Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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day; for Dumnorix was not imprisoned. agat: 204, (2). qui-
buscum : 125, c.

21. 1. Eodem die: 'on the same day,' that he had summoned
the council of Gallic leaders in camp (chap. 16, 11. 10-11), and had
had the interviews with Diviciacus and Dumnorix. explorato-

ribus : 327. hostgs. . . octo : 213, a. The Helvetians were now
in the valley of the Liger {Loire), southeast of Bibracte ; see Map 1.

2. sub monte: 'at the foot of an elevation.' 124, a. con-
sedisse : ' had encamped.' milia passuum : 118, a, and 243, a, b.



54 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

qualis esset natura montis et qualis in circuitu ascensus,
qui cognoscerent, misit. Renuntiatum est, facilem esse,
s De tertia vigilia Titum Labienum, legatum pr5 praetore,
cum duabus legionibus et els ducibus, qui iter cognoverant,




Figure 45. — Typical ridge in France, like that seized by Labienus.



3. qualis esset: 204,(3)- in circuitu ascgnsus : 'the ascent
from the opposite side,' lit. ' in the going around.' Caesar planned a
flank movement, with a surprise attack upon the Helvetians from two
sides at once ; a Roman force, following a circuitous route, would from
the rear secretly ascend the height at the foot of which the Helvetians
were encamped, and charge down upon them from above, while Caesar
with the rest of the army attacked them in front.

4. cognoscerent: 193, a. misit: sc. explordtores as antece-
dent of qui. esse: sc. eum (= OSCiMSttm).

5. d6 tertia vigilia : 2^2, c and d. pro praetore : when a lieu-
tenant was given a special responsibility, to act outside the presence
of the commander, he was called 'lieutenant in place of the general." or
as we say 'second in command.' 813.

6. els ducibus : ' with those as guides,' referring to the patrols
previously sent out.



1, 22] The Campaign against the Helvetians 55

summum iugum montis ascendere iubet ; quid sul consilii
sit, ostendit. Ipse de quarta vigilia eodem itinere, quo
hostes ierant, ad eos contehdit equitatumque omnem ante
se mittit. I0

P. Considius, qui rei militaris peritissimus habebatur, et
in exercitu L. Sullae, et postea in M. Crassi, fuerat, cum
exploratoribus praemittitur.

Through false information the plan miscarries.

22. Prima luce, cum summus mons a Labieno teneretur,
ipse ab hostium castrls non longius mille et quingentis
passibus abesset, neque, ut postea ex captlvis comperit,
aut ipslus adventus aut LabienI cognitus esset, Considius
equo admisso ad eum accurrit, dicit montem, quern as
Labieno occupdri voluerit, ab hostibus teneri ; id se a Galli-

7. summum iugum montis: 'the highest ridge of the elevation, 1
which was apparently long and uneven (Fig. 45). ascendere: 'to
ascend.' 81, and 200, b. quid sul consilii sit: 'what his plan
was, 1 lit. 'what is of his plan.' 94, d. B. 198, 3 ; A. 343, b\ H. 447.

8. de quarta vigilia : 2J+2, c, d. itinere, quo : 134, a. B. 218,
9 ; A. 429, a.

9. equitatum : the cavalry were to feel out the enemy. 828.

11. rei militaris : ' in the art of war.' 21, b, and 102. B. 204, 1 ;
A. 349, a; H. 451, 1. peritissimus: 153, a, and 148,c. This
favorable characterization of Considius is presented as a reason for
having sent so unreliable an officer on so important a reconnoiter.

12. L. Sullae, M. Crassi: both of high repute as generals, Sulla
for his services first in the war with Jugurtha in Africa, then in the
Social War, and in the East ; Crassus, for his decisive defeat of Spar-
tacus (chap. 40, 1. 17, and n.). 19, a. M. Crassi: sc. exercitu.

