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PREFACE (BY J. D. WHITNEY), -. v ji x j v


IFORNIA, .......... 67 124








INDEX, . . . .'. - .-*. 277299


VOLUME I of the Palaeontology of California was issued in
1864, the preface bearing date September of that year. It
contained descriptions of the Carboniferous and Jurassic fos
sils by Mr. Meek, and of the Triassic and Cretaceous by Mr.
Gabb, and is illustrated by thirty-two plates. The present
volume is devoted to the Tertiary and Cretaceous palaeontol
ogy, and is entirely the work of Mr. Gabb. At the time the
first volume of the Palaeontology was published which was
also the first of our Report it was thought that the whole of
our material in this department of the Survey would be com
prised in two volumes. Events have proved, however, as might
perhaps have been foreseen, that at least three volumes will
be required for the proper exposition of our palaeontological
results. The Cretaceous and Tertiary invertebrate material
alone requires a volume by itself, and for a third, and pos
sibly a fourth, we have still such additions as have been made
to the Jurassic and Triassic, as well as all the fossil plants of
various ages, and the vertebrate remains, chiefly of fresh
water and land animals, and of Tertiary age ; besides these,
are the microscopic fossil organisms, both marine and fresh
water, which are interesting, arid will require considerable
space for their illustration.

In the preface of Volume I of the Palaeontology, a brief

( vii)


synopsis of the field-work of the Survey was giveo, up to the
close of the year 1863. In Geology Vol. I, a synopsis of the
operations of the Survey was given up to the date of Novem
ber, 1865, which is that of the preface of the volume. For
the convenience of those who may possess the palaeontological
volumes of the Report only, the resume" of our work given in
Volume I of that series, will here be continued, in as concise
a manner as possible, up to the date of the suspension of the
field-work in 1867, the failure of the Legislature of 186768
to make an appropriation for the continuance of the Survey,
having compelled us to bring our active operations to a close.
The question of the resumption of the field-work is one to be
decided by a future Legislature.

The party under the direction of Professor Brewer, men
tioned in the Preface of the Palaeontology, Vol. I, as being in
the field at the time of its publication, and which commenced
operations in May, proceeded across the plains of the San
Joaquin to Visalia, from which point they entered the Sierra,
ascending King's River to its source, and exploring the whole
region about the headwaters of that and Kern River. Thence
they made their way across the range by a pass over 12,000
feet high; passed up Owen's Valley, ascended the west branch
of Owen's River, crossing the Sierra again at an altitude of
12,400 feet, and thence descending to the head of the San
Joaquin River. The exploration was continued through the
region of the headwaters of that stream and the Merced, con
necting the reconnoissance with that of 1863 around the
sources of the Tuolumne. The whole expedition occupied
about three months, during which time the geography and
geology of a district including an area of over 10,000 square
miles were, for the first time, explored, the whole region
having previously been entirely unknown. The results


proved to be of the greatest interest, disclosing the fact that
this was the highest part of the Sierra Nevada, and that it
embraced the loftiest mountains and the grandest scenery
yet discovered within the territory of the United States. For
the details of this reconnoissance, reference may be made to
Chapter X of Volume I of the Geology.

Mr. Gabb was in the field in Northern California, South
ern Oregon and Idaho, from June 1st, 1864, to about the
middle of October. During that expedition he obtained in
formation and specimens proving the existence of the Cre
taceous formation on Crooked River a branch of the Des
Chutes the first discovery of rocks of this age anywhere to
the east of the Cascade Range, as noticed in this volume,
page 181.

Very little field-work was done during this year, or the next
(in 186-5), in regions where fossiliferous rocks occur. Mr.
Remond, during his explorations between the Merced and
Stanislaus Rivers, in 1865, made for the purpose of work
ing up the detailed geology of that region, discovered several
new localities of Jurassic fossils, along the line of outcrop of
the fossiliferous belt, previously noticed by different members
of the Survey, as occurring on the Mariposa Estate. Several
new species were found, which still remain to be worked up.
During a portion of the year 1865 Mr. Gabb was employed
in revising the palaeontologies! materials of the Survey ; but,
owing to the limited appropriation by the Legislature of
186364, the field-work was necessarily on a very small

