Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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C. 11. 35.

turma, -ae, f., troop, squa'tiron of cav-

turmatim, [turma], adv., by squad-
rons. C. in. 93.

Turoni, -orum, m., pi., (tu'ro-nl), a
Gallic people, on the Liger {Loire).

turpis, -e, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
adj., ugly ; disgraceful, shameful.

turpiter, comp. -ius, sup. -issime,
[turpis], adv., basely, disgracefully.

turpittido, -inis, [turpis], f., base-
ness, disgrace, ii. 27. [turpitude.

turris, -is, f., tower ; movable tower,
built on wheels so that it could be
moved up to the wall of a besieged
city, [tower.

Tuticanus, -i, m., (tu-ti-ka' nus), a
Gaul in Caesar's army. C. ill. 71.

titto, comp. ttitius, [abl. of tutus],
adv., in safety, safely, securely.

tutus, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
[part, of tueor], adj., safe, secure.

tuus, -a, -um, [tu], possessive pro-
nominal adj., thy, your. v. 44.

ubi or ubi, adv., of place, where ; of
time, when. ubi primum, as soon

Ubii, -orum, m., pi., Ubians, Ubii
(u' bi-I), a German people.




ubique [ubi -f -que], adv., anyiuhere,
everyzvhere. iii. 16. [ubiquity.

Ubius, -a, -um, adj., C'bian, of the
Ubians (vi. 29).

ulciscor, ulclsci, ultus, 3, dep.,
take vengeance on (i 14; iv. 19; v.
38); avenge (i. 12); to take ven-
geance (vi. 34).

ullus, -a, -um, gen. ullius, adj., any.
As noun, anyone, anybody (i. 8).

ulterior, -ius, [ultra], adj. in comp.
degree, farther, beyond, more remote,
more distant. Sup. ultimus,
farthest, most distant, most remote ;
last. As noun, ulteriores, -um,
m., pi., Viose who tiere further off
(vi. 2); ultimi, -orum, m., pi., the
last (v. 43). [ulterior, ultimate.

ultra, prep, with ace. only, on the
farther side of; beyond (i. 48, 49).

ultro, adv. , to the farther side ; besides,
moreover, also (v. 28, vi. 35); actu-
ally (v. 40) ; of one's own accord,

ultus, see ulciscor.

ululatus, -us, [ululo, yell], m., only
in ace. and abl., shouting, yell.

umerus, -I, m., shoulder. vii. 50,

umquam, adv. , at any lime, ever.

una [anus], adv , into one place (vii.
87); in the same place (ii. 29; vii.
38) ; at the same time ; together, in
company, una cum, along with, to-
gether with.

undo, adv., whence, from ivhich.

undecim, or XI, [anus + decern],
indeclinable num. adj., eleven.

undecimus, -a, -um, [undecim],
num. ord. adj , eleventh.

undgquadraginta, or XXXIX, [anus
+ de + quadr&ginta], indeclinable
num. adj., thirty-nine .

undSvigintl, or XVHII, [anus +
d§ -f vigintl], indeclinable num.
adj., nineteen, i. 8.

undique [unde -f -que], adv., from
all sides, on all sides, everywhere.

uni versus, -a. -um,[unu8 -f versus,
from vertoj, adj., all together, all,
in a body ; the whole of, entire. As
noun, Universi, -5rum, m , pi . all
the men together, the whole body, all
together. [ u n i verse .

unus, -a, -um, gen. anius, num. adj.,
one ; one alone, only one, only, sole ;
one and the same. I'l , Uni, alone,
only. uno tempore, at one and
the same time. ad unum omnes,
all to a man (v. 37). [unite.

urbanus, -a, -um, [urbs], adj., of
the city, referring to Rome, [urban.

urbs, urbis, f., city; often the city,
referring to Rome.

urgeo, urgere, ursi, 2, press ; pass.,
be hard pressed (ii. 25, 26).

urus, -i, m., wild ox. vi. 28.

Usipetes, -um, m., pi., (u-sip' e-tez),
a German people.

usitatus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, [part, of Usitor], adj.,
usual ; common, fa rti Hi ar (vii. 22).

usque, adv., as far as, even. Usque
ad, as far as ; of time, up to, until
(i. 50; iii. 15). Usque eo, even
so far as this, even to this degree (vi.
37; vii. 17).

usus, see Utor.

usus, -Us, [cf. Utor], m., use, prac-
tice, exercise, employment ; experi-
ew, familiarity {with), skill;
control; advantage, benefit; need,
necessity. ex UsU, of advantage.
[use (noun).

ut, uti, adv. and conj. :

( 1 ) As adv., interrogative, how (1.
43, 46); relative, as, just as.