22. 1. Prima luce :' At daybreak.' 152, a. B. 241, 1 ; A. 293 ;
H. 497, 4. As it was now not far from July 1, daybreak was about
four o'clock. summus : 152, a.

3. passibus : 129, a. abesset, cognitus esset : 185, c. neque :
283, a. captivis : 'prisoners. 1 comperit: ' he ascertained. 1

5. equo admisso : 144,b, (7). accurrit :' hastened.' Howlit.?

6. occupari: occupd, meaning 'seize, 1 'take possession of, 1 is



56



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 58



els armis atque insignibus cognovisse. Caesar suas copias
in proximum collem subducit, aciem Instruit.

Labienus, ut erat el praeceptum a Caesare, ne proelium

10 committeret, nisi ipsius copiae prope hostium castra vlsae

essent, ut undique uno tempore in hostes impetus fieret,

monte occupato, nostros exspectabat proelioque abstinebat.

Multo denique die per exploratores Caesar cognovit, et

montem a suis tenerl et Helvetios castra movisse et Con-

15 sidium, timore perterritum, quod non vidisset, pro vlso sibi

renuntiavisse.

Eo die, quo consuerat intervallo, hostes sequitur, et milia
passuum tria ab eorum castris castra ponit.



generally much stronger than its English derivative "occupy.", 81.
voluerit : 214, a - G-allicis armis : 349.

7. insignibus : ' decorations, 1
used especially of the crests of hel-
mets. Two Gallic helmets are
shown in Fig. 46.

8. collem : * hill. ' 14, b.
subducit : ' led up.' aciem In-
struit : 'drew up a line of battle.'
337, a.

9. erat ei praeceptum : « he
had been ordered ' ; lit. ' it had been
ordered to him 1 ; the subject is ne

proelium committeret. 73, d, and 199, b. B. 295, 1 ; A. 566; H. 565.

10. nisi . . . vlsae essent : 218, (1), b. prope : ' near. 1 122, a.

11. impetus
purpose.




Figure 46. — Gallic helmet;



an attack. 1 20,



fieret : subjunctive of
proelio : 127, a.



12. nostros : the troops with Caesar. 154, a.
B. 214, 2; A. 401 ; H. 464.

13. Multo dig : ' Late in the day ' ; ablative of time. per : 123, a.
15. timore: 'fear, 1 used especially of a cowardly fear. 11. d.

perterritum : ' thoroughly frightened. 1 79, b. quod : as antece-
dent supply id, object of renuntiavisse. 160, c. pro viso : ' as
seen.' 154, a.

17. quo consugrat intervSllo : = eo intervallo, quo sea ui con-



1,23] The Campaign against the Helvetians 57

Caesar turns to go to Bibracte for supplies ; the Helvetians
attack his marching column on the rear.

v 23. Postrldie eius diel, quod omnino biduum supererat,
cum exercitui frumentum metlri oporteret, et quod a
Bibracte, oppido Aeduorum longe maximo et copiosissimo,
non amplius milibus passuum xvm aberat, rei frumentariae
prospiciendum existimavit ; iter ab Helvetils avertit acs
Bibracte Ire contendit.

Ea res per fugitivos L. Aemilii, decurionis equitum
Gallorum, hostibus nuntiatur. Helvetii, seu quod timore
perterritos R5manos discedere a se existimarent, eo magis
quod pridie, superioribus locls occupatls, proelium non io



snerat (consuever at), but trans, 'at the usual interval 1 ; this was five
or six miles (chap. 15, 11. 15-16). 138, and 165, c. milia pas-
suum : 118, a, and 243, a.

23. 1 . Postridie eius diel : < the next day.' 94, c. biduum
supererat: i two days remained.' 79, b.

2. .cum: trans, freely, 'before.' 185, c. metlri : 61, a, (4).
oporteret : 73, a, b.

