Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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3. frumenta : the plural is used by Caesar of standing grain ; ' crops
of grain. 1 matura: 'ripe. 1 81. ne . . . quidem: 'not even. 1 287, c.
pabuli : ' of fodder, 1 required for the baggage animals as well as the
horses of the cavalry.

4. autem: 236, a. frumento: after uti. 131, c. B. 218, 1 ; A.
410; H. 477.

5. flumine : 134, a. B. 218, 9 ; A. 429, a\ H. 476. Ararl: 18, e.
subvexerat : ' he had brought up. 1

6. averterant : the Helvetians had at first followed the valley of the
Arar (Sadne) northward, but now ' had turned away from the Arar '
and passed westward into the valley of the Liger (Loire), avoiding the
mountainous country opposite the place where they had crossed the
Arar; see Map 1.



42 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

discedere nolebat. Diem ex die ducere Aedul; conferri,
comportari, adesse dlcere.

Ubi se diutius duel intellexit et diem instare, quo die

iofrumentum militibus metiri oporteret, convocatis eorum

prlncipibus, quorum magnam copiam in castris habebat, in

his Diviciaco et Lisco, qui summd magistratui praeerat,




Figure 41. — Mount Beuvray.
Site of Bibracte, the Aeduan capital, seen from the west. Highest elevation, 2690 feet.

7. Diem ex dig ducere: sc. eum, 'were putting him off from day
to day.' Diem : 118, a. ducere, dlcere : historical infinitives. 182.
conferri, comportari, adesse: SC. fnlmentuuu 'that (the grain) was
being collected 1 from individuals, 'that it was being brought 1 to
Caesar\s headquarters, ' that it was just at hand 1 ; climax, with asyn-
deton. 238, a, and 289, d.

9. diutius: 'too long. 1 153, a. instare : i was near. 1 178, and
213, a. diS : not translated. 165, a.

10. frumentum : object of metiri. mgtiri : ' to measure out. 1 61, a,
(4), and 222, a. B. 327, 1 ; A. 454; H. 615. How often did the sol-
diers receive grain ? 317. oportSret : 73, a, b, and 21 4, a.
convocatis: « having called together. 1 How lit.? 144i b, (2).

12. Diviciaco et Lisco: sc. convocatis. summd: S3.

magistratui: 107, a, and 82, b. praeerat: we say 'held. 1

66, a.



I, i7j The Campaign against the Helvetians 43

quern ' vergobretum ' appellant Aedul, qui creatur annuus
et vltae necisque in suds habet potestatem, graviter eos
accusat, quod, cum neque emi neque ex agris suml posset, is
tarn necessario tempore, tarn propinquis hostibus, ab els
non sublevetur, praesertim cum, magna ex parte eorum
precibus adductus, bellum susceperit ; multo etiam gravius,
quod sit destitutus, queritur.

17. Turn demura Liscus, oratione Caesaris adductus,
quod antea tacuerat, proponit:

13. vergobretum: 'vergobret.' 115, a, and 289, a. Meaning?
See Vocab. qui: 'who'; the antecedent is vergobretum. crea-
tur : 'is elected. 1 The seat of government was at Bibracte, which was
securely situated on the top of a mountain (Fig. 41). annuus:
'annually. 1 151.

14. vltae necisque : ' of life and death.' 102. in suds : 'over
his countrymen. 1 154, a. eos accusat : 'he took them to task. 1 175,6.

15. emi: 'be purchased.' 55. neque . . . neque: 238, a.
posset: sc.frflmentum. 220.

16. necessario tempore: 'at so critical a time.' 147, a.
hostibus: 144, b, (2).

17. non sublevetur: with quod, 'because (as he said) he received
no help from them,' lit. 'was not helped by them. 1 214, b\ see N. to
chap. 16, 1. 1, quod essent pollicitl. praesertim cum: 'especially
since. 1 184, a , b. magna ex parte: 'in great measure.'
eorum precibus: 'by their entreaties.' 135, a.

18. bellum: 'campaign' against the Helvetians. multo: 140.
B. 223; A. 414; H. 471, 10.

