Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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venissent seque ad pedes proiecissent suppliciterque locuti

flentes pacem petlssent* atque e5s in eo loco, quo turn

s essent, suum adventum exspectare iussisset, paruerunt.

Eo postquam Caesar pervenit, obsides, arma, servos, qui
ad eos perfugissent, poposcit. Dum ea conquiruntur et
conferuntur, circiter hominum milia vi eius pagi, qui
Verbigenus appellator, sive timore perterriti, ne, armis

sages, 1 to be delivered orally. nS : '(saying) that they should not. 1
213, d, and 212, a, eos : trans, as if Helvetios.

21. iuvarent: 'supply, 1 lit. 'aid. 1 216. B. 316; A. 588; H. 642,
4. qui: 167. iuvissent : sc. eos, = Helvetios. 218, (1), b.
s6 . . . habiturum : in full, se eos (= Lingonas) eodem loco, quo Hel-
vetios haberet, habiturum esse, but trans. * he would consider them in
the same light as the Helvetians. 1 145, c.

27. 1. inopia : 'lack. 1 Why ablative ? lggStos : 'envoys.'

2. dgditione : 'surrender. 1 Qui: 167. convSnissent : 113, b.

3. s5 proiScissent : ' had prostrated themselves. 1 suppliciter :
'in suppliant fashion. 1

4. flentgs : 227, b. eos : = Helvetios, not legatos.

5. essent: See n. to vellent, chap. 28, 1. 2. iussisset: 185,
c, and 200, b. parugrunt: 'they obeyed. 1

6. postquam: 188, a. servos: 'slaves. 1 qui perfugissent:
' who (as he said) had fled.' 214, b.

7. poposcit: 'he demanded. 1 ea : comprising obsidi's. arma,
(fugitivos) servos of 1. 6; neuter plural under the same rule of agree-
ment as predicate adjectives. 150, b. conquiruntur : ' were being
sought for. 1 Why present? 190, a.

8. conferuntur : 69, b. VI : = sex. 36.

9. perterriti: with milia. 150, c, and 238, h. nfii'that. 1 202
armis trftditls ; 'after giving up their arms. 1 144, b, (2).



1, 28] The Campaign against the Helvetians 67

traditis, supplicio afficerentur, sive spe salutis induct!, quod 10
in tanta multitudine dediticiorum suam fugam aut occultari
aut omnino ignorari posse existimarent, prima nocte
e castris Helvetiorum egressi ad Rhenum finesque
Germanorum contenderunt.

Caesar deals with the fugitive Verbigens, and sends the rest (except-
ing the Boians) back to the country whence they migrated.

28. Quod ubi Caesar resciit, quorum per fines ierant, his,
uti conqulrerent et reducerent, si sibi purgati esse vellent, im-
peravit; reductosin hostium numerohabuit; reliquosomnes,
obsidibus, armis, perfugls traditis, in deditionem accepit.

Helvetios, Tulingos, Latobrigos in fines suos, unde erant*
profecti, reverti iussit ; et, quod, omnibus frugibus amissis,

io. salutis: 'of safety.' 10, f.

11. in tanta multitudine: i.e. cum (' since 1 ) tanta multitudo
dediticiorum esset. dediticiorum : ' of those who had surrendered.'
occultari : ' be kept hidden.'

12. ignorari: < remain unnoticed.' How lit.? exlstimarent:
183, b. prima: 152, a.

28. i . Quod . . . resciit : ' Now when Caesar found this out,'
referring to the flight of the Verbigens. 167. ubi : 188, a. quo-
rum": precedes its antecedent his, which is in the dative after imfiera-
vit. 105.

2. reducerent: 'bring (them) back.' 199, a. sibi: 'in his
sight.' 109, a. B. 188, I, n. ; A. 376; H. 425,4- purgati: 'free
from guilt.' How lit.? 221, b. B. 328, 2 ; H. 612, 1. vellent : in
indirect discourse as a part of the order ; in the direct form, si vultis. 71 .

