far within, vi. 10.

per, prep, with ace, through ; across,
along, over, among ; during, in the
course of; by, by the hands of, by
means of, under pretence of; by rea-
son of. In oaths, in the name of, by.

per agros, over the country (vi. 31 ;

vii. 3).

In composition, per adds the

force of through, thoroughly, very

much, very.
perago, -agere. -egi, -actus, [per

+ ago], 3, finish, complete, bring to

an end.
perangustus, -a, -um, [per + an-

gustus], adj., very narrow, vii.

percello, -ere, perculi, perculsus,
3, beat down ; cast down, demoralize
(C. in. 47).

perceptus, see percipio.

percipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptus
[per + capio], 3, get, secure, gain ;
hear (v. 1); learn (vi. 8). [per-

percontatio, -onis, [percontor, in-
quire], (., questioning, inquiry.

percurro, -currere, -cucurri or
-curri, -cursurus, [per + currS],
3, run through; run along (iv. 33).

percussus, see percutio.

percutio, -cutere, -cussi, -cussus,
[per + quatio, shake], 3, thrust
through, v. 44. [percuss.

perdisco, -discere, -didici, [per +
disc6], 3, learn thoroughly, learn by
heart, vi. 14.

perditus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [part, of perdS, ruin],
adj., abandoned, desperate (iii. 17).
As noun, perditi, -6rum, m., pi.,
desperate men, the desperate (vii. 4).

perduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductus,
[per + duc5], 3» lead through,
bring, conduct, convey ; bring over,
win over (vi. 12); draw out, prolong
(v. 31, C. ill. 95); extend, construct,

perendinus, -a, -um, [perendiS, day
after to-morrmv], adj., after to-mor-
row. perendinO diS, day after
to-morrow (v. 30).




pereo, -ire, -ii, -iturus, [per + eo],
irr., perish^ be lost, [perish.

perequito, -are, -avi, [per +
equito, ride~\, I, ride through (vii.
66); ride about (\v . 2>Z) -

perexiguus, -a, -um, [per + exi-
guus], adj., very small.

perfacilis, -e, [per + facilis], adj.,
very easy.

perfectus, see perflcio.

perfero, -ferre, -tuli, -latus, [per +
fero], irr., lit. carry through ; carry,
convey, bring, report ; endure, suffer ;
bear^ submit to.

perficio,-flcere, -feci, -fectus, [per
+ facio], 3, finish, complete; per-
form, accomplish, carry out; cause,
effect ; bring about, arrange, [per-

pertidia, -ae, [perfldus], f., faith-
lessness, bad faith, treachery, [per-

perfringo, -fringere, -fregi, -frac-
tus, [per + frango], 3, break

perfuga, -ae, [perfugio], m., de-

perfugio, -fugere, -fugi, [per + fu-
gio], 1, flee for refuge, flee.

perfugium, -I, [cf. perfugio], n.,
place of refuge, refuge, iv. 38.

per go, pergere, perrexi, perrec-
tus, [per + reg5], 3, proceed, ad-

periclitor, -arl, -atus, [periculum],
I, dep., try, prove, make trial of,
test; be in danger, incur danger
(vi. 34; vii. 56).

periculosus, -a, -um, comp. -ior,
sup. -issimus, [periculum], adj.,
full of danger, dangerous. 1. 33,
vii. 8. [perilous.

periculum, -I, n., trial, test (i. 40);
attempt (iv. 21); risk, danger, haz-
ard, [peril.

peritus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.