19. sit destitutus: translate as if pluperfect, 'he had been aban-
doned ' ; the time is past relatively to that of queritur, which is a his-
torical present, ' he complained.' 177, b, and 214, b.

17. 2. quod: as antecedent supply id with proponit. 160, c.
antea: 'previously.' tacuerat: 'had kept to himself.' How lit.?
proponit: 'brought forward (saying),' i.e. 'declared.' 213, a.

3-1 1. Direct form: Non nu III sunt, quorum auctoritas apud plebem plu-
rimum valet, qui prlvatim plus possunt quam ipsi magistrates.

Hi seditiosa at que improba orati5ne multitudinem deterrent, ne fru-
mentum conferant, quod (con/erre) debent ; (dlcunt) praestare . . . sint
erepturl.



44 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

Esse non nullos, quorum auctoritds apud pleben.i plfiri-
mum valeat, qui privdtim plus possint quam ipsl magis-
s trdtus.

Hos seditiosd atque improbd ordtione multitudincm
deterrere, ne frumentum conferant, quod debeant : prae stare,
si iam principdtum Galliae obtinere non possint, Gal lor urn
quam Romdnorum imperia perferre ; neque dubitdre debere,
io quin, si Helvetios superdverint Romani, una cum reliqud
Gallia Aeduis libcrtatem sint erepturi.

3. Esse non nullos : that there were some men. 90, a, and 212, b
and c ; also 23, a, and 154, a. plurimum valeat : ' carried very
great weight.' 32, and 118, b.

4. privatim: 'as private individuals. 1 77. plus possint : ; had
more power.' The state of affairs here depicted arose from the feudal
organization of society, which rendered it possible for the great land-
holders to control multitudes of personal adherents. Cf. chap. 4, 11.
4-8 and Book VI, chap. 15. 288, 289.

6. sgditiosa atque improba oratione : ' by seditious and shame-
less propagandism.' Among the Aeduans there was a strong party
opposed to the Romans.

7. d£terrere : 'were holding back' by inspiring fear. ng . . .
conferant: 'from furnishing.' 201, a. B. 295, 3; A. 558, b\ H. 566.
conferant: plural because of the idea of plurality in multitudinon.
173, b. dgbeant: 'they were under obligation to furnish'; lit.
'owed.' praestare . . . erepturi: parenthetical indirect discourse,
summarizing the line of argument {ordtione, 1. 6) by which the anti-
Roman leaders influenced the Aeduan populace ; ' (saying) that it was
better,' etc. 213, a.

8. si iam . . . non possint : ' if they (the Aeduans) could no
longer.' 218, (1), a. Formerly, for a considerable period, the Aeduans
had been the leading people in Gaul (VI. 13). Gallorum : 'of
Gauls,' i.e. of Helvetians.

9. imperia : plural as referring to the acts of a sovereign power,
trans, 'the rule.' perferre: 'to endure'; subject of praestare.
neque dubitare dgbgre : sc. se 'and they ought not to doubt that. 1

10. superaverint : 'should have vanquished.' 218, (1), b, and
219. una : adverb.

11. Aeduis: dative. 109, b. B. 188, 2, d\ A. 381; H. 427-



1, 18] The Campaign against the Helvetians 45

Ab els dent nostra cons ilia, quaeque in castrls gerantur,
hostibus enuntiarl ; hos dse coerceri non posse. Quin etiam,
quod necessariam rem coactus Caesarl enuntiarit, intellegere
sese, quanto id cum perlculo fecerit, et ob earn causam, quam *5
diu potuerit, tacuisse.

Privately Caesar learns that Dumnorix is the arch-traitor.

18. Caesar hac oratione LiscT Durnnorigem, Diviciaci
fratrem, designari sentiebat ; sed, quod pluribus praesenti-
bus eas res iactarl nolebat, celeriter concilium dimittit,

sint erepturi : ' they were going to take away ' ; subjunctive also in
direct discourse. 201, c, and 63.