3. reductos : sc. eos, 'after they had been brought back.' How
lit.? 227, a, (4). in hostium numero : 'as enemies' The 6000
Verbigens were probably massacred, as a terrible warning ; but they
may have been sold into slavery. reliquos : 171, a.

4. perfugis : 'deserters.' accepit: 57, a.

5. suos: 157, b. unde: = e quibus. erant profecti : 61, a,

(3).

6. frugibus amissis : ' since all the produce of the fields was gone ' ;
no crops had been planted this season. How lit.? 1^4,b,(i).



68 Caesar's Gallic War (B.C. 58

domi nihil erat, qu5 famem tolerarent, Allobrogibus impera-
vit, ut els frumenti copiam facerent ; ipsos oppida vlcosque,
quos incenderant, restituere iussit.

10 Id ea maxime ratione fecit, quod noluit, eum locum, unde
Helvetii discesserant, vacare, ne propter bonitatem agrorum
German!, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, e suis flnibus in
Helvetiorum fines translrent et finitimi Galliae provinciae
Allobrogibusque essent.

15 Boios, petentibus Aeduis, quod egregia virtute erant
cogniti, ut in flnibus suis collocarent, concessit ; quibus illi
agros dederunt, quosque postea in parem iuris libertatisque
condicionem, atque ipsi erant, receperunt.

7. domi: i.e. in their own country. 1^6. erat: sc. els.
famem: 'hunger. 1 15, b. tolerarent: 'satisfy. 1 194, a.

8. facerent: 'furnish. 1 Why subjunctive? oppida, vicos :
how many? See chap. 5, 11. 3-4.

9. quos: 163, c. incenderant: when? See chap. 5.

10. ea maxime ratione: 'especially for this reason. 1 161, a.
noluit: 71, and 223, a. unde: =e quo.

11. vacare : 'remain unoccupied. 1 bonitatem: 'good quality. 1
76, a.

13. translrent: 196, a. As the Helvetians were now reduced to
about one third of their former number, much of their land must have
been left unoccupied, and was probably soon seized upon by German
immigrants. provinciae : 290. The northernmost part of the

Province was held by the Allobroges ; see Map 1 .

15. Boios: emphatic position; Aeduis (dative after concessit),
petentibus ut Boios in flnibus suis cotioc&rent, quod (Boti) fyegia
virti'ite cogniti erant \ (Caesar) concessit. The Aeduans, hard pressed
in their strifes with the Sequanians, desired an accession of strength.
353, d. virtute : 143, a.

16. collocSrent : 199, a. concessit: • he granted 1 the request,
quibus: trans, as if </ efS . 167.

17. quosque: — et eos. postea: after the great uprising in
Gaul, narrated in Book VII. parem . . . atque: 'the same' (lit.
'like 1 ) 'as. 1 233, c. B. 341, 1, € \ A. 324, c\ H. 657, 1, n.



I, 29]



The Campaign against the Helvetians



69



The number of the Helvetians and their allies.

29. In castrls Helvetiorum tabulae repertae sunt, litterls
Graecis cdnfectae, et ad Caesarem relatae, quibus in tabulis
nominatim rati5 confecta erat, qui numerus domo exlsset
eorum, qui arma ferre possent, et item separatim puerl,
senes mulieresque. Quarum omnium rerum summa erats
capitum Helvetiorum milia cclxiii, Tulingorum milia xxxvi,
Latobrigorum xiiii, Rauracorum xxm, Boiorum xxxn ; ex
his, qui arma ferre possent, ad milia nonaginta duo.

29. i. castris: the corral, indicated on Map 3. tabulae:
' tablets,' such as those generally used for business documents (Fig.
53). These were of light-colored wood, and made with a rim like that
of a slate. The surface inside the rim was coated with a thin layer of
wax, on which writing was done with a pointed stilus. The writing
appeared on the wood, which showed through wherever the stilus pene-
trated the wax. litterls Graecis confectae : ' written in Greek
characters,' which were used also by the Druids (VI. 14). On account of
the antiquity of Massilia {293, a), the Greek
alphabet must have become familiar to the in-
habitants of southern Gaul at an early date.