-issimus, adj., skilled, practised ; fa-
miliar with.

perlatus, see perfero.

perlectus, see perlego.

perlego, -legere, -legi, -lectus,
[per + lego], 3, read through, pe-
ruse, v. 48. [perlection.

perluo, -luere, -lui, -lutus, [per -f
luo, wash'], 3, wash. Pass, used
reflexively, bathe (vi. 21).

permagnus, -a, -um, [per -f- mag-
nus], adj., very large, very great.

permaneo, -manere, -mansi, man-
surus, [per + maneo], 2, continue,
stay, remain, [permanent.

permisceo, -miscere, -miscui, -mix-
tus, [per + misceo, mix], 2, mix,
mingle, vii. 62.

permitto, -mittere, -misi, -missus,
[per -\- mitt5], 3, give over, entrust,
commit ; grant, allow, [permit.

permixtus, see permisceo.

permotus, see permoveo.

permoveo, -movere, -movi, -mo-
tus, [per + moved], 2, deeply move,
disturb, alarm; arouse, stir ; influ-
ence, induce.

permulceo, -ere, -si, -sus, [per +
mulceo, soothe], 2, calm, soothe.
iv. 6.

permulsus, see permulceS.

pernicies, -el, [per, cf. nex], f., ruin,
destruction, i. 20, 36.

perniciosus. -a, -um, [pernicies],
adj., ruinous. C. 1. 7. [pernicious.

pernicitas, -tatis, [pernlx, nimble],
{., quickness of movement, nimbleness.
C. III. 84.

perpauci, -ae, -a, [per + paucus],
adj., very few. As noun, perpauci.
-orum, m., pi., a very few.

perpendiculum, -1, [cf. perpendo],
n., plumb-line, [perpendicular.

perpetior, -peti, -pessus, [per +
patior], 3, dep., bear patiently, en-
dure, vii. 10; C- III- 47.




perpetuo [perpetuus], adv., contin-
ually, constantly (vii. 41); always,
forever (i. 31).

perpetuus, -a, -um, [per, cf. peto],
adj., continuous, unbroken, unceas-
ing, entire, perpetual. As noun, in
perpetuum, for ever, ever after.

perquird, -qulrere, -quisivi, -quisi-
tus, [per + quaerd], 3, make care-
ful inquiry about, inquire about.
vi. 9.

perrumpo, -rumpere, -rupi, -rup-
tus, [per + rumpd, break], 3,
break through, burst through, force a

perruptus, see perrumpo.

tus, [per + scribd], 3, write fully,
report in writing.

persequor, -sequi, -secutus,[per -f
sequor], 3, dep., follow up, pursue ;
assail, attack (i. 13; v. 1); avenge
(vii. 38). [persecute.

perse verd, -are, -avi, -atus, [perse-
verus, very strict], 1, continue stead-
fastly, persist. [persevere.

per sol vd, -solvere, -solvl, -solutus,
[per + solvd], 3, pay in full, pay.

perspectus, see perspicid.

perspicid, -spicere, -spexi, -spec-
tus, [per -f- specid, look], 3, see,
look; inspect, survey ; perceive, ob-
serve, ascertain. [perspective.

persto, -stare, -stiti, -staturus,[per
-f st5], I, stand firmly, persist.

persuaded, -suadere, -suasi, -sua-
sum est, [per + suaded, per-
suade], 2, convince, persuade, prevail
upon, induce, mihi persuadetur,
I am convinced, [persuade.

perterred, -terrere, -terrui, -terri-
tus, [per -f terred], 2, greatly
alarm, frighten, terrify, dismay.
Part., perterritus, -a, -um, often

pertinacia, -ae, [pertinax, per -f
tenax, from tenedj, i., obstinacy,
stubbornness, [pertinacity.

pertined, -tinere, -tinui, [per -f-
tenedj, 2, reach out, extend ; per-
tain to, concern, belong to. [pertain.

perturbatid, -dnis, [perturbd], f.,
disturbance, confusion, [perturba-

perturbd, -are, -avi, -atus, [per -f
turbd, disturb], I, disturb greatly,
disorder, confuse, [perturb.

pervagor, arl, -atus, [per + va-
gror], I, dep., roam about.

pervehd, -ere, pervexi, [per +
vend], 3, carry through ; pass, with
middle sense, sail along (C. II. 3).

pervenid, -venire, -veni, -ventum
est, [per + venid], 4, come (to),
arrive (at), reach; of an inheritance,
fall to (vi. 19).

pes, pedis, m., foot ; as a measure of
length, = .9708 of the English foot,
or 296 millimetres pedem re-
ferre, to retreat, [pedestrian.

pestilentia, -ae, [pestilens], f.,
plague, pestilence. C. in. 87. [pes-

petitus, see petd.

peto, petere, petivi and petii, peti-
tus, 3, make for, try to reach, seek ;
get, secure; beg, ask, request. pe-
tere ut liceat, to ask permission.