A larger amount of money ($15,000 a year, for two years)
having been granted by the Legislature of 186566, the work
was taken up again more vigorously at the beginning of 1866.
Mr. Gabb, assisted by Mr. F. E. Brown, commenced early in



the year an exploration of the southern Coast Ranges, partly
with the view of completing the palaeontological collections
in the Tertiary groups, and partly with the intention of
working up the geology of the region, in which, at that time,
a large amount of money was being expended for the purpose
of ascertaining the value of the bituminous materials occur
ring there. This party continued in the field from January
to June, adding largely to our knowledge of the geology of
Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, and San Luis Obispo counties,
and to our collection of Tertiary fossils.

Mr. Gabb continued his work northward from the Bay of
San Francisco, accompanied by Mr. F. Coffee, during the
months from July to November, and explored a large por
tion of Sonoma, Mendocino, and Humboldt counties, a
region of sedimentary rocks, chiefly of Cretaceous age, but
not rich in fossils.

A party was at work during this summer in the High
Sierra, in Mariposa and Tuolumne counties, under the
charge of Mr. King ; but their operations were exclusively
confined to a region of granitic and volcanic rocks, and no
additions were made by them to our palseontological ma

Another party, under my own charge, in Plumas County,
during the same summer, made a pretty careful exploration
of the fossiliferous localities around Genesee Valley, and col
lected some new species. They were not successful, how
ever, in finding, in Plumas County, any new localities of im
portance, although the region was pretty carefully examined.
A party, under Mr. D'Heureuse, was also in the field during
the summer of 1866, in Kern County, but not in a fossilifer
ous region.

In 1867 there was no work done in the fossiliferous forma-


tions of California. The field-work was continued in Kern,
Tulare, and Inyo Counties, by Mr. D'Heureuse and party; by
Mr. Hoffmann and party in Mariposa and Tuolumne, and by
Mr. Wackenreuder in the High Sierra, between Alpine and
Plumas. Mr. Gabb, accompanied by Messrs. Wilson, Lohr,
and Poston, explored the White Mountain Range, on the
borders of California and Nevada. They continued their
work east into the latter State (not at the expense of Cali
fornia), carrying their topographical and geological .recon-
noissance as far as the 116th meridian, including a large
portion of the area between the 37th and 39th parallels.
They continued in the field until the end of October, as long
as the season would permit. Their collections embraced a
considerable number of fossils of various geological ages, from
Lower Silurian to Triassio.

A part of these was unfortunately lost in transitu ; of the
remainder, a portion has been worked up by Mr. Gabb, and
the results will be published in the Conchological Journal.
All the Palaeozoic fossils collected by the Survey, together
with a considerable amount of palaeontological material from
rocks of this age, collected by different members of the
corps, and a considerable number of interesting specimens
contributed by others, have been placed in Mr. Meek's hands
for examination, with a view to future publication of the
results by the Survey, or otherwise. We are especially in
debted to Mr. J. E. Clayton for an interesting collection from
Silver Peak and vicinity, and to Mr. S. S. Lyon for one
from the neighborhood of Pahranagat. Mr. Gorham Blake
and Mr. A. Blatchly have also contributed valuable Palaeo
zoic fossils (as well as Triassic and Jurassic), from various
localities in Nevada.

The occurrence of rocks of Upper and Lower Silurian


age iii Nevada was first made known by the Geological Sur
vey, in the Proceedings of the California Academy (see Vol.
Ill, p. 307) in 1866. Previous to that, in May of the same
year, a synopsis of what was known in regard to the age of
the stratified rocks of Nevada, was communicated to the
same Academy (see Proceedings, Vol. Ill, p. 266). The
collections received from Nevada at various times, together
with the results obtained by myself in three visits to the
State, and the important work of Mr. Gabb and party in
1867, have given us a pretty good idea of the geological
structure of Western and Southwestern Nevada. The " Sur
vey of the 40th Parallel," organized by the U. S. Engineer
Office in 1868, and placed in charge of Mr. C. King, formerly
of the California Survey, will give us a large amount of de
tailed and reliable information in regard to the northern and
eastern portions of the State, and it only remains to work up
the southeastern corner, a very interesting region, but one
difficult of exploration. To this part of the State I had
hoped to be able to send a party during the summer of 1868;
but circumstances have rendered it impossible for me to carry
out my plans.