2. relatae : sc. sunt. 69, b. tabulis :
165, a.

3. nominatim : 'by name.' 77. ratio:
'statement.' qui : 48, b. domo : 130, b.
exlsset : 68, b, and 204, (2) .

4. possent: 194, o. pueri : 'chil-
dren.' 7, a.

5. senes: 18, b. mulieres : 11, c.
Quarum: 167. rerum: 'items,' here
used of persons ; Caesar was thinking of
the numbers rather than the personality.
summa : 'the aggregate.'

6. capitum Helvetiorum
many head




Figure 53. — Writing tablets.
The four tablets contain six
pages for writing, in addition to
the two outside covers.

trans, as if Helvetiorum ; we say " so
of stock, not of human beings. CCLXIII : ducenta



sexaginta tria. 37, b, and d, and 38, b. XXXVI, etc. : read in the
Latin. 36, and 37, b.

8. qui, etc. : i.e. el, qui arma ferre possent (194, a ), want, etc.
ad: adverb, 'approximately.'



70 Caesar's Gallic War [B.c \ 5A

Summa omnium fuerunt ad milia ccclxviii.
io Eorum, qui, domum redierunt, censu habito, ut Caesar
imperaverat, repertus est numerus milium c et x.

The Campaign against Ariovistus. 30-54
The Gallic leaders congratulate Caesar, request a conference.

30. Bello Helvetiorum confecto, totius fere Galliae legati,
principes civitatum, ad Caesarem gratulatum convenerunt :

Intellegere sese, tametsi pro veteribus Helvetidrum iniftriis
populi Romdni ab his poends bello repetisset, tamen earn rem
5 non minus ex usu terrae Galliae quam populi Romdni acci-
disse, proptered quod eo eonsilio, florentissimis rebus \ domos



9. fugrunt : plural on account of the influence of the predicate noun
milia. 173 y b. ad: adverb modifying ccclxviii (trecenta duodi-
septuagintd).

10. domum: 119, b. redigrunt : 'returned. 1 68, b. cSnsu :
'a census. 1 80, b. How many of the Helvetian host failed to return?

30. 1. Galliae : Celtic Gaul. 287, b.

2. prlncipga : 10, b. civitatum : 10, f, and 288, a, and b.
gratulatum : 231, a.

3-1 1. Direct form : Intellegimus, tametsi pro veteribus Helvetiorum iniurifs
populi Roman! ab his poenas bello repetier'is, tamen earn rem non minus ex
usu terrae Galliae quam populi Romani accidisse, propterea quod eo eonsilio,
florentissimis rebus, dom5s suas Helvetii reliquerunt, uti toti Galliae bellum
Inferrent, etc.

3. Intellegere sSsg, tametsi: '(Saying) that they understood
that, although. 1 212, a, b, and c, (1); also 21 3, b. iniuriis : with
two genitives, Helvetidrum (95) and populi (102) ; trans. ' wrongs
done to the Roman people by the Helvetians. 1

4. poenas : ' punishment. 1 92, a. repetlsset : = repetivisset,
'had exacted. 1 64, a, (3), and 214, a- *e m : ' achievement. 1

5. ex usu terrae: 'to the advantage of the country. 1 How lit?
accidisse : ' had turned out. 1

6. eo eonsilio: 'with this design, 1 explained by the following
^//-clause. 138. florentissimis rgbus : 'though their circum-



Plate II Officers, Standard-bearers, and Musicians




i. Commander, imperator. 2. Lieutenant-general, legatus.

3. Centurion, centurio. 4. Lictor. 5. Standard-bearers, signiferi.

6, Eagle-bearer, aquilifer. 7. Trumpeter, tubicen. 8. Hornblower, cornicen.

9. Eagle, aquila. 10. Banner, vexillum.



I. 30] The Campaign against Ariovistus



71



suds Helvetii reliquissent, uti tdtl Galliae bellum inferrent
imperioque potirentur, locumque domicilid ex magna copia
deligerent, quern ex onini Gallia opportunissimum ac fruc-
tuosissimum iudicassent, reliquasque civitates stipendidrids 10
haberent.