(2) As conj., with indie, ^(1.4);
when, as soon as (i. 31) ; with sul>j.,
that, so that ; in order that; tA
although (iii. 9),




uter, utra, utrum, gen. utrlus, pro-
nominal adj., oltcn used as subst.,
which of two, whichever, which.

uter que, -traque, -trumque, gen.
utrlusque, [uter + -que], adj.,
each, both. As subst., uterque,
utrlusque, m., both, each. PI.,
utrique, both sides, both forces (iv.
26; v. 50; vii. 70, 80, 85) ; both peo-
ples (ii. 16; vii. 7).

uti, see ut.

Utica, -ae, f., (ii' ti-ca), a city in
northern Africa, on the sea-coast.

Uticenses, -ium, m., pi., Uticans, the
inhabitants of Utica. C. 11. 36.

utilis, -e, comp. -ior, sup. -issimus,
[utor], adj., useful, serviceable (iv.
7; vii. 20); helpful (vii. 76).

utilitas, -atis, [utilis], f., usefulness,
advantage, benefit, [utility.

iitor, uti, usus, 3, dep., use, employ,
adopt; avail one's self of have, en-
joy, find ; observe, maintain; exer-
cise, display, show, [use (verb).

utrimque [uterque], adv., on both

utrum, [uter], conj., whether.

uxor, -oris, f., wife, [uxorious.

Vacalus, -1, m., Waal, Vacalus
(vak'a-lus), an arm of the Rhine,
v/hich flows west into the Meuse.
iv. 10.

vacatio, -5nis, [cf. vaco], f., exemp-
tion, vi. 14. [vacation.

vaco, -are, -avl, -atus, 1, be unoccu-
pied, lie waste, [vacate.

vacuus, -a, -um, sup. vacuissimus,
[vaco], adj., empty, clear, vacant,
unoccupied ; destitute (ii. 12).

vadum, -1, n., shoal, shallow- (iii. 9,
12, 13; iv. 26); ford, shallow place.

vagina, -ae, f., scabbard, sheath, v. 44.

vagor, -ari, -atus, 1, dep., wander^

wander about, roam about.
valeo, -ere, -ui, -iturus, 2, be poxver-

Jul, be strong ; have power, have in-
fluence ; prevail, [value.
Valerius, -I, m., (va-le' rj-us) :

(i) Lucius Valerius Praeconinus,

a lieutenant defeated and killed in

Aquitania a few years before 56 B.C.

iii. 20.

(2) Gaius Valerius Flaccus, a
Roman governor in Gaul. i. 47.

(3) Gaius Valerius Caburus, a
Gaul who received the Roman fran-
chise, B.C. 83. i. 47; vii. 65.

(4) Gaius Valerius Procillus, son
of (3) ; sent by Caesar as envoy to
Ariovistus. i. 47, 53.

(5) Gaius Valerius Donnotaurus,
a Gaul, son of (3). vii. 65.

(6) Gaius Valerius Troucillus,
see Troucillus. i. 19.

(7) Valerius Flaccus, an officer in
Pompey's army. C. in. 53.

Valetiacus, -I, m., (val' e-shi-a' kus),
vergobret of the Aeduans in 53 B.C.
vii. 32.

valetudo, -inis, [cf. valeS], f., health.
v. 40; vii. 78. [valetudinarian.

valles or vallis, -is, f., valley, [val-

vallum, -i, [v&llus], n., rampart set
with palisades, wall, inlrenchmenl.

vallus. -i, m., stake, pole; rampart
stake, palisade ; rampart stakes in po-
sition, stockade, palisade ; sharpened
point (vii. 73).

Vangiones, -um, m., pi., (van-ji' o-
nez), a German tribe, i. 51.

varietas, -atis, [varius], f., variety,
diversity (vii. 23) ; mottled appear-
ance (vi. 27). [variety.

varius, -a, -um, adj., different, diverse.