3. Bibracte: 16, c, and Vocab. ; also Fig. 41. oppido: 91, a,
and 293, b. longg : 153, b. copiosissimo: 'wealthiest.' 75, f.

4. milibus : 129, a, and 243, b. How many English miles ? rei
frumentariae: 'the supply of grain,' or 'supplies.' 105.

5. prospiciendum [esse]: 'that he ought to provide for.' How
lit. ? 73, e.

6. Bibracte: here accusative. 119, a. B. 182, 1, a; A. 427,2;
H.418.

7. fugitivos: 'runaway slaves'; deserters from an army were
called perfugae (I. 28, 1. 4). ?4,g- L. : 19, a. Lucius Aemilius was
a Roman officer in charge of a squad of Gallic horsemen. decuri-
onis : ' decurion.' 309, c.

9. existimarent: 183, a. B. 286, 1; A. 592, 3; H. 588, II.
eo magis : ' all the more on this account,' eo being explained by the
following ^z^-clause. 135, a. B. 219; A. 404; H. 475.

10. pridie: 'on the day before.' superioribus locls occu-
patls : ' having seized a higher position,' referring to the exploit of
Labienus with two legions (chap. 21, 11. 5-8). How lit.? 144, b, (5).



58 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

commlsissent, sive eo, quod re frumentaria intercludi posse
confiderent, commutato consilio atque itinere converso,
nostros a novissimo agmine Insequi ac lacessere coeperunt.

Romans and Helvetians prepare for battle, the Romans on
sloping ground. The Helvetians advance.

24. Postquam id animum advertit, copias suas Caesar
in proximum collem subducit equitatumque, qui sustinerel
hostium impetum, misit.

Ipse interim in colle media triplicem aciem Instruxit

s legionum quattuor veteranarum ; atque supra se in summo

iugo duas legiones, quas in Gallia citeri5re proxime con-

11. rS: 127, a. intercludi: 'be cut off from.' posse: sc.
Romanos.

12. confiderent: ' were confident. 1 commutato, converso:
trans. ' having changed. 1 < having reversed ; 1 or, ' changing, 1 ' reversing. 1
How lit. ? 144, a, and 239, c.

13. a: 126, c. agmine: derivation? 74, d, and Vocab.

24. i. Postquam: 'After. 1 188. id: why accusative ? 11'.. .

2. collem: the hill of Armecy (ar'me-ci), about 16 English miles
southeast of Mt. Beuvray, the site of ancient Bibracte, and not far from
the village of Montmort. See Map 3, A. sustineret : 193, a, and
328. B. 282, 2 ; A. 531, 2 ; H. 590.

4. interim : ' meanwhile, 1 while the cavalry were holding back the
enemy ; it must have taken Caesar at least two hours to change over
his marching column, which was five or six miles long, into battle lines.
in colle medio : 152, a. B. 241, 1 ; A. 293 ; H. 497, 4. triplicem
aciem : the four legions stood side by side, with the cohorts of each
legion arranged in three lines (337, a). The triple line was not
straight, but followed the contour of the hillside, and was about an
English mile in length ; see Map 3, B-B.

5. legionum: 98, a. veteranarum* 'veteran. 1 What four
legions are meant ? 307, e. supra s6 : Caesar was near the front.
summo: 152, a.

6. Iegi6n§s . . . conscripserat : the nth a^d 12th legions; see
chap. 10, 11. io-ii, and 284. proximfi : 36.



I, 24] The Campaign against the Helvetians



59



scrlpserat, et omnia auxilia collocarl ac t5tum montem
hominibus compleri, et interea sarcinas in unum locum
conferri et eum ab eis, qui in superiore acie constiterant,
munirl iussit.




Figure 47. — Site of the battle with the Helvetians.

View from the hill where Caesar's army was posted, looking toward the right. The
hill on which Caesar took up his position, and the height to which the Helvetians retreated,
are similar to this hill in formation and appearance,

7. auxilia: 308. ac : 'and (thus). 1 totum montem: 'the
entire upper part ' of the hill ; see N. to chap. 2, 1. 10, monte Iura.