Petierunt, uti sibi concilium totius Galliae in diem certam
indicere idque Caesaris voluntate facere liceret ; sese habere
quasdam res, quds ex communl consensu ab eo petere vel-
lent. Ea re permissa, diem concilio constituerunt et iure 15
iurand5, ne quis enuntiaret, nisi quibus communl c5nsilio
mandatum esset, inter se sanxerunt.



(Fig-



54). 1U, b, (5), and
A. 531 ; H. 568.




stances were exceedingly prosperous
153, a. domos : 20, c.

7. uti . . . haberent : 196, a, B. 282, 1

8. imperio: 74, b, and 131, c. domi-
cilio: ' for habitation.' 112, a. B. 191, 1 ;
A. 382; H. 425, 3. copia: sc. locorum.

9. opportunissimum : ' the most suit-
able.' fructuosissimum : ' the most pro-
ductive.' 75, f.

10. iudicassent: 64, a, (1). sti-
pendiaries : predicative, ' tributary (to
them).' 115, b.

12. Petigrunt, uti sibi . . . liceret:
' they asked permission.' How lit. ? sibi
in: 'for.'

13. indicere: 'to appoint.' 222, a. id: 160, c.
138. licSret : 73, b. s§se habere : 213, b.

14. ex communl consensu: 'in accordance with a general un-
derstanding.' ab eo : 116, b.

15. permissa: 'granted.' iure iurando : 13, h.

16. ne quis: 'that no one. How lit.? 49, a, and 168. Snun-
tiaret: 'should make known (its proceedings).' nisi quibus: i.e.
nisi ut el enuntiarent^ quibus . . . mandatum esset (impersonal),
' except those to whom the task should have been assigned.' 73, d.

17. inter se sanxerunt: 'they mutually bound themselves.'
159.



Figure 54. — Helvetian
coin.
Silver. Reverse, boar. In-
scription, NINNO, probably a
name.

plural; after liceret. 105.



voluntate :



72 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 68

In secret session they beseech Caesar to defend Gaul against
Ariovistus, Diviciacus stating their case.

31. Eo concilio dlmisso, Idem principes civitatum, qui
ante fuerant, ad Caesarem reverterunt petieruntque, ut sibi
secreto,.in occulto, de sua omniumque salute cum eo agere
liceret. Ea re impetrata, sese omnes flentes Caesari ad
S pedes proiecerunt : Non minus se id contendere et laborare,
ne ea, quae dlxissent, enuntiareniur, quani uti ea, quae
v client, impctrdrcnt, propterea quod, si enuntiatum esset,
surnmum in cruciatum se venturos vidercnt.

Locutus est pro his Diviciacus Aeduus :



31. i. concilio: where the council of the leading men of Celtic
Gaul was held we are not informed ; perhaps at Bibracte. idem :
= eldem. 45.

2. fuerant: i.e. with Caesar. petierunt . . . licgret : as in
chap. 30, 1. 12.

3. sgcreto : ' privately, 1 as a protection against betrayal. in oc-
culto : 'in a secret place,' as a precaution against spies. cum eo :
137, c. agere : \ to confer.'

4. flentes : 227,' b. Caesari : trans, as if Caesaris. 109, a.
B. 1 88, i,n.; A. 377; H. 425, 4, n.

q-8. Direct form Non minus id contendimus et labordmus, ne ea, quae
dlxerimus, cnuntieutur, quam uti ea, quae 7'f/imus {220 s ), impetremus, prop-
terea quod, si enuntiatum erit, surnmum in cruciatum nos venturos {esse)
vidimus.

5. Non . . . vidgrent: 213, b. sS id contendere et labo-
rare : ' that they strove and toiled (for) this,' explained by the follow-
ing //^-clause. 117, a.

7. gnuntiatum esset : impersonal ; * if disclosure should have
been made.'

8. cruciatum: 'torture.' venturos: 89, c.

10-18. Direct form: Galliae totlus factidnes sunt dune; harum alterius
prlncipatum Uuent Ardui, alterius, Arverni.