At the meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, held
at Northampton, in August last, Mr. Gabb read a paper giv
ing the results obtained by himself in working over the col
lections of the Geological Survey, in reference to the subdi
visions and palaBontological relations of the Cretaceous and
Tertiary rocks of California. In this paper Mr. Gabb pro
poses a new division of the Cretaceous of the Pacific coast,
which is referred to in the body of the present volume, and
the leading features of which may here be succinctly stated.

The Cretaceous formation is found covering large areas on
the West Coast, from Vancouver and the adjacent islands of


the San Juan Archipelago, on the north, through Washing
ton Territory and Oregon to Southern California, as well as
isolated patches in Eastern Oregon and in Mexico. Except
that in Mexico, which seems to be an extension of one of the
best-known members of the Texan Group, it is divided into
four groups, as follows :

1st. The Tejon Group, the most modern member, the Di
vision B. of Palaeontology, Vol. I, is peculiar to California.
It is found most extensively developed in the vicinity of Fort
Tejon and about Martinez. From the latter locality it forms
an almost continuous belt in the Coast Ranges to Marsh's,
fifteen miles east of Monte Diablo, where it sinks under the
San Joaquin plain. It was also discovered, by the different
members of the Survey, at various points on the eastern face
of the same range, as far south as New Idria, and, in the
summer of 1866, by Mr. Gabb, in Mendocino County, near
Round Valley, the latter locality being the most northern
point at which it is as yet known. It is the only coal-pro
ducing formation in California.

This group contains a large and highly characteristic series
of fossils, the larger part peculiar to itself, while a considerable
percentage is found extending below into the next group,
arid several species still further down into the Chico Group.
Mr. Gabb considers it as the probable equivalent of the
Maestricht beds of Europe.

2d. The Martinez Group is proposed provisionally, to in
clude a series of beds, of small geographical extent, found at
Martinez and on the northern flank of Monte Diablo. It
may eventually prove to be worthy of ranking only as a sub
division of the Chico Group.

3d. The Chico Group is one of the most extensive and im
portant members of the Pacific coast Cretaceous. Its exact


relations with the formation in Europe have not yet been
fully determined, though it is on the horizon of either the
Upper or Lower Chalk, and may probably prove to be the
equivalent of both. It is extensively represented in Shasta
and Butte counties, and in the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada
as far south as Folsom, occurring also on the eastern face of
the Coast Ranges bordering the Sacramento Valley, at Mar
tinez, and again in Orestimba Canon, in Stanislaus County.
It includes all of the known Cretaceous of Oregon and of
the extreme northern portion of California, and is the coal-
bearing formation of Vancouver's Island.

4th. The Shasta Group is a provisional name, proposed to
include a series of beds of different ages, but which, from our
imperfect knowledge of the subject, cannot yet be separated;
it includes all below the Chico Group. It contains fossils,
seemingly representing ages from the Gault to the Neocom-
ien, inclusive, and is found principally in the mountains west
and northwest of the Sacramento Valley. Two or three of
its characteristic fossils have been found in the vicinity of
Monte Diablo, and one of the same species has been sent
from Washington Territory, east of Puget Sound. Few, or
none, of its fossils are known to extend upwards into the
Chico Group.


CAMBRIDGE, MASS., February, 1869.

NOTE. Section 1, Part 1, was issued in February, 1866 ; the remainder of this
volume was laid before the Philadelphia Academy, in a printed form, in December,










C. BREWERII, n. s.

PI. 1, Fig. 1.

HAND shorter, more robust and broader proportionally than
that of C. magister, Dana; upper margin flattened and bordered
by two well-defined ridges, each bearing about four tubercles;
outer surface marked by five nearly obsolete ridges minutely
tuberculated ; fingers shorter than in (7. magister, the movable
one more curved and both with the denticles nearly obsolete.

Figure, natural size.

Locality: Near Santa Barbara. Pliocene. Collected by Professor Brewer.