Petrocorii, -drum, m., pi., (pet-ro-
ko'rj-i), a Gallic people north of
the Garumna {Garonne) river, vii.


Petrdnius, -I, m., Marcus Petronius
(pe-tro' nj-us), a centurion of the
eighth legion (vii. 50).

Petrosidius, -I, m., Lucius Petrosi-
dius (pet-ro-sid' j-us), a brave stand-
ard-bearer, v. 37.

phalanx, -angris, Greek ace. sing., (i.
52) phalangra, [0dX<rv£], {.com-
pact host, mass, phalanx, [phalanx.




Philippus, -i, m., Lucius Marcus
Philippus (fj-lip' us), consul in
56 B.C. C. 1. 6.

Pictones, -um, m., pi., (pik' to-nez),
a Gallic people bordering on the
Atlantic south of the Liger {Loire).
Fig. 205.

Figure 205. — A coin of the Pictones.

Silver. Reverse, cavalryman with a
shield. The object underneath has not been

The hair of the head on the obverse is
shown in thick masses.

pi etas, -atis, [pius, dutiful], f.,
dutiful conduct, devotion, to the gods,
one's country, or one's kindred; loy-
alty (v. 27), [piety.

pilum, -i, n., javelin, pike. [pile.

pilus, -i, [pilum], m., with primus,
maniple of the triarii, a division in
the army containing the most experi-
enced soldiers. primi pili cen-
turio, first centurion of the first
maniple of the triarii, first centurion
of the legion in rank (iii. 5). pri-
mum pilum ducere, to lead the
first maniple of the triarii, to hold
the rank of first centurion (v. 35;
vi. 38 ; C. in. 91).

pinna, -ae, f., feather ; in military lan-
guage, battlement, [pen.

Pirustae, -arum, m., pi., (pl-rus'te),
a people in Illyricum. v. i.

piscatorius, -a, -um, [piscator,
fisherman^], adj., of a fisherman.
naves piscatoriae, fishing-smacks
(C. 11. 4). [piscatory.

piscis, -is, m.,fish. iv. 10. [Pisces.

Piso, -onis, m., (pi' s5) :

( 1 ) Lucius Calpurnius Piso Cae-
soninus, consul 1 12 B.C. i. 12.

(2) Lucius Calpurnius Piso Cae-
soninus, consul with Aulus Cabi-
nius, 58 B.C. ; father-in-law of Cae-
sar, i. 6, 12.

(3) Marcus Pupius Piso Calpur-
nianus, consul with M. Valerius
Messala, 61 B.C. i. 2, 35.

(4) Piso, abrave Aquitanian. iv. 12.
pix, picis, f., pitch, [pitch.
Placentia, -ae, f., (pla-sen' sh[y]a),

a city in northern Italy, on the Po
River; now Pi ace nza. C. ill. 71.

placeo, placere, placui, placitum
est, 2, please, be agreeable, be wel-
come to. Used impersonally, placet,
it pleases, it seems good ; it is agreed,
it is settled ; it is resolved, it is de-
cided, ei placuit, he resolved (i.
34). [please.

placide, comp. -ius, [placidus], adv.,
quietly, calmly, vi. 8.

placo, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, appease,
conciliate, vi. 16. [placate.