Varus, -I, a Roman name : see Attius




vasto, -are, -avi, -atus, [vastus], i,
lay waste, devastate.

vastus, -a, -urn, comp. -ior, sup.
-issimus, adj., vast, immense, [vast.

vaticin&tio, -onis, [vaticinor, pre-
dict], {., prophecy, i. 50. [vatici-

Vatinius, -I, m.,Publius Vatinius (va-
tin' j-us), a partizan of Caesar. C.
in. 90.

-ve, enclitic conj., or.

vectigal, -alis, [cf. veho], n., tax,
tribute (v. 22); revenue (i. 18, 36).

vectigalis, -e, [vectigal], zxi\., pay-
ing tribute, tributary. 111. 8; iv. 3.

vectorius, -a, -um, [vector, cf.
veh5], adj., for carrying, vecto-
rium navig'ium, transport ship
(v. 8). [vectorial.

vehementer, comp. vehementius,
sup. -issime, [vehemens, eager,
violent], adv., vigorously, violently ;
exceedingly, greatly.

veho, -ere, vexi, vectus, 3, carry.
equo vectus, riding on horseback
(C. 11. 44). [vehicle.

vel, [vol5], conj., or. vel . . . vel,
either . . . or. As adv., even (vii. 37).

Velanius, -1, m., Quintus Velanius
(ve-la' ni-us), an officer under Cras-
sus. iii. 7, 8.

Velioc asses, -ium, and VeliocassI,
-orum, m., pi., (vel" j-o-kas' ez,
vel" i-o-kas' i), a small state north
of the Sequana {Seine).

Vellaunodunum, -I, n., (vel" a-no-
du' num), a town of the Senones.
vii. 11, 14.

Vellavii, -5rum, m., pi., (ve-la' vj-i),
a small state in the Cebenna (Ce-
vennes) Mountains, vii. 75.

vglocitas, -atis, [v§15x], f., swift-
ness, speed, vi. 28. [velocity.

vfilociter, comp. velScius, sup. v§15-
clssimS, [v616x], adv., swiftly,
quickly, v. 35.

velox, -ocis, comp. -ior, sup. -Issi-
mus, adj., swift, fast. i. 48. [velox.

vSlum, -i, n., sail. iii. 13, 14.

velut [vel + ut], adv., just as.
velut B\,just as if (\. 32).

venatio, -onis, [cf. venor, hunt], f.,
hunting, hunting expedition.

vgnStor, -oris, [venor, hunt], m.,
hunter, vi. 27.

vendo, -dere, -didi, -ditus, [venum,
sale, + do], 3, sell. [vend.

Venelli, -orum, m., pi., (ve-nel' I), a
Gallic people, on the northwest coast
(Fig. 210).

Figure 210. — A Venellan coin.

Gold. Reverse, two-horse chariot; the
charioteer holds aloft the model of a ship. In
front of the horses is a head of wheat, on a
sinuous stalk.

The head on the obverse wears a laurel

Veneti, -6rum, m., pi., Venetans. I'e-
neti (ven'e-ti), a sea-faring Gallic
people, on the west coast.

Venetia, -ae, f., (ve-ne' sh[y]a), the
country of the Venetans. iii. 9.

Veneticus, -a, -um, [Venetia], adj.,
of the Venetans, Venetan. Veneti-
cum bellum, the war with the Ve-
netans (iii. 18; iv. 21).

venla, -ae, f., pardon, forgiveness (vi.
4); permission (vii. 15). [venial.

venio, venire, veni, ventum est, 4,

ventito, -are, -avi, [freq. of veniO],
1, come often, go often, keep coming.

ventus. I, m., wind, [ventilate.

vSr, veris, n., spring. primO vSre,




at the commencement of spring (vi. 3).

Veragri, -orum, m., pi., (ver' a-gri),
an Alpine tribe.

Verbigenus, -1, m., Verbigen, Ver-
bigenus (ver-bij' e-nus), a canton of
the Helvetians, i. 27.

verbum, -I, n., word, verba facere,
to speak (ii. 14). [verb.

Vercassivellaunus, -I, m., (ver-kas"-
i-ve-la' nus), one of the four generals
in command of the Gallic army raised
for the relief of Alesia.