8. hominibus : 131, b. compleri : ' be completely rilled. 1 By
occupying the gently rounding crest of the hill (cf. Fig. 47) Caesar
strengthened his position in case his battle lines, posted halfway up the
slope, should be forced back. interea: 'in the meantime, 1 while
the troops were taking their positions. sarcinas: 'packs. 1 330.

9. eis : the two raw legions mentioned in 1. 6.

10. munirl: 'be fortified, 1 by a trench and a rampart formed from
the earth thrown out of the trench. The trench, which for a part of
the distance was double, has been traced by excavations ; the earthen
rampart has disappeared. The line of defense thus hastily made on the
highest part of the hill was semicircular in shape (Map 3, A).



60



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 68



Helvetii, cum omnibus suis carris secutl, impedimenta in
unum locum contulerunt ; ipsi, confertissima acie reiecto
nostr5 equitatu, phalange facta sub prlmam nostram aciem
successerunt.



Tlie Romans charge, forcing the Helvetians back.

25. Caesar, prlmum suo, deinde omnium ex c5nspectu
remotls equls, ut, aequato omnium periculo, spem fugae
V" tolleret, cohortatus suos proelium commisit.

ii. secutl: 226, c. impedimenta: 'baggage.' After the

Helvetian fighting men turned back in order to attack Caesar, the long
line of carts turned and came back also and formed
a great corral, or laager, probably at the spot marked
" Helvetian Corral " on Map 3. 74, d.

12. ipsi: the fighting men, as distinguished from
the old men, women, and children with the baggage.
confertissima acie : ' by (their) very close forma-
tion.' 131, a. reiecto: 'hurled back and.'
How lit.? 144, d, (2).

13. phalange facta: the Gauls, forming in 'a
compact mass,' probably fifteen to twenty men deep,
moved forward slowly but with almost irresistible
momentum ; those in the front rank held their large
shields (Fig. 48) so that these would overlap, pre-
senting a firm barrier to the enemy. 18, f. sub :
the Helvetians advanced uphill, and so ' up against '
the first line. 124, <*•

14. successerunt : ' pressed forward ' ; see Map
3, E-E.

25. 1. suo: sc. equo remote. 144, b, (2).

deinde : 237, b. omnium equis : ' the horses

of all 'the mounted officers and Caesar's staff, not of the cavalry.

According to Plutarch Caesar said that after he had won the victory he

should need the horse for the pursuit of the enemy.

2. aequato: 'by equalizing.' 144, &•> (6).

3. tolleret: 196, a. cohortatus: 'having harangued,' or
' harangued and.' It was customary for Roman commanders to address
their soldiers just before going into action. 228, a.




Figure 48. — Gallic
shield.
Of wickerwqrk, with
metallic boss ; about
four and a half Eng-
lish feet in height and
twenty-five inches
wide. Shown on a
life-size statue of a
Gallic warrior.



MAP 3

The Battle with the Helvetians
Book I, 24-26 To face page 60




h 2 £ 1

EXPLANATION

On the day before the battle the Helvetians probably crossed the Arroux at
Toulon and encamped near Montmort ; a part of the site of the camp is now
covered by a pond. Caesar, following, encamped near the Arroux.

A. Semicircular trench hastily dug by the XI th and XII th legions on the
hill (chap. 24, 11. 5-10).

B-B. The four veteran legions in battle order, three lines, first position.

C-C. First and second Roman lines, second position (chap. 25, 11. 21-23).

D. Third Roman line, second position, facing the Boians and Tulingians.

E-E. First position of the Helvetians (chap. 24, 11. 12-14).

F-F. Second position of the Helvetians, on a height (chap. 25, 11. 12-15).

G-G. Third position of the Helvetians, resuming the attack (chap. 25, 11. 18-20).