12-16. Direct form: Ab elsdem tua cSnsilia, quaeque in castrls geruntur,
hostibus eniintiantur ; hi a me coerceri n5n possunt. QuTn etiam, quod
necessariam rem coactus tibi enilntidvl, intellego, quant5 id cum perlculo
fecerim, et ob earn causam, quam diu potul, tacul.

12. nostra: from the Roman point of view, quaeque . . . geran-
tur: 'and whatever is Gone, 1 lit. 'and what things are done.'

13. se : Liscus. coerceri: 'be restrained'; Liscus's 'power of
life and death,' which he had as vergobret, was here of no avail.
Quin etiam : ' moreover.'

14. quod . . . emintiarit : 64, a, (1), and 198, c. coactus:
'under compulsion,' by reason of the vehemence of Caesar's com-
plaints (chap. i6,ll. 14-15) and his position as the highest Aeduan
official.

15. id: refers to the clause quod . . . enuntiarit. 160, c.
perlculo : ' danger.' 137, c, and 84- fecerit : trans, as if pluper-
fect. 204, (3)- quam diu: 'as long as.'

16. tacuisse : intransitive, sc. se as subject ; 'he had kept silent.'
18. 1. Durnnorigem: 10, c. Diviciaci: 19, d, and 289, c.

2. designari: 'was meant.' 218, a. sentiebat: 'perceived.'
pluribus praesentibus : 'with many persons present.' 144, b, (2).

3. res : ' matters,' i.e. the real reasons why the state of the Aeduans
had not made good its promises. iactarl : ' should be discussed.'
223, a. celeriter : ' quickly,' so as to shut off discussion. 34, a-
concilium : ' the assembly ' of leading Aeduans {principibus, chap. 16,
1. 11). dimittit: 'dismissed. 1



46 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

Liscum retinet. Quaerit ex solo ea, quae in conventu
s dlxerat ; dicit liberius atque audacius.

Eadem secreto ab aliis quaerit, reperit esse vera :
Ipsum esse Dumnorigem, summd audacia, magna apud
plebem propter liberalitatem gratia, cupidum re rum nova-
rum. Complures annos. portoria reliquaque omnia Aeduo-
io rum vectigalia parvd pretio redempta habere, proptered quod,
illo licente, co?itrd liceri audeat nemo.

4. retinet : ' (but) detained. 1 288, a. Quaerit ex [eo] solo ea,
quae : « (Caesar) asked him alone about what,' lit. ' those things
which.' 116, c. conventu: ' the conference. 1 1.

5. dicit: sc. Liscus. liberius: * more freely. 1 34, a.

6. sScrSto : ' privately. 1 34, b. reperit : i he found. 1 esse
vSra : sc. ea, 'that they (Liscus^ statements) were true. 1 148, c.

7-1 1. Direct form : Ipse est Dumnorix, summa audacia, magna apud
plebem propter liberalitatem gratia, cupidus rerum novarum. Complures
annos port5ria reliquaque omnia Aeduorum vectigalia parvo pretio redempta
habet, propterea quod, illo licente, contra liceri audct nemo.

7. Ipsum : in predicate, but trans. ' that in fact it was Dumnorix,''
as Caesar had surmised (1. 2). How lit.? 162, a. For the incHrect
discourse see 212, a-c. summa. audacia : i (a man) of the utmost
audacity. 1 143, a. B. 224; A. 415 ; H. 473, 2.

8. liberalitatem: 'lavish giving. 1

9. annos : 118, a. portoria : ' tolls, 1 levied chiefly, we may
assume, upon goods passing through the cruntry along the roads and
rivers. reliqua : 171, a.

10. vectigalia: 'revenues 1 in general; vectlgal (derived from
vectus, participle of veho) means that which is 'brought in 1 to the
public treasury. 16, d. pretio :' price.' 141- redgmpta habSre :
trans, as if redemisse ' (he) had farmed. 1 229, a. The Aeduan
revenues were " farmed out " as among the Romans : that is, the priv-
ilege of collecting taxes was sold at auction to the highest bidder, who
guaranteed to the state a certain sum, did the collecting through his
agents, and kept for himself all that he could make above the amount
paid into the public treasury and the costs of collection. The " pub-
licans " of the New Testament were collectors of taxes under this system,
which afforded large opportunity for corruption and extortion.