Vercingetorlx, -igis, m., (ver-sin-
jet'o-riks), an Arvemian, com-
mander-in-chief of the Gallic forces
in 52 B.C.

vereor, -eri, -itus, 2, dep., fear, be
afraid ; be afraid of dread.

vergo, -ere, 3, lie, slope ; be situated.

vergobretus, -I, m., [Celtic word,
'He that renders judgment'; as a
title, 'Dispenser of Justice'], ver-
gobret, title of the chief magistrate of
the Aeduans. i. 16.

veritus, see vereor.

vero [abl. neuter of verus], adv., in
truth, in fact, truly, certainly ; but,
but in fact, however.

verso, -are, -avi, -atus, [freq. of
verto], 1, turn often; shift, change
the position of (v. 44). Pass.
versor, -ari, -atus, as dep., lit.,
turn one's self about, move about in
any place; dwell, live, be; be occupied,
be engaged, be busy. in bello
versarl, to engage in war (vi. 15).

versus, -us, [verto], m., line, verse
(vi. 14). [verse.

versus, [part, of vert5], prep, and
adv. :

( 1 ) As prep., with ace. only, some-
times following a word governed by
ad or in, towards, in the direction

of. ad . . . versus, in . . . ver-
sus, towards.

(2) As adv., turned, facing.

quo que versus, in all directions

(iii. 23; vii. 4, 14).
Vertico, -onis, m., (ver'ti-ko), a

Nervian of rank. v. 45, 49.
verto, vertere, verti, versus, 3,

turn, turn about ; change. tergra

vertere, to turn and flee, to flee.
Verucloetius, -i, m., (ver-u-kle ; -

sh[y]us), a Helvetian who went as

envoy to Caesar, i. 7.
verus, -a, -um, comp. -ior, sup. ve-

rissimus, adj., true (i. 18, 20);

right, proper, fitting (iv. 8). As

noun, verum, -1,* n., the truth.

veri similis, probable (iii. 13).
verutum, -i, [veru, spit for roasting

meat], n., dart. v. 44.
Vesontio, -onis, m., (ve-son' sh[y]o),

chief city of the Sequanians, on the

Dubis (Doubs) river; now Besancon.

i- 38, 39-

vesper, -eri, m., evening, [vespers.

vester, -tra, -trum, [vos], posses-
sive pronominal adj., your, yours.

vestigium, -i, n., footprint, track (vi.
27) ; spot, place (iv. 2) ; of time,
moment, instant, [vestige.

vestio, -ire, -ivi, -itus, [vestis], 4,
clothe (v. 14; vii. 31); cover (vii.
23). [vestment.

vestis, -is, f , clothing, vii. 47. [vest.

vestitus, -us, [cf. vestio], m., cloth-
ing, garb. iv. 1 ; vii. 88.

veteranus, -a, -um, [vetus], adj.,
old, veteran, i. 24. [veteran.

veto, -are, -ui, -itus, 1, forbid (ii.
20); not allow (vii. ^3)- [veto.

vetus, -eris, sup. veterrimus, adj.,
old, former ; ancient, long-standing.

vetustas, -atis, [vetustus, vetus],
{., antiquity, ancient times. C. I. 6.

vexillum, -i, [cf. velum], n., banner,




vexo, -are, -avi, atus, [freq. of

veh5], i, harass, assail (i. 14; vi.

43); lay waste, overrun (ii. 4; iv.

15). [vex.
via, -ae, f., way, road; journey,

march. bidui via, a tzuo days'

march (vi. 7). [via.
viator, -oris, [cf. via], m., traveller,

wayfarer, iv. 5.
viceni, -ae, -a, [vigrintl], distrib.

num. adj., twenty each, twenty.
vicesimus, -a, -um, [vigrinti], num.

adj., tzventieth. vi. 21.
vicies [vigrinti], num. adv., twenty

times. vicies centum milia pas-

suum, ttvo thousand miles (v. 13).
vicinitas, -atis, [vicinus, near], {.,

neighborhood; neighbors (vi. 34).

vicis, -is, f., nom., dat. and voc. sing.

and gen. and voc. pi. not in use,

change, succession. in vicem, in

turn (iv. 1, C. in. 98)'. [vicar,
victima. -ae, f., victim. vi. 16.

victor, -oris, [vinco], m., conqueror,

victor. As adj., victorious (i. 31;

vii. 20, 62). [victor.
victoria, -ae, [victor], f., victory.

victus, sec vincS.
victus, -us, [viv5],m., living (1. 31);

mode of life (vi. 24) ; food, provisions

(vi. 22, 23). [victuals.
vicus, -i, m., village, hamlet.
video, videre, vidi, visus, 2, see,

perceive, observe ; understand. Pass.,

generally as dep., videor, videri,

visus sum, be seen, seem, appear;

seem proper, seem good, seem best.