H. Boians and Tulingians (chap. 25, 11. 15-18).



1,25] The Campaign against the Helvetians 61

Milites, e loco superi5re pills missis, facile hostium
phalangem perfregerunt. Ea disiecta, gladils destrictis in s
eos impetum fecerunt.

Gallls magnd ad pugnam erat impedlmento, quod, pluribus
eorum scutls uno ictu pilorum transfixis et colligatis, cum
ferrum seinflexisset, neque evellere neque, sinistra impedita,
satis commode pugnare poterant, mult! ut, diu iactato brae- 10

4. pills missis : ' hurling their pikes,' with precision and terrible
effect, ' from their higher position ' on the slope. 322, d, and 144-> b, (6).

5. perfregerunt: < broke up. 1 Ea . . . destrictis: ' Having
thrown this (formation) into disorder they drew their swords and.'
How lit.? 322, (e).

6. impetum fecerunt : 'charged. 1 The first-line soldiers probably
allowed the Helvetians to approach within 60 feet before hurling their
pikes and charging.

7. Gallls . . . impedimento : ' a great hindrance 1 (lit. ' for a great
hindrance '), ' to the Gauls. 1 112, b. B. 191, 2, a ; A. 382, 1 ; H. 433.
ad pugnam : ' in fighting. 1 erat : the subject is the following
gzwd-c\a.use. 198, b.

8. scutls: < shields 1 (Fig. 48). uno ictu pilorum: 'by the
blow of a single pike, 1 we should say. 92, a. transfixis et colli-
gatis : < pierced and pinned together. 1 144, b, (2).

9. ferrum: the 'iron 1 of the pike (322, d) was long enough to
pierce two or more overlapping shields, and was of soft metal, so that it



— i — p
Figure 49. — The " iron " of a pike.

The pike was carried by one of Caesar's soldiers, and the iron was bent in action ; it
was found at Alesia. The length is 22| inches, including the barbed point.

would bend easily; the hard barbed point also hindered withdrawal
(Fig. 49). se inflexisset: ' had become bent. 1 185, c. gvellere :
' to pull (it) out. 1 sinistra impedita : i since the left hand,' which
carried the shield, 'was hampered. 1 144-, b, (3).

10. satis commode: 'to advantage. 1 How lit.? multi: em-
phatic position; subject of praeoptarent. 353, d. ut : 'so that. 1
iactato bracchio : ' having jerked their arms back and forth 1 in the
effort to pull the bent pike iron out of their shields. How lit.?
144, b, (2).



62 Caesar's Gallic War [B.<

chio, praeoptarent scutum manu emittere, et nudo corpore
pugnare. Tandem vulneribus defessi, et pedem referre et,
quod mons suberat circiter mille passuum spatio, eo se
recipere coeperunt.
s Capto monte et succedentibus nostrls, Boil et Tulingi,
qui hominum milibus circiter xv agmen hostium claude-
bant et novissimis praesidio erant, ex itinere nostros ab

11. praeoptarent: ' preferred.' manu: 127, a. emittere:
'to drop.' nudo : 'unprotected' by a shield. corpore: 13, f,
and 144, b, (7).

12. vulneribus: 13, e, and 135, a. defessi: 'exhausted.'
pedem referre : ' to fall back.' 69, b, and 19, d.

13. mons suberat: 'there was a height near by,' southwest of
the hill of Armecy ; see Map 3. 66, a. mille : 38, a. spatio :
'at a distance.' 147, c. eo : adverb. se recipere: 'to
retreat.'

15. Capto : ' reached,' i.e. by the Helvetians ; Map 3, F-F. 144, b,
(2). Boil et Tulingi : see chap. 5,11. 10-14.

16. hominum: 97, a. milibus: 131, a. agmen hostium
claudebant : ' were at the end of the enemy's marching column.'