HI cum tantopere de potentatu inter se multos annos contenderent (/Sj, c),
factum est, uti ab Arvernls Sequanlsque German! mercede arcesserentur.
Horum prlmo circiter mllia xv Rhcnum trdnsi, runt ; postea quam agros et'



I, 3i] The Campaign against Ariovistus 73

Galliae totius factidnes esse duds ; hdrum alterius prln- to
cipdtum tenere A e duos, alterius Arvernos.

Hi cum tantopere de potentatu inter se mulios annos con-
tenderent, factum esse, utl ab Arverms Sequanisque Ger-
man! mercede arcesserentur. Hdrum primo circiter miha xv
Rhenum trdnslsse ; posted quam agros et cultum et copids 15
Gallorum homines feri ac barbarl adamdssent, traductos
p lures ; nunc esse in Gallia ad centum et xx milium
numerum.



cultum et cSpias Gallorum homines feri ac barbarl adamdrunt (=adamdve-
runt), trdductl sunt plures ; nunc sunt in Gallia ad centum et XX milium
numerum.

10. Galliae : Celtic Gaul. 287, b. For the indirect discourse
see 212, a and c, (1) ; also 214, a- factiones : here * leagues ' rather
than ' parties,' because made up of states. alterius . . . alterius :
23, a, b, and 111, b. principatum : 'headship.' 75, b.

1 1 . Arvernos : a powerful state, southwest of the country of the
Aeduans. See Map Gallia.

12. de potentatu : 'for supremacy.' annos : 118, a.

13. factum esse: the subject is nti . . . arcesserentur ; trans,
'it had come about.' 203, (1). Sequanis : these entered into al-
liance with the Arvernians because of their hatred of the Aeduans. The
strife between the Sequanians and the
Aeduans arose from the fact that the
Arar for a part of its course formed
the boundary between the two states,
and each claimed the exclusive right to
levy tolls on passing vessels. Among
the exports was bacon, which was
highly esteemed in Rome.

14. mercede : 'for pay.' 141.
arcesserentur: 'were brought over.'
Finding themselves worsted by the Aeduans, the Sequanians hired
Germans to fight for them (Fig. 55).

15. transisse : 113, b. postea quam : 188, a, and 214, a-

16. feri ac barbarl : ' savage and uncouth.' adamassent : 'had
formed an eager desire for.' 64, a, (1). How lit. ? traductos : 89, c.

17. plures: sc Ger mauds. esse: sc. Germanos.




Figure 55. — Sequanian coin.

Silver. Reverse, fanciful boar ;
inscription, SEQUANOIOTUOS, mean-
ing, perhaps, ' Iotuos. the Sequanian.'



74 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

Cum his Aeduos eorumque clientes semel atqne iterum
20 armi contendisse ; magnam calamitdtem pulsos accepisse,
omnem nobilitdtem, omnem senatum, omnetn equitatum
dmisisse. Quibus proeliis calamitdtibusque frdctos, qui et
sua virtute et populi Romdnl hospitio atque amicitid pluri-
mum ante in Gallia potuissent, codctos esse Sequanis obsides
25 dare nobilissimos civitdtis et iure iurando clvitdtem obstrin-
gere, sese neque obsides repetlturos, neque auxilium d populo



19-28. Direct form : Cum his ,4 *•</«* eSrumque clientes semel atque iterum
armis contenderunt ; magnam calamitatem pulsi acceperunt, omnem nobili-
tatem, omnem senatum, omnem equitatum dmlsernnt. Quibus proeliis
calamitatibusque frdctT, qui et sua virtute et populi Roman! hospitio atque
amlcitia plurimum ante in Gallia potuerant, codcll sunt Sequanis obsides dare
nSbilissimos civitatis et iure iurando clvitatem obstringere, etc.

19. clientes: 'dependents,' here referring to dependent states.
semel atque iterum : in our idiom, ' time and again. 1 How lit. ?