11. illo licente: 'when he made a bid. 1 01, n, (2). and /




1, 18] The Campaign against the Helvetians 47

His rebus et suam rem familidrem auxisse et facilitates
ad largiendum magnas comparasse ; magnum numerum
equitatus sud sumptu semper alere et circum se habere, neque
solum domi, sed etiam apud flnitimas civitates largiter 15
posse, atque huius potentiae causa matrem in Biturigibus
homini illic nobilissimo ac potentissimo collocasse ; ipsum
ex Helvetils uxorem habere, sordrem ex mdtre et propinquds
suds nuptum in alias civitates collocasse.

contra : here an adverb. nemo : 12, d. Since no one dared to
bid against Dumnorix, he could obtain the right to collect the taxes on
terms most favorable to himself. (Fig. 42.)



12-19. Direct form: His rebus et suam
rem familiarem auxit et facilitates ad largi-
endum magnas comparavit. Magnum nume-
rum equitatus suo sumptu semper alit et
circum se habet ; neque solum domi, sed etiam Figure 42. — Coin of

apud flnitimas civitates largiter potest, atque Dumnorix.

huius potentiae causa matrem in Biturigibus Silver. Obverse, helmeted head;
homini illic nSbilissimo ac potentissim5 col- inscription DUBNOCOU. Reverse,
, _ . . , T , _ .. _ , , , warrior carrying a Gallic standard

locavit; ipse ex Helvetus uxorem ^^, with the image of a boar) of which

sororem . . . collocavit. only the lower part is seen ; in-

^ scription, DUBNOREX.

12. et . . . et: 233, a. rem

familiarem: 'private fortune.' auxisse: '(he) had increased.'

13. ad largiendum: 'for bribery.' 61, a, (4), and 230, (3).
comparasse: 64, a, (1).

14. suo sumptu: 'at his own expense.' alere: 'maintained.'
neque : trans, as if et non. 233, a.

15. solum: 'only.' 236, d. domi: 20, c, and lJfi. largiter
posse : ' had great influence.' How lit. ?

16. huius potentiae causa : ' to increase this influence.' How lit. ?
135, b. matrem : 11, e. Biturigibus : 10, c.

17. illic: ' of that country.' How lit.? collocasse: ' (he) had
given in marriage.' ipsum : ' (he) himself,' Dumnorix.

18. uxorem : ' wife,' a daughter of Orgetorix (chap. 3, 1. 17). 13, d.
sororem ex matre : 'half-sister, on his mother's side.' propin-
quas : ' his female relatives.'

19. nuptum in ... . collocasse : ' had settled in marriage among
. . .* How lit.? 231, a. B. 340, 1, b\ A. 509; H. 633, 1.



48 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

20 Favere et cupere Helvetils propter earn affinitatem, ddisse
etiam suo nomine Caesarem et Rdmdnos, quod eorum ad-
ventu potentia eins deminuta et Diviciacus f rater in anti-
quum locum grdtiae atque honoris sit restitutus. Si quid
accidat Romdnls, summam in spent per Helvetios regni ob-

25 tincndi venire ; imperio popull Romanl non modo de regno,
sed etiam de ed, quam habeat, gratia desperare.

Reperiebat etiam in quaerendd Caesar, quod proelium
equestre adversum paucis ante diebus esset factum, initium
eius fugae factum a Dumnorige atque eius equitibus (nam

20-26. Direct form : Favet et cupit Helvetils propter earn affinitatem,
odit etiam sud nomine Caesarem et Romanos, quod adventu potentia eius
deminuta \_esf\ et Diviciacus frater in antiquum locum gratiae atque honoris
est restitutus. ST quid accidat Romanis, summam in spem per Helvetios
regni obtinendi veniat ; imperio popull Romanl non modo de regn5, sed
etiam de ea, quam habet, gratia desperat.