Plancus, -i, m., Lucius Munatius
Plancus (rau-na' sh[y]us plang'-
kus), a lieutenant in Caesar's army.
v. 24, 25.

plane, comp. -ius, sup. -issime, [pla-
nus], adv., clearly, distinctly (iii.
26); entirely, qttite (vi. 43).

planities, -ei, [planus], f., level
ground, plain.

planus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, adj., level, even (iv. 23);
flat (iii. 13). [plain.

plebs, plebis, or plebes, -ei, f., the
common folk, the common people, the
masses, apud plebem, awow^//^
masses, [plebeian.

plene, comp. -ius, [plenus], adv.,
fully, completely, iii. 3.

plenus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, a.d]., full.




plerumque, [n. ace. of plerusque],
adv., commonly, generally, usually,
for t/ie most pari.

plerusque, -aque, -umque, [plerus,
very many~\, adj., very many, most.
As noun, plerique, -orumque, m.,
pi., the most, the greater part, the
majority, most.

PleumoxiI,-6rum, m., pi., (plu-mok'-
si-I), a Belgic people, subject to the
Nervians. v. 39.

plumbum, -I, n., lead. plumbum
album, tin (v. 12.) [plumber.

plurgs, piarimus, see multus.

plus, plurimum, see multum.

pluteus, -1, m., breastwork of planks
or wickerwork, placed on ramparts
(vii. 41), or on the stories of a tower
(vii. 25) ; wood construction (vii.
72); movable mantelet, to protect

poculum, -I, n., cup, beaker, vi. 28.

poena, -ae, f., compensation, fine (v.
1); punishment, penalty. poenas
pendere (vi. 9) or persolvere,
(i. 12), to pay the penalty, [penal.

pollex, pollicis, m., thumb, great toe.

polliceor, -liceri, -licitus, [por- +
liceor], 2, dep., promise, offer.

pollicitatio, -onis, [pollicitor, freq.
of polliceor], f., promise, offer.

pollicitus, see polliceor.

Pompeianus, -a, -um, [Pompeius],
adj., of Pompey. As noun, Pom-
peiani, -orum, m., pi., soldiers of
Pompey, Pompey's men. (C. in. 48.

Pompeius, -i, m., (pom-pe' yus) :

(1) Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus,
Pompey, Caesar's father-in-law and
rival, born B.C. 106; conquered by
Caesar at the battle of Pharsalus,
and afterwards murdered in Egypt.

(2) Gnaeus Pompeius, an inter-
preter serving under Titurius Sabi-
nus. v. 36.

pondus, ponderis, [cf. pendS], n.,

heaviness, zueight (ii. 29; vi. 27; vii.

22); a weight as a standard of

value (v. 12); quantity (C. in. 96).

pono, ponere, posui, positus, 3,

place, put; lay down (iv. 37); set

aside (vi. 17); station ; pitch. Pass.

often be situated, be dependent, de-
pend on. castra pSnere, to pitch

camp, encamp, [positive.
pons, pontis, m., bridge, [pontoon.
populatio, -onis, [populor], f., a

laying waste, ravaging, i. 15.
populor, -ari, -atus, 1, dep., lay

waste, devastate, i. 1 1,
populus, -i, m., people as a political

whole, nation, [people.
por-, in composition, forth, forward.
porrigo, -rig-ere, -rexl, -rectus,

[por- -j- regfS], 3, reach out, extend.
porro, adv., moreover, furthermore.

v. 27. ,
porta, -ae, f., gate of a city, gateway ;

of a camp, gate, entrance, passage.

[porter (door-keeper).
porto, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, carry,

bring, convey, take, [portage.
portorium, -i, n., toll, tax, customs

duties, i. 18; iii. i.
portus, -us, m., harbor, haven, [port.
posco, poscere, poposci, 3, demand,

ask for urgently ; of things, require,

make necessary (vii. 1).
positus, -a, -um, see pSnS.
possessio, -onis, [cf. possidS], f.,

possession, [possession.
possideo, -sidere, -sedi, [por- +

sedeo], 2, hold, occupy, possess.

i. 34; ii. 4; vi. 12. [possess.
possido, -sidere, -s§di, -sessus,

[por- + sid5], 3, gain possession of,

possess one's self of. iv. 7.
possum, posse, potui, [potis, able,

+ sum], irr., be able, can : have

power, have influence. multum




posse, to have great influence;
plurimum posse, to have very
great power, influence, [posse.

post, adv., afterwards, later, after;
with abl. of degree of difference,
anno post, a year later, the follow-
ing year, paucis post diebus, a
few days later.

post, prep, with ace. only :

( i ) Of place, behind. post ter-
gum, in the rear.