21. omnem nobilitatem, etc. : the activity of Aeduan men of rank
recorded in Book VII shows that this statement, if accurately reported,
was greatly exaggerated. senatum : 289, b. equitatum : col-
lective, ' knights,' mentioned last as the broadest term in the enu-
meration ; apparently the ' nobles' were a subdivision of the 'knights,'
preeminent on account of aristocratic birth as well as the possession
of large resources. 288, b.

22. frfictos : 'crushed'; in agreement with eos understood as sub-
ject of codctos esse and antecedent of qui.

23. hospitio: 'relation of hospitality,' less close than the relation
implied in amlcitia. Both relations were established by treaties be-
tween states ; when hospitium was established between two states, each
was bound to entertain the other's representatives at public expense,
atque: force? 233, a. plurimum, etc. : ' had previously possessed
the greatest power.' 118, b. See chap. 1 1, 1. 6 and N.

24. obsidSs : accusative, 'as hostages.' 115, a.

25. nobilissimos : as in chap. 7, 1. 8. iure iurando : 13. h.

26. s§s§ neque repetituros [esse], etc. : 'that they would neither
try to get back,' etc., the content of the oath ; sese . . . essent would be
in indirect discourse even if the context were in the direct form.
213, b.



I, 31] The Campaign against Ariovistus 75

Romano imp lordt tiros, neque recusdturds, quo minus perpetuo
sub illorum dicione atque imperio essent.

Unum se esse ex omni clvitdte Aedudrum, qui adducl non
potuerit, ut iurdret aut liberds suds obsides daret. Ob earn 30
rem se ex clvitdte profugisse et Romam ad sendtum venisse
auxilium posttildtum, quod solus neque iure iurando neque
obsidibus teneretur.

Sed peius victdribus Sequanls quam Aeduls victls acci-



27. imploraturos [esse] : ' solicit.' recusaturos [esse] :
' refuse.' qu5 minus — essent : ' to be ' ; how lit. ? 201, a. per-
petuo : ' forever.' 84, b.

28. illorum: trans, as if Siquanorum. dicione : 'sway.'

2 9 - 33- Direct form : Unus ego sum, ex omni clvitate Aedu5rum, qui ad-
ducl non potuerim (194, a )> u t iurdrem ('to take the oath'; 199, a) aut
Hberos meos obsides (115, a) darem. Ob earn rem ex clvitate profilgi, et
Romam ad senatum venT auxilium postulatum, quod solus neque iure iurando
neque obsidibus tenebar.

29. Unum se esse : * That he (Diviciacus) was the only one.'

31. profugisse: 'had fled. 1 Romam: 119, a. At Rome
Diviciacus met Cicero, who was much interested in him and in what he
had to say about nature ; for Diviciacus was a Druid, and the Druids
professed knowledge of the Universe (VI. 14).

32. postulatum: 'to demand'; a strong word, justified by the
urgency of the cause and the friendly relations between the Aeduan
state and Rome. 231, a, and b.

34-44. Direct form: Sed peius victoribus Sequanls quam Aeduls victls
accidit, propterea quod Ariovistus, rex Germanorum, in edrum finibus consedit
(/8j, a), tertiamque partem agri SequanT, qui irfoptimus t5tlus Galliae, occupa-
vit ; et nunc de altera parte tertia Sequanos decedere iubet, propterea quod,
paucis mensibus ante, Harudum milia hominum XXini ad eum venerunt,
quibus locus ac sedes parentur. Paucis annls omnes ex Galliae finibus pdlen-
tur, atque omnes German! Rhenum trdnsibunt ; neque enim conferendus est
Gallicus (ager) cum Germanorum agr5, neque haec consuetiidd victus cum
ilia comparanda (est).

34. peius : ' a worse fate.' 154, a, and 82. victoribus : here an
adjective, 'victorious.' victoribus . . . victls: 239, c.



76



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 58



35 diss e, proptered quod Ariovistus, rex Germdnorutn, in coram
finibus consedisset tertiamque partem agrl Sequanl, qui
esset optimus totius Galliae, occupdvisset, et nunc de altera
parte tertid Sequanos decedere iuberet, proptered quod, panels
mensibus ante, Harudum milia hominum xxim ad eum ve-

touissent, quibus locus ac sedes pardrentur. Futurum esse





Figure 56. — View across the Rhine valley, in Alsace.