20. Favere et cupere: ' (he) favored and wished (success). 1
affinitatem: 'relationship.' ddisse : ' (he) hated.' 72, a, b.

21. suo nomine : 'personally.' How lit. ? 135, a.

22. deminuta [sit] :' had been lessened.' in antiquum locum:
'to his former position,' which the rise of Dumnorix had obscured.
Diviciacus was a man of some culture. Five years previously, in 63 B.C.,
he had visited Rome.

23. sit restitutus : <■ had been restored.' Si . . . venire :
218, (2). quid : 49, a, and 168.

24. accidat: here used of something unfavorable ; our expression
"if anything should happen to him," has a similar underlying sugges-
tion, per : ' with the help of.' 123, a. rggni obtinendi : 230, (1).

25. imperio: 'under the supremacy.' 138. non modo . . .
sed etiam : 236, d. d§ regno : ' of the kingship.'

27. quaerendo : 230, (4). quod, etc. : 'that (in) the disastrous
cavalry engagement which had taken place ' ; proelium is attracted into
the relative clause, while its proper place in the antecedent clause is
taken by fugae.

28. di6bus: 140. initium: 'the beginning. 1

29. factum : sc. esse. The implication is that Dumnorix treacher-
ously started with the Aeduan contingent to flee, and that this precipi-
tated a general rout.



1, 19] The Campaign against the Helvetians 49

equitatui, quern auxilio Caesari Aedul miserant, Dumnorlx 30
praeerat), eorum fuga reliquum esse equitatum perterritum.

TJiough convinced of the treachery of Dumnorix, Caesar consults
his brother Diviciacus before taking action.

19. Quibus rebus cognitls, cum ad has susplciones cer-
tissimae res accederent, quod per fines Sequanorum Hel-
vetios traduxisset, quod obsides inter eos dandos curassej:,
quod ea omnia, non modo iniussu su5 et civitatis, sed etiam
inscientibus ipsis, fecisset, quod a magistratu Aeduorum s
accusaretur, satis esse causae arbitrabatur, quare in eum aut
ipse animadverteret, aut clvitatem animadvertere iuberet.



Figure 43. — Helvetian spear.
Found near the yoke shown in Figure 29.



30. equitatui: 107, a. auxilio Caesari: 'as an aid to Caesar. 1
112, b. B. 191, 2, b\ A. 382, 1 ; H. 433, 2.

31. esse perterritum : ' had been thrown into a panic.'

19. 1. Quibus rebus cognitls : ' Having found out these things.'
How ht. ? susplciones : ' grounds for suspicion.'

2. res: i facts,' specified in the following guod-c\auses. accede-
rent: trans, as if adder -entur, 'were added.' quod . . . accusa-
retur : 198, b, and 220. B. 324, 1 ; A. 593 ; H. 652.

3. obsides dandos curasset : ' had effected an exchange of hos-
tages.' 229, b. inter eos : between the two peoples, the Sequanians
and the Helvetians.

4. iniussu suo et civitatis : < without his own (Caesar's) authori-
zation and that of the state ' of the Aeduans. 135, b.

5. inscientibus ipsis : 'without their knowledge' ; ipsis — Caesare
et Aednis. 144, b, (2). magistratu Aeduorum : Liscus, the vergo-
bret (chap. 16).

6. satis . . . causae: 97, b. B. 201, 2; A. 346, a, 4; H. 443.
esse: 'that there was.' 90, a. in eum ipse animadverteret:
* he himself should punish him,' lit. 'should give attention to him.'

7. animadverteret : subjunctive also in direct discourse ; quare
= propter quam. 194, a. aut . . . aut: 285, a, b.



/



50



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 68



His omnibus rebus unum repugnabat, quod Diviciaci
fratris summum in populum Romanum studium, summam

ioin se voluntatem, egregiam fidem, iustitiam, temperantiam
cognoverat; nam, ne eius supplicio Diviciaci animum
offenderet, verebatur.

Itaque prius quam quicquam conaretur, Diviciacum ad
se vocari iubet et, cotidianis interpretibus remotis, per C.