(2) Of time, after. post me-
diam noctem, after midnight.

postea [post ea], adv., aftenvards.
postea quam, with the force of a
conjunction, after that, after.

posterus, -a, -um, nom. sing. m. not
in use, comp. posterior, sup. pos-
tremus, [post], adj., the following,
next. As noun, poster!, -orum,
m.,pl., posterity (vii. 77). [postern.

[post + pono], 3, put after, lay
aside. omnia postponere, to dis-
regard everything else (vi. 3). om-
nibus rebus postpositis, laying
everything else aside (v. 7) . [post-

postpositus, see postpono.

postquam [post -f quam], conj.,
after that, after, when; post and
quam are often separated by inter-
vening words.

postremo [abl. of postremus, sc.
tempore], adv., at last, finally.

postridie, [locative from posterus
dies], adv., the next day. postridie
eius diei, the next day, the follozving

postulatum, -I, [part, of postulS],
n., demand, claim, request.

postulo, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, claim,
demand, ask, request ; of things, re-
quire, make necessary, demand '; ac-
cuse of (C in. 83). [postulate.

potens, -entis, comp. potentior, sup.

-issimus, [part, of possum], adj.,
powerful. As noun, potentior,
-oris, m., one more powerful (vi.
Il); pi., the more powerful (ii. 1;
vi. 13, 22). potentissimi, -orum,
m., pi., the most powerful (vi. 22).

potentatus, -us, [potens], m.,
power, headship, supremacy. I. 31.

potentia, -ae, [potens], f., might,
power, influence, [potency.

potestas, -atis, [potis], f., might,
power, authority, lordship; possibil-
ity, opportunity. potestatem fa-
cere, to give opportunity ; to grant
permission (iv. 15; v. 41).

potior, potiri, potitus, [potis, able],
4, dep., obtain possession of become
master of, acquire, obtain.

potius, adv. in comp. degree, sup.
potissimum, [potis], adv., rather,
more, preferably. potius quam,
rather than.

prae, prep, with abl., in comparison
with (ii. 30), on account of (vii. 44).

praeacuo, -cuere, -cui, -cutus, 3,
sharpen at the end.

praeacutus, -a, -um, [part, of prae-
acuo], adj., sharpened at the end,
sharpened, pointed ; very sharp.

praebeo, -ere, praebui, praebitus.
[prae + habe5], 2, hold forth ; ex-
hibit, manifest; furnish, provide (ii.
17); produce (iii. 17). [prebendary.

praecaveo, -cavere, -cavi, -cautus,
[prae + caved], 2, take precau-
tions, i. 38. [precaution.

praecedo, -cedere, -cessi, -cessu-
rus, [prae + cedo], 3, go before ;
surpass, excel (i. 1). [precede.

praeceps, -cipitis, [prae + cap in
caput], adj., headlong, with great
speed, head over heels (ii. 24; v. 17);
steep, precipitous (iv. 33). [precipi-




praeceptum, -I, [part, of praecipiS],
n., order, command, instruction, in-
junction ; precept, v. 35; vi. 36.

praecipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptus,
[prae + capio], 3, anticipate (vn.
9; C. ill. 87); order, direct, instruct.

praecipito, -are, -avi, -atus, [prae-
ceps], 1, hurl headlong, fling down.

praecipu§, [praecipuus], adv., es-
pecially, specially, particularly.

praecipuus, -a, -urn, [prae + cap
in capio], adj., especial, particular.

praecludo, -cludere,-clusi,-clusus,
[prae + claudo], 3, close up, block.
v. 9. [preclude.

praeco, -onis, m., herald, crier.