From the site of Ariovistus's camp, Zellenberg (Map 4), looking east toward Ostheim.
In the distance the hills east of the Rhine are visible.



35. rgx : 91, a. GermSnorum : apparently Swabians (chap. 37,
I. 6). Ariovistus probably crossed the Rhine as early as 72 or 71 B.C.

37. occupa visset : ' had seized, 1 in the rich level country west of
the Rhine, in modern Alsace. altera parte tertia : h a seconr.
third-part.'

38. dgcedere : < to withdraw.' 200, b.

39. mgnsibus: 1J,0. B. 223 ; H. 488, 1. Harudum: 19, e.

40. locus ac sgdgs : 'places of habitation.' How lit.? 15, b.
parSrentur: 'were to be provided.' 193, a. Futurum esse: 'it
would come about' ; the subject is the following ///f-clause. 203, (1).



I, 3i] The Campaign against Ariovistus 77

panels aunts, uti omnes ex Galliae flnibus pellerentur atque
omnes Germdnl RJienum translrent ; neque enini conferen-
dum esse Gallicum cum Germanorum- agro, neque hanc
consuetudinem victus cum ilia comparandam.

Ariovistum autem, ut seme I Gallorum copias proelio vl- 45
cerit, quod proelium factum sit Admagetobrigae, superbe
et crude liter imperare, ob sides nobilissimi cuiusque llberos
poscerc y et in eos omnia exempla cruciatusque edere, si qua

41. annis : 147, a. omnes: sc. Galll.

43. conferendum esse : 229, c. Gallicum : sc. agrum. Caesar
means that the land in Gaul is incomparably better than that in Ger-
many ; we usually state such comparisons in the opposite way.

44. consuetudinem victus: ' standard of living.' ilia: 'that
(of the Germans).' The civilization of the Gauls was at this time
far superior. comparandam : 89, c.

45-55. Direct form : Ariovistus autem, ut semel Gall5rum copias proelid
writ, quod proelium factum est Admagetobrigae, superbe et crudeliter im-
perat, obsides nobilissimi cuiusque llberus poscit, et in eos omnia exempla
cruciatusque edit, si qua res non ad nutum aut ad voluntatem eius facta est.
Homo est barbarus, Trdcundus, temerdrius ; non possunt eius imperia diutius
sustinerl. Nisi quid in te populoque Romano erit auxilii, omnibus Gallis
idem est faciendum, quod Helvetil fecerunt, ut domo emigrent, aliud domici-
lium, alias sedes, rem5tas a Germanls, petant, fortunamque, quaecumque
accidat, experiantur.

45. Gallorum : the Aeduans and their allies. vicerit, imperare,
etc. : representing perfects and presents in the direct form, used for
vividness ; the pluperfect and perfect or imperfect in the direct form
might have been expected, and in translation past tenses should be used.

46. quod proelium: ' a battle which. 1 165, a. Admageto-
brigae: according to the probable meaning of the Gallic name, 'at
the stronghold of Admagetos ' ; where the place was we do not know.
The battle was perhaps fought in 61 or 60 B.C. 146. superbe et
crudeliter: 'with arrogance and cruelty.'

47. nobilissimi cuiusque: 'of every man of rank.' 170, a. B.
252, 5, c: A. 313, b\ H. 515, 2.

48. in: 'upon.' exempla: 'kinds of punishment,' as warning
examples to others. cruciatus : ' tortures,' as indicating one kind
of punishment resorted to by Ariovistus. edere : ' inflicted.'
qua: 49, a, and 168.



78 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

res non ad nutum aut ad voluntatem eins facta sit. Homi-
so nem esse barbarum, iracundum, temerarium ; non posse eins
imperia diutius sustinerl. Nisi quid in Caesare populoque
Romano sit auxilii, omnibus Gallis idem esse faciendum,
quod Helvetii fecerint, ut domo emigrent, aliud domicilium,



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 9 of 73)