15 Valerium Troucillum, principem Galliae provinciae, fami-
liarem suum, cui summam omnium rerum fidem habebat,
cum eo colloquitur ; simul commonefacit, quae, ipso prae-



154, a.




i remarkable. 1
self-control. '



8. rebus: 105. unum: 'one consideration. 1
pugnabat : 'weighed against, 1 lit. 'contended against. 1

9. fratris: 11, e. studium: 'devotion. 1 81.

10. ggregiam :
temperantiam :
238, a, and 81 .

1 1 . cognoverat : ' was familiar
with. 1 176, b. eius : trans, as
if Dumnorlgis. supplicio : ' by
the punishment.'

12. offenderet: with ;//, 'that
he might offend. 1 202. ver6-
batur: 'he was afraid.' 61, a,
(2).

13. conargtur : 189, b. Di-
viciacum vocari : ' that Diviciacus
be summoned.' 223, a.

14. cotidianls interpretibus :
'the ordinary interpreters.' Divi-

Figure 44. — Lance heads found at ciacus, notwithstanding his visit to
Alesia, now in the Museum of Rome, had evidently not learned to
St. Germain. spea k Latin; and Caesar did not

understand Celtic. 10, e. per: 123, a.

15. Galliae provinciae : 290. familiarem : ' intimate friend.'

16. cui . . . habgbat: 'in 1 (lit. 'to') 'whom he had the utmost
confidence in' (lit. 'of') 'all matters. 1

17. eo : Diviciacus. colloquitur: 'he conversed.' com-



1,20] The Campaign against the Helvetians 51

sente, in cohcilio Gallorum de Dumnorige sint dicta, et
ostendit, quae separatim quisque de eo apud se dixerit.
Petit atque hortatur, ut sine eius offensione animl vel ipse 20
de eo, causa cognita, statuat, vel civitatem statuere iubeat.

Moved by the pleading of Diviciacus, Caesar pardons Dumnorix,
but warns Mm.

20. Diviciacus, multis cum lacrimis Caesarem complexus,
obsecrare coepit, ne quid gravius in fratrem statueret :

Scire se, ilia esse vera, nee quemquam ex eo plus quant se
doldris capere, proptered quod, cum ipse gratia plurimum
dorni atque in reliqua Gallia, ille minimum propter adule- 5

monefacit : ' he called to mind.' quae : 4&, a, and 204, ( 2 )- ipso :
Diviciacus.

19. separatim :' separately.' 77. quisque : 49, a. apud se :
'in his (Caesar's) presence.' 158, a.

20. Petit atque hortatur: 'He besought and urged (Diviciacus).'
60. ut . . . statuat, iubeat : 199, a. eius : dependent on
animi: trans., with sine offensione, 'without suffering his (Diviciacus's)
feelings to be hurt.' How lit. ? vel . . . vel : 235, a, b. ipse . . .
statuat: lit., 'that he (Caesar) himself pass judgment'; the con-
nection with the preceding hortatur shows that the underlying thought
is : 'to permit him (Caesar), having heard the case, to pronounce
judgment on Dumnorix (de eo), or direct the state (of the Aeduans) to
pronounce judgment.'

20. 1. lacrimis: 136, a. complexus: 'embracing.' 61,

a, (3), and£g£, c.

2. obsecrare: 'to entreat (him).' ne quid gravius statueret :
' not to take too harsh measures.' How lit. ? quid : substantive form.
49, a; 117, a, and 168. gravius : 153, a. statueret : 199, a.

3. Scire se : ' (saying) that he knew.' 213, b, and 178. nee
quemquam : 'and that no one.' 49, a, and 168. ex eo : 'on ac-
count of that fact.' 160, c. plus doloris : 25, b, and 97, b. B.
201, 1; A. 346,^,3; H. 442.

4. ipse : Diviciacus. gratia : 135, a. plurimum : sc. posset.
118, b.

5. domi: i.e. in Aeduls. 20, c, and 146. ille: Dumnorix.



52 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 68

scentiam posset, per se crevisset ; quibus opibus ac nervis non
solum ad minuendam gratiam, sed pacne ad perniciem suam
uteretur.