Praeconinua (pre-co-nf nus), see
Valerius (1).

praecurro, -currere, -cucurri or
-curri, [prae -f curr6], 3, run
forward, hasten forzvard (vi. 39, C.
11. 34); hasten in advance (vii. 37) ;
anticipate (vii. 9). [precursor.

praeda, -ae, [cf. praehendo], f.,
booty, spoil, plunder, [prey.

praedico, -are, -avi, -atus, [prae +
dico], 1, make known, declare, an-
nounce ; boast (i. 44, C. 11. 39).

praedico, -dicere, -dixi, -dictus,
[prae + dico], 3, say beforehand ;
order, give orders, in advance (C. in.
92). [predict.

praedo, -onis, [praeda], m., robber,
pirate. Cm. 104.

praedor, -ari, -atus, [praeda], 1,
dep., obtain booty, pillage, plunder.

praeduco, -ducere, -duxi, -ductus,
[prae + duc5], 3, extend, make in
front, vii. 46, 69.

praefectus, see praeflciS

praefectus, -i, [praeflciO], m., com-
mander, prefect; subsidiary official
0- 39)- [prefect.

praefero, -ferre, -tuli, -latus, [prae
+ fer5], irr., carry before ; put be-
fore, prefer to (v. 54). se prae-
ferre, to show one's self superior to
(ii. 27). [prefer.

praeficio, -flcere, -feci, -fectus,
[prae + facio], 3, place in com-
mand of, appoint to command.

praeflgo, -figere, -fixi, -fixus, [prae
+ figo, fasten'}, 3, fix in front.
sudibus praefixis, by driving
stakes in front (v. 18). [prefix.

praefringo, -fringere, -fregi, -frac-
tus, [prae + frang-6], 3, break off,
shatter. C. II, 6.

praemetuo, -ere, [prae 4- metuo,
fear~\, 3, be anxious, vii. 49.

praemitto, -mittere, -misi, -missus,
[prae + mitto], 3, send forzvard,
send ahead, send in advance, [pre-

praemium, -i, [prae, cf. emo], n.,
reward, distinction, [premium.

praeoccupo, -are, -avi, -atus, [prae
-f occupo], 1, take possession of be-
forehand, seize first (vii. 26). [pre-

praeopto,-are, -avi, atus, [prae -f
opto], I, choose rather, prefer. I.

praeparo,-are, -avi, -atus, [prae -f

paro], 1, make ready beforehand,

make ready, prepare, [prepare.
praepono, -ponere, -posui, -posi-

tus, [prae + p5no], 3, set over,

place in command of.
praerumpo, -rumpere, -rupi, -rup-

tus, [prae -f- rumpS, break}, 3,

break off in front, break off. iii. 14.
praeruptus, -a. -um, [part, of prae-

rumpS], adj., steep, precipitous.
praesaepio, -saepire, -saepsi,

-saeptus, [prae + saepio], 4.

fence in ; block, bar (vii. 77).
praesaeptua, see praesaepiS.
praescribo, -scribere, -scripsi,




-scrlptus, [prae + scrlb5], 3, give
directions, direct (i. 30, 40); deter-
mine (ii. 20). [prescribe.

praescrlptum, -1, [part, of prae-
scrlbo], n., direction, order, instruc-
tions, i. 36. [prescript.

praesens, -entis, comp. -ior, [part,
of praesum], adj., at hand, present.

praesentia, -ae, [praesens], {^pres-
ence (v. 43) ; present time. in
praesentia, for the present, [pres-

praesentio, -sentire, -sensl, -sen-
sus, [prae + sentio], 4, perceive
beforehand, v. 54; vii. 30.

praesertim [prae, cf. sero, join],
adv., especially, particularly.

praesidium, -I, [pr&eses, guard], n.,
guard, detachment, garrison, protec-
tion ; post, redoubt; safety (ii. 11).

praesto, -stare, -stiti, -stitus, [prae
+ sto], 1, surpass, excel ; exhibit,
display, manifest; discharge, per-
form, do. Impers. praestat, it is
preferable, it is better.

praesto, adv., at hand. praestS
esse, to meet (v. 26).

praesum, -esse, -ful, [prae + sum],
irr., preside over ; be at the head of
have command of, have charge of

praeter, prep, with ace. only, beyond
(i. 48); except, besides ; contrary to.