Vienna, -ae, f., (vi-en' a), a city of the

Allobroges ; now Vienne. vii. 9.
vigilia, -ae, [vigil, watchman], (.,

watching, sleeplessness (v. 31, 32);

watch, a division of the night ; sentry

duty (C. in. 49). [vigil.

vlginti, or XX, indeclinable num. adj.,

vimen, -inis, n., pliant shoot, twig,
withe. ii. 33; vii. 73. [Viminal.

vincio, vincire, vinxi, vinctus, 4,
bind. i. 53

vinco, vincere, vici, victus, 3, con-
quer, overcome, defeat, subdue; ex-
ceed, surpass (vi. 43); carry one's
point, have one's own way (v. 30).
victi, -orum, part., used as noun,
m., pi., the conquered, [vincible.

vinculum, -i, [vinciS], n., chain,
bond, fetters, [vinculum.

vindico. -are, -avi, -atus, [cf. vin-
dex], 1, claim, demand (vii. 76) ;
restore to liberty (vii. I ) ; inflict
punishment (in. 16). [vindicate.

vinea, -ae, f., arbor-shed, sappers' hut.

vlnum, -l, n., wine. [wine.

violo, -are, -avi, -atus, [vis], I, do
violence to, maltreat (vi. 23) ; invade,
lay waste (vi. 32). [violate.

vir, viri, m., man; husband (y\. 19).

vires, see vis.

virgo, -inis, f., maiden, [virgin.

virgultum, -i, [virgra, a shoot], n.,
small brush ; fascine, iii. 18 ; vii. 73.

Viridomarus, -i, m., (vir" i-do-ma'-
rus), a prominent Aeduan.

Viridovix, -icis, m , (vi-rid'-o-viks),
a leader of the Venelli. iii. 17-18.

viritim, [vir], adv., man by man. to
each individually, vii. 71.

ViromanduT, -orum, m., pi., (vir-o-
man' du-I), a Belgic people about the
headwaters of the Samara (Somme)
and the Scaldis ( Schelde) . Fi«. 21 1.

virtua, -atis, [vir], f., manliness;
courage, bravery, prowess ;
energy, initiative (vii. 6, 59); effi-
ciency, effort (v. 8 ; vii. 22) ; worth
(i. 47). PL, remarkable qualities,
virtues (i. 44). [virtue.




vis, ace. vim, abl. vi, pi. vires, -ium,
f., strength (vi. 28); force, violence ;
influence, control (vi. 14, 17); num-
ber (vi. 36). PI., physical powers,
strength, [vim.

Figure 211. — A Viromanduan coin.
Bronze ; crude fanciful designs.

visus, see video.

vita, -ae, [cf. vivo], f., life, [vital.

vitium, -i, n., defect, failing, fault.
C. 11. 4, in. 72. [vice.*

vito, -are, -avi, -atus, I, shun, avoid,
try to escape.

vitrum, -i, n., woad, a plant used for
dyeing blue. v. 14.

vivo, vivere, vixi, victurus, 3, live ;
wilh abl., sustain life, live on (iv. I,
10; v. 14). [vivacious.

vivus, -a, -um, [cf. vivo], adj., liv-
ing, alive. As noun, vivi, -orum,
m., pi., the living (vi. 19). [vivi-

vix, adv., scarcely, barely ; with diffi-
culty, hardly (i. 6; vi. 37; vii. 46).

Vocates, -ium, m., pi., (vo-ka' tez),
a people in Aquitania. iii. 23, 27.

Voccio, -onis, m., (vok' sh[y]o), a
king of the Norici. i. 53.

voco, -are, -avi, -atus, [cf. v5x], 1,
call, summon ; call for, demand;
name, call (v. 21). [vocative.

Vocontii, -orum, m., pi., (vo-kon'-
sh[y]i), a Gallic people in the Prov-
ince, i. 10.

Volcacius, -i, m., Gains Volcacius
Tullus (vol-ka'sh[y]us tul' us), an
officer in Caesar's army.