Sese tamen et amove fraterno et exlstimatione vulgi com-

10 moveri. Quod si quid el a Caesare gravius accidisset,
cum ipse eum locum amicitiae apud eum teneret, neminem
exlstimaturum, non sua voluntate factum ; qua ex re fuiu-
rum, uti totlus Galliae animl a se averterentur.

Haec cum pluribus verbis flens a Caesare peteret,

is Caesar eius dextram prendit; consolatus rogat, finem
orandi faciat ; tanti eius apud se gratiam esse ostendit, uti

minimum : 32, and 118, b. adulescentiam : ' his youth.' Dum-
norix apparently was considerably younger than Diviciacus.

6. per se crevisset : * (Dumnorix) had increased (in resources and
strength) through his help. 1 123, a. quibus: ' and these.' 167.
opibus: 'resources.' Why ablative? 131, c.

7. ad minuendam gratiam: ; to lessen his (Diviciacus's) popu-
larity.' 230,(3). perniciem: 'destruction/

9. frSterno: i.e. frdtris ; 'by affection for his brother,' we should
say. exlstimatione vulgi: 'by public opinion.' How lit.? 6, b.

10. Quod: 118, d. ei: = Dumnorlgi. a Caesare: 'at the
hands of Caesar.' accidisset : 218, (1), b.

11. cum: 'while.' eum . . . eum: 'such a relation of friend-
ship with Caesar.' How lit.?

12. non factum [esse] : 'that it was not done,' after existimaturum
[esse], 213, a. sua voluntate: 136, c. B. 220, 3; H. 473, 3.
futurum [esse] : ' it would come about ' ; the subject is ////" . . .
averterentur. 203, (1).

14. cum . . . peteret: 185, c. pluribus verbis: 'with very
many words ; so we often say, 'at great length.' 138. flgns :
226, a, and 227, b.

15. dextram: 'right hand.' prgndit : 'grasped.' consola-
tus rogat: 'reassuring (Diviciacus) he asked (him).' 61, a, (1), and
226, c.

16. orandi: 'of his pleading.' 230, (i). faciat: 'to make.'
200, a. B. 295,8; A. 565, a\ H. 565,4. tanti . . . esse: 'that
his (Diviciacus's) influence with himself (se refers to Caesar) was >,>
great,' lit. 'of so great account.' 101. B. 203, 3; A. 417; H. 448, 1.



1,21] The Campaign against the Helvetians 53

et rel publicae iniuriam et suum dolorem eius voluntati
ac precibus condonet.

Dumnorigem ad se vocat, fratrem adhibet ; quae in eo
reprehendat, ostendit ; quae ipse intellegat, quae civitas 20
queratur, proponit ; monet, ut in reliquum tempus omnes
suspiciones vitet; praeterita se Diviciaco fratri condonare
dicit.

Dumnorigi custddes ponit, ut, quae agat, quibuscum
loquatur, scire possit. 25

Caesar plans to crush the Helvetians by a double surprise.

21. Eodem die ab exploratoribus certior factus, hostes
sub monte consedisse milia passuum ab ipslus castrls octo,

17. et . . . et: 233, a. rel publicae: 102. eius voluntati:
' in response to his wishes ' ; dative of indirect object on account of the
meaning ' give ' or ' present ' in con-donet. 104, a.

18. condonet: ' he would disregard.' 177, b.

19. fratrem adhibet: 'he had the brother (Diviciacus) present.'
238, a. quae : 4.8, a.

20. reprehendat: 'he objected to. 1 204, (2)- intellegat: —
sciat. civitas : i.e. of the Aeduans, whose agreement to furnish
grain had been broken.

21. monet: 'he warned (Dumnorix). 1 in reliquum tempus:
'for the future.'

22. vitet : 'he should avoid.' 199, a. praeterita: neuter
plural, 'the past.' 154, a. Diviciaco fratri: dative, but trans.,
'for the sake of Diviciacus, his brother.' 104, a.

24. custodes : ' watches,' corresponding with the detectives of our



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