17. novissimis {— novissimo agminf), praesidio: 112, b. B.
191, 2, a; A. 382, 1 ; H. 433. ex itinere: 'directly after march-
ing,' changing from marching order to fighting order as they came up.
In the morning as the long column of emigrants started out. the 15,000
Boians and Tulingians formed the vanguard. When the order passed
along the column to halt and turn back (chap. 23, 1. 12), they became
the rearguard, and were several miles away when the battle commenced.
As the host of non-combatants were forming a corral with the carts,
they marched by it and reached the field of battle just as the Romans
were following the retreating Helvetians. ab latere aperto : ' on
the exposed flank.' 126, c. Since the shield was carried on the left
arm, ' the exposed side ' of the soldier was the right side, whence the
expression was carried over to a body of soldiers in action. In the
present instance, the three Roman lines, still retaining, in the confusion
of battle, their distinct formation, were following the stubbornly resisting
Helvetians toward the southwest from their original position, when the
Boians and Tulingians came against them from the west, thus -attack-
ing ' the Romans on the right flank. Sec Map 3, H.



I, 26]



The Campaign against the Helvetians



63



latere apert5 aggress! circumvenire ; et, id conspicatl, Hel-
vetia qui in montem sese receperant, rursus Instare et
proelium redintegrare coeperunt.

Roman! conversa signa bipertlto intulerunt; prima et
secunda acies, ut victis ac summotls resisteret, tertia, ut
venientes sustineret.



The Helvetians are totally defeated. Caesar pursues the fleeing.

26. Ita ancipiti proelid diu atque acriter pugnatum est.
Diutius cum sustinere nostrorum impetus non possent,

18. circumvenire : 'to move around them,' so as to fall upon the
Romans in the rear; sc. coeperunt. conspicatl : ' perceiving.' 226, c.

19. rursus: 'again. 1 Derivation? See Vocab.

20. redintegrare : ' to re-

new, 1 again assuming the
offensive. Map 3, G-G.

21. conversa . . . intule-
runt : ' changed front and
advanced in two divisions, 1 one
division facing straight ahead
(Prima et secunda acies), the
other {tertia acies) facing
the Boians and Tulingians.
Strictly speaking, only the third
line changed front (Map 3, D) ;
the first and second lines were
already in position to meet the
new attack of the Helvetians
(Map 3, C-C). 228, a, an#'
825. /

22. victis ac summotls ;
'those who had been beaten
and driven back. 1 154, o\ an d




Figure 50. — Roman pike irons, found at
Alesia.



a, (4). tertia : £ c . acies. 91.



26. 1. ancipiti pro| e li6
lit.? 131, a. ancipiti:

pugnatum est : 73, d. I

2. possent : sc. hos\ t es. 185, c



'in two battles, 1 we should say. How
\6, b. diu: 35. acriter: 84, a.

B. 288, 1, b; A. 546; H. 600, II.



64 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 68

alter! se, ut coeperant, in montem receperunt, alterl ad
impedimenta et carros suos se contulerunt. Nam hoc toto

5 proelio, cum ab hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum sit,
aversum hostem videre nemo potuit.

Ad multam noctem etiam ad impedimenta pugnatum
est, propterea quod pro vallo carr5s obiecerant et e loco
superiore in nostros venientes tela coniciebant, et non null!

io inter carros rotasque mataras ac tragulas subiciebant
nostrosque vulnerabant. Diu cum esset pugnatum, im-



3. alterl, alterl : 'the combatants on one side 1 (i.e. Helvetii),
1 those on the other ' {Boil et Tulingi). How lit. ? 91, c, and 154, a.

4. carros: arranged for defense around the corral (Map 3). Cf.
chap. 3, 1. 3 and n. sS contulerunt : ' retired, 1 still fighting ; there
was no disorderly rout. Nam : 237, a.

5. proelio: 147, b. cum: 'although. 1 187. hora: 21,2, a.
vesperum : ' evening. 1 7, b.