praeterea [praeter -f ea], adv., be-
sides, further.

praeter eo, -Ire, -Ivi or -ii, -itus,
[praeter + eo], irr., pass over
(vii. 25, 77); pass, go by (vii. 77).

praeteritus, see praetereo.

praetermitto, -mittere, -mlsi, mis-
sus, [praeter + mitto], 3, pass
over, let pass, allow to go by.

praeterquam [praeter + quam],
adv. with comparative force, other
than, besides, vii. 77.

praetor, -oris, [*praeitor, from
praeeo], m., general, commander
(i. 21); praetor, a Roman magis-
trate, next in rank to the consul.

praetorium, -i, [praetorius], n.,
general's tent. C. ill. 82.

praetorius, -a, -um, [praetor], adj.,
of the commander, general's (i. 40,
42); pretorian. As noun, praeto-
rius, -I, m., ex-praetor, man of prae-
torian rank (C. in. 82). [preto-

praetura, -ae, [praetor], f., the office
of praetor, praetor ship (C. in. 82).

praeustus, -a, -um, [part, of prae-
uro], adj., burnt at the end, hard-
ened at the end by burning.

praeverto, -vertere, -verti, [prae
+ verto], 3, outstrip ; attend to first

(vii- 33)-

pravus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, adj., bad, wicked, vii. 39.

preces, see prex.

premo, -ere. pressi, pressus, 3,
press, harass, oppress ; pass., be hard
pressed, be beset, be burdened, be in
need, [press.

prendo (for prehendo), prendere,
prendi, prensus, 3, take, grasp.
i. 20.

pretium, -i, n., price, value, [price.

prex, precis, f., generally pi., nom.
and gen. sing, not in use, prayer,
entreaty, supplication ; curse, impre-
cation (vi. 31).

pridie, adv., the day before, the previ-
ous day. pridie eius diei, the
day before that day, on the previous
day (i. 47).

primipHus, -i, [primus + pllus], m.,
= primus pllus, first centurion;
see pllus. ii. 25, C. ill. 53.

primo [abl. of primus], adv., at first,
in the first place.

primum [ace. of primus], adv., first,
before everything else, in the first




place. quam primum, as soon as
possible, cum primum, as soon as.

primus, see prior.

princeps, -ipis, [primus -f cap in
capiS], ad)., first, chief, at the front.
As noun, m., leading man, leader, pi.
often leading men. [prince.

principatus, -us, [princeps], m.,
chief authority, headship, [principate.

prior, -us, gen. priSris, adj. in comp.
degree, sup. primus, [cf. pro],
former, previous, first. As noun,
priores, -um, m., pi., those in ad-
vance (ii. n). Sup. primus, first,
the first. As noun, primi, -orum,
m., pi., the foremost men, the first.
prima, -orum, n., pi., in the phrase
in primis, especially, [prior, prime.

pristinus, -a, -um, [*pris, = prius,
-f -tin us], adj., former, previotcs,
earlier, old-time, [pristine.

prius [prior], adv., before, sooner,

priusquam, prius quam, conj., be-
fore, sooner than ; prius and quam
are often separated by intervening

privatim [privatus], adv., privately,
as individuals, opposed in meaning
to publico, i. 17; v. 55.

privatus, -a, -um, [part, of privS],
adj., private, personal. As noun,
privatus, -i, m., private individual
(vi. 13). [private.

privo, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, rob, de-
prive. C. in. 90.

pro, prep, with abl. only, in front of,
before ; for, in behalf of; instead of,
as; on account of, in return for;
in accordance with (ii. 31); in pro-
portion to, considering (i. 2, 51; vi.
19; vii. 56, 74).

probo, -are, -avi, -atus, [probus],
I, approve; show to be worthy, dis-
play (v. 44); prove (v. 27); show,
demonstrate (i. 3). [probe.

proc6do, -cedere, -cessi, [pr5 4-
cedO], 3, advance, go forward.

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 67 of 73)