A single well-preserved hand, and some fragments were found by Professor
Brewer, all in one locality, on tbe Cayeguas Kanch. The hand resembles closely
that of the common coast species, in its principal features; but its broader and
more robust form, the absence of the marked serration on the back, and the
curved finger, sufficiently distinguish it.

TRIPTERA, Quoy and Gaimard.

T. CLAVATA, 11. 8.
PI. 1, Fig. 2.

SHELL small, subangulated on the sides, compressed and slightly
constricted in the upper part, nearly elliptical in section below,
pointed at the tip. Surface smooth or marked by a few very
faint transverse undulations. Length about .3 inch.



Locality and position: From the Miocene, in a boulder near Griswold's, in the
Coast Eange, on the road to New Idria.

But a single specimen was found in a boulder, associated with Pecten caurinus,
Area microdonta, &c., and some other species, mostly indeterminate. I could
detect no trace of the terminal septum, but this may be due to the extreme thin
ness of the shell and a portion of the interior being filled with crystals.


PI. 1, Fig. 3.

SHELL moderate in size, robust, thick; spire sub-elevated;
whorls five, angulated in the middle, sloping above; suture
irregularly impressed. Surface marked by eight or nine blunt
varices, prominent and acute on the angle of the whorl, and com
monly becoming more or less obsolete above and below; in the
upper whorls the varices are replaced by mere elevated ribs,
which become smaller until in the first three volutions they barely
exist as undulations. Aperture broad; canal open, short, slightly
recurved; columellar lip heavily incrusted ; outer lip entire, sub-
acute. Umbilicus well marked, but closed.

Figure, natural size.

Localities and positions: From the Pliocene of Barker's Pass; also from the
Miocene at Walnut Creek, Contra Costa County; and Griswold's, Monterey
County, on the road to New Idria.

This fine species resembles somewhat T. Belcherii, Hinds, now living on the
Coast, but can be at once distinguished by its smaller size, lower spire, broader
and more robust form, and by the number and character of the varices. Some
very much mutilated specimens from Griswold's, probably referable to the present
species, have a row of prominent tubercles on the body whorl about half an inch
below the angle.



Ckrysodomus, Swains.
1ST. RECURVA, n. s.

^.: PI. 1, Fig. 4.

SHELL of modeiate size, fusiform; spire elevated, about as long
as the mouth; whorls seven or eight (?) rounded on the sides,
suture impressed. Surface marked by numerous, regular, rounded
revolving ribs, with acute interspaces ; these ribs sometimes show
a tendency to alternation in size; the upper whorls sometimes,
though not in all specimens, show a few faint longitudinal ribs.
Aperture broad in the middle, narrowed in advance ; lips simple ;
canal long, narrow, and very strongly recurved.

Figure, natural size.

Localities: Abundant in the Miocene at the Arroyo San Antonio, near Tomales
Bay. Also found in the same formation at Foxin's Ranch, in Santa Barbara
County, on the El Toro Ranch, and near Griswold's, in Monterey County; and in
Morgan Valley, Lake County.

This strongly-marked species seems to be peculiar to the middle and upper por
tions of the Miocene formation.

It is allied to N. (Fusus) exilis, Con., of the Virginia Miocene (see Foss. Tert.
Form. pi. 49, fig. 6) ; but the mouth is proportionally larger, the canal is more
recurved, and it wants the "longitudinal rounded ribs" of that species. The re
volving ribs in this species also are markedly rounded, while in the Eastern shell
they are described as acute.

METULA, H. and A. Adams.

?M. REMONDII, n. s.

PL 1, Fig. 5.

SHELL broadly fusiform, spire elevated; whorls four or five (?)
subangulated ; suture impressed. Surface marked by numerous
small revolving ribs, rounded with acute interspaces, and more


or less regularly alternating in size; these ribs are crossed by
strong lines of growth, so as to present in some specimens an ap
proach to a regular reticulation. Body whorl three-fourths of
the whole length of the shell, broadly and regularly convex in
the middle, with usually a revolving depression just below the
suture; sometimes this groove or depression is replaced by a flat
space. Mouth long and narrow; inner lip slightly incrusted;
outer lip unknown; canal straight.

Figure, natural size.