6. aversum : ' turned to flight. 1 Caesar speaks with evident admi-
ration of the bravery of the enemy. nemo : 12, d.

7. Ad multam noctem : ' Until late at-night. 1 17, b, and 152, a.
ad : here ' at," u*- < by. 1

8. pro vallo cai^os obiecerant: 'had made a rampart of the

carts 1 (Fig. 51). How lit.?
t / / / / J loco superiore : the top of

/ // r< /x /Nf / tne carts -

//% JP^y WWW. Jt W3 fflk 9' conlcigbant: 'kept

fj %£.%$-^-'^^%Jr hurling. 1 175, a.

?&-'" *-*, 10. rotas : 'wheels. 1 These

Figure 51. -Carts about a corral. ^ man y cases were doubtless

. , . - solid disks of wood, which

Arrangement of two-wheeled carts to form a „
rampart for defense about an encampment. Kon ian weapons would not

pierctj. mataras ac tragu-
las : 'spears and darts. 1 849, and Fig. 40. subicigbant : notice
the force of sub-, ' kept throwing from below 1 as tne Roman soldiers
attacked the rampart of carts.

11. vulnerabant : ' were wounding. 1 The re must have been moon-
light, or at least clear starlight, else the Gaul., cou ld not have aimed
their weapons so well.



I, 26] The Campaign against the Helvetians



65



pedimentis castrisque nostri potiti sunt. Ibi Orgetorigis
fllia atque unus e filils captus est.

Ex eo proelio circiter hominum mllia cxxx superfuerunt
eaque tota nocte continenter ierunt ; nullam partem noctis 15
itinere intermisso, in fines Lingonum die quarto perve-
nerunt, cum et propter vulnera militum et propter sepul-
turam occis5rum nostri, triduum moratl, eos sequl n5n
potuissent.

Caesar ad Lingonas litteras nuntiosque misit, ne eos fru- 20



12. castris : ' encampment, 1 i.e. the corral. 131, c. B. 218, 1 ; A.
410 ; H. 477. Here were the old men, the women, and the children, of
whom a large number were immediately slaughtered.

13. e filils: trans, as Kifiliorum. 97, d. captus est : 172, b.

14. CXXX: centum triginta. 86, and 38, b.

15. nocte: 147, c. ierunt: 68, a. partem: 118, a.

16. intermisso: 'breaking.' How lit.? As the survivors seem-
ingly traveled at night only during the first night, the thought in nullam
. . . intermisso is substan-



tially the same as that in ed
. . . ierunt ; such repetitions
are characteristic of dictated
matter. 275. fines Lin-
gonum : more than fifty miles
north of the battlefield.

17. cum: 184, a. vul-
nera militum : the victory
must have cost the Romans
dearly. Roman soldiers car-
ing for wounded companions
are shown in Fig. 52. se-
pulturam : < burial.'

18. occisorum: 'the
slain,' chiefly Gauls. 154, a.




Figure 52. — Care of the wounded.
At the left a legionary, seriously wounded, sits
on a rock and two comrades are helping him to get
up. At the right another sits while his companion
binds up a wound on his leg. Ancient relief.



The number of Gauls that perished in this battle has been estimated by
some as high as 100,000, or even higher. Prompt burial was necessary
for the health of the friendly Aeduans, in whose country Caesar was.



triduum : ' three days. 1
20. Lingonas : 19, f.



litteras : * letters,'



nuntios : ' mes-



66 Caesar's Gallic War [B.c. sx

mento neve alia re iuvarent ; qui si iiivissent, se eddctn loco,
quo Helvetios, habiturum. Ipse, triduo intermisso, cum
omnibus copils eos sequl coepit.

The Helvetians beg for terms; one division tries to escape.

27. Helvetii, omnium rerum inopia adducti, legatos de

deditione ad eum miserunt. Qui cum eum in itinere con-



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 8 of 73)