Volcae, -arum, m., pi., (vol' se), a

Gallic people in the Province having
two branches, Arecomici and Tec-

volo, velle, volui, irr., be willing,
wish, desire ; mean, intend, purpose.

voluntarius, -a, -um, [volo], adj.,
willing ; serving as a volunteer (C.
in. 91). As noun, voluntarius, -i,
m., volunteer (v. 56). [voluntary.

voluntas, -atis, [volo], f., will, wish,
inclination, desire; good-will, loy-
alty (i. 19; v. 4; vii. 10); consent,
approval (i. 7, 20, 30, 39).

voluptas, -atis, [volo], f., pleasure,
indulgence, enjoyment ; amusement
(v. 12). [voluptuous.

Volusenus, -i, m., Gaius Volusenus
Quadratus (vol-u-se' nus kwa-dra'-
tus), a military tribune.

Vorenus, -i, m., Lucius Vorenus (vo-
re' nus), a centurion, v. 44.

Vosegus, -1, m., (vos' e-gus), a range
of mountains in eastern Gaul, now
Vosges (v5zh).

votum, -i, [voveS], n., vow. C. 1. 6.

voveo, vovere, vovi, votus, 2, vow.
vi. 16. [vow.

vox, vocis, f., voice (ii. 13; v. 30;
iv. 25); utterance (vn. 17); word,
reply (1. 32). PI. voces, words,
sayings, language, speeches, state-
ments, [voice.

Vulcanus, -1, m., Vulcan, son of Jupi-
ter and Juno, god of fire and of work
in metals, vi. 21. [volcano.

vulgo [vulgus], adv., generally, com-
monly, everywhere, i. 39; ii. I; v. 33.

vulgus, -I, n., common people ; multi-
tude, crowd ; of soldiers, rank and
file (1. 46). [vulgar.

vulnero, -are, -avi, -atus, [vulnus],
1, ivound, hurt, [vulnerable.

vulnus, -eris, n., 7vound.

vultus, -us, m., countenance, features,
expression of face. i. 39.


Regular verbs of the first conjugation are indicated by the figure I.

abandon, relinquo, -ere, -liqui, -lictus.
ability, virtus, -tutis, /.

natural ability, ingenium, -il, n.
have ability, possum, posse, potui.
able, be able, possum, posse, potui.
about, concerning, de, prep, with abl.
about, around, circum, prep, with

about {with numerals), circiter.
accept, accipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus.
accident, casus, -us, m.
accomplish, perficio, -ere, -feci,

-fectus; consequor, -I, -secutus.
account, on account of, propter, prep.

with ace.
accuse, accuso, i.
accustomed, be accustomed, soleo,

-ere, solitus.
across, trans, prep, with ace.
act (noun), factum, -I, n.
act (verb), facio, -ere, feci, f actus.
actively, acriter.
admit, confiteor, -eri, -fessus.
adopt, of a plan, utor.
advance, progredior, -gredi, -gressus.
advantage, bonum, -I, n. ; corn-

affair, res, rei, /.

public affairs, res publica.
afraid, be afraid, timeo, -ere, -ul.
after, post, prep, with -ace; postquam,

afterward, post, postea.
again, iterum.
against, in, ad, contra, prepositions

with ace.
ago, ante.

agriculture, agri cultura, -ae, /.

aid (noun), auxilium, -ii, n.

aid (verb), adiuvo, -are, -iuvi, -iutus,
with ace.

alarm, permoveo, -ere, -movi, -motus.

all, omnis, -e ; totus, -a, -um.

allow, patior, patl, passus.

ally, socius, -ii, m.

almost, fere, paene.

alone, solus, -a, -um.

already, iam.

also, quoque (postpositive) .

not only . . . but also, non modo
. . . sed etiam.

although, cum, quamquam.

always, semper.

ambassador, legatus, -i, m.

ambuscade, insidiae, -arum, /., pi.

among, apud, prep, with ace.

ancestors, maiores, -um, m.

anchor, ancora, -ae,/.
at anchor, ad ancoram.

and, et, atque, -que.

and . . . not, neque.
and so, itaque.

announce, nuntio, i.

another, alius, -a, -ud.

answer, respondeo, -ere, -di, re-

any, any one, anything, aliquis,
aliqua, aliquid (quod) ; after
si, nisi or ne, quis, qua, quid
(quod) ; with negatives, quisquam
quidquam (pron.) ; ullus, -a, -um
(adj.). t

appeal to r imploro, i.

approach, appropinquo, i.

approve, probo, i.