Locality and position: From the Miocene of Arroyo San Antonio, near Tomales

The specimens are all preserved in a very hard gray sandstone, and I have
been unable to expose the outer lip, so as to ascertain whether the characters exist
on which the authors have mainly depended in instituting the genus. The form
of the shell, however, and all the other characters are so nearly in accordance
with their type, that I have ventured to place the species under their generic
name provisionally.


C. GRAVIDA, n. 8.
PI. 1, Fig. 6.

SHELL short, robust; spire moderately elevated, whorls five,
suture channelled; body whorl bordered above by a strongly
marked rim, adjoining the suture, and which extends to the
upper whorls, though less distinctly marked ; below this band is
a slight depression of variable depth, and from that the volution
swells rapidly. Surface marked by two or three rows of nodes
on the middle of the whorl, and by fine revolving lines. Aper
ture broad in the middle, narrowing in advance; canal moderate,
slightly twisted ; inner lip slightly incrusted.

Figure, natural size.

Localities: From the Miocene; abundant south of Martinez, where it was col
lected by Dr. Fish and Mr. Mathewson. Also figured in the Pacific Railroad


Report, Vol. 5, J>1. 7, Fig. 63, from Ocoyo or Poso Creek, Tulare County, where
cabts were found.

It is possible that the specimens figured as No. 67, on the same plate, under the
name of Natica geniculata, Con., may belong to this species, though the drawing
is too imperfect for a satisfactory determination.

C. SINUATA, n. 8.
PL 1, Fig. 7.

SHELL elongated, rather slender; spire low, convex; whorls
four; suture deeply channelled, bordered by a thickened rim;
body whorl convex in the middle, broadly grooved above, and
excavated below. Surface marked by numerous fine revolving
lines, and in the upper whorls by numerous radiating ribs.
Aperture long and narrow; columellar lip sinuous, slightly in-
crusted; outer lip simple; canal slightly recurved.

Figure, natural size.

Locality : From the Miocene of Walnut Creek, Contra Costa County. Rare.
But two specimens of this curious shell have been found ; one of which is of the
size figured, the other not more than half as large.


Tunis, Bolt., not Humph.


PL 1, Fig. 8.
(P. (S.) Carpenteriana, Gubb; Proc. Cal. Acad. Nut. Sci., 1865, p. 183.)

SHELL large, fusiform; spire about as long as the mouth;
whorls eight, subflattened- on the sides, slightly concave near
the suture, and very slightly convex below; suture impressed
Surface marked by numerous fine revolving ribs, rounded and
sometimes alternating in size, especially on the lower part of the
body whorl. Aperture narrow; inner lip faintly incrusted; outer


lip acute; sinus very broad and shallow; canal moderate, slightly

Figure, natural size.

Locality: From the Post-Pliocene, Santa Barbara.

This beautiful species is also found living on the coast of California, a beach
specimen having been found at San Diego, and another dead specimen was
dredged by Dr. Cooper, at a depth of 120 fathoms, in the same vicinity. The
colors, when living, are a brownish-orange, with broken revolving bands of a
light reddish-brown ; these bands usually occur on the larger ribs, and are most
closely placed on the middle of the shell.

In my description, above quoted, I inadvertently mentioned two fossil speci
mens. Only one has yet been found, but that is the most perfect specimen yet
known of the species, except in color.

P. (S.) TRYONIANA, n. s.

PI. 1, Fig. 9, and 9 a.

SHELL large, fusiform; spire about as long as the mouth;
whorls about seven or eight, angulated in the middle, sloping
concavely above, and very slightly convex below. Surface orna
mented by a row of nodes on the angle of the whorl, and by
numerous fine revolving ribs. Aperture narrow; inner lip
slightly sinuous and incrusted; posterior sinus of outer lip
broad and shallow ; canal moderate, nearly straight.

Figures, natural size.

Locality: From the Post-Pliocene of Sail Pedro

This shell is closely allied to the preceding ; but can be at once separated from
it by the angulation of the whorls and the presence of the tubercles. The out
line drawing, fig. 9 a, is restored from the lines of growth for the purpose of
showing the form of the lip. The species has not, as yet, been found living.


PI. 1, Fig. 10.
(P. (S.) perversa, Gabb; Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1805, p. 183.)

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