1 Reproduced, with the consent of the authors, from Latin Composition, by Bernard
M. Allen and John L. Phillips.





arise, cobnor, -In, -ortus.

arm, armo, i.

arms, arma, -orum, n.

army, exercitus, -us, m.

arouse, incito, i.

arrival, adventus, -us, m.

arrive, pervenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum

as, just as, ut, slcut, with indie.
as if, quasi, velut si.
as soon as, simul atque.
ask, request, rogo, i.

ask, seek, peto, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -Itus.
ask, inquire, quaero, -ere, -slvi or
-sil, -situs,
assistance, auxilium, -ii, n.
at, in with abl.; ad with ace.; sign of

locative case.
Atrebatian, Atrebas, -atis, m.
attack (noun), impetus, -us, m.
attack (verb), oppugno, i ; adgredior,
-i, -gressus; lacesso, -ere, -ivi or
-ii, -itus.
make an attack on, impetum facio
in with ace.
attempt (noun), conatus, -us, m.
attempt (verb), conor, i.
authority, auctoritas, -tatis,/.
avenge, ulciscor, -i, ultus.
avoid, vito, i.
await, exspecto, i.

away, be away, absum, abesse, afui,

baggage, impedimenta, -orum, n., pi.
band (of men), manus, -us,/.
barbarian, barbarus, -I, m.
battle, pugna, -ae,/. ; proelium, -ii, n.
be, sum, esse, fui, futurus.

be at hand, adsum, adesse, affui.
bear, fero, ferre, tuli, latus.
because, quod.

because of, propter, prep, with ace.
befall, accidit, -ere, accidit.
before (adv.), ante, an tea.
before (conj.), prius quam, ante quam.
before (prep.), ante, with ace.
before (adj.), prior, superior.

on the day before, pridie.
beg, dro, i ; peto, -ere, -ivi or -ii, -Itus.
began, coepi, coepisse, coeptus. Use
the pass, when the inf. is pass.

begin, incipio, e e {see began),
behalf, in behalf of, pro, prep, with

behind, post, prep, with ace.

behind him, them, etc., post tergum.
Belgians, Belgae, -arum, m., pi.
believe, credo, -ere, credidi, creditus;

puto, I.
belittle, minuo, -ere, -ui, -utus.
betray, prodo, -ere, -didi, -ditus.
between, inter, prep, with ace.
bitterly, acriter.
board, go on board, navem (navesj

ascendo, -ere, -scendi, -scensus.
body, corpus, -oris, n.
both, each, uterque, utraque, utrum-

both . . . and, et . . . et.
boundaries, fines, -ium, m.
brave, fortis, -e.
bravely, fortiter.
break down, perfringo, -ere, -fregi,

bridge, pons, pontis, m.
bring, fero, ferre, tuli, latus; duco,

-ere, duxl, -ductus,
bring about, conficio, -ere, -feci,

bring on, upon, Infero.
bring to, affero, afferre, attuli, allatus ;

adduco, -ere, -duxl, -ductus,
bring together, comporto, i.
Britain, Britannia, -ae, /.
Britons, BritannI, -orum, m., pi.
brother, frater, -tris, m.

(of a bridge), facio, -ere, feci, -factus.
(of a road), munio, -Ire, -Ivi. or

-ii, -Itus.
(of a rampart), perduco, -ducere,

-duxl, -ductus,
building, aedificium, -ii, ;/.
burn, set fire to, incendo, -ere, -cendi,

burning, incendium, -ii, n.
but, sed.

buy, emo, -ere, emi, emptus.
by, abl. case; ab, with ol>!. of agent.

call (by name), appells, i.
camp, castra, -orum, ;?., pi.
can, possum, posse, potui.




c pure, caplo, -ere, cepl, cap .us.

(by storming), expugno, i.
care, cura, -ae, /.
carefully, diligenter.
carriage with four wheels, wagon,

raeda, /.
carry, fero, ferre, tull, latus.

carry back, refero, referre, rettuli,

carry on, gero, -ere, gessi, gestus.
carry out, accomplish, perficio,
-ere, -feci, -fectus.
case, causa, -ae,/.

in the case of, in, prep, with abl.
cast off, cast out, abicio, -ere, -ieci,

-iectus ; eicio.
cause (noun), causa, -ae, /.
cause (verb), efficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus;

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 71 of 73)