and street face of the curb for a distance of inches from the
top. This facing shall be composed of one (1) part best imported Portland
cement and one and one-half (1%) parts fine granite screenings, and shall
be carried up simultaneously with the concrete, same being plastered upon
the front board of the frame immediately previous to placing the concrete.
After the frame has been removed the facing shall b^ neatly troweled to a
true, smooth surface.
7. The crushed granite shall be entirely free from dust or dirt, and
broken to such size that no piece shall exceed one-fourth (%) of an inch in
its greatest dimension.
8. The curb shall be protected from the sun and wind by a covering
of canvas or plank, or sprinkling it with water for at least twenty-four hours
9. The finished curb shall be of a uniform color, and sections which
do not correspond in color with the remaining portion of the curb must
be replaced. Any spalling or splitting off whatever of the finished surface of
the curb, either at the joints or in the body of the stone, will be sufficient
cause for rejection, and any rejected stone must be removed and replaced with
a new one immediately. No patching, of any character, will be permitted.
10. The Contractor will be required to enter into a bond to guarantee
the curb for a period of five (5) years after the completion and acceptance
of the work against any settlement, cracks, discolorations, or any other
defects due to bad materials or faulty workmanship which shall appear therein
within the above period.
11. Circular curb stones will be constructed in the same manner as
straight curb at the entrance to all alleys and driveways, and at the corners
of all intersecting streets.
12. The sand and cement shall be thoroughly mixed dry In a tight mortar
box and then made into a mortar of proper consistency and thoroughly worked
222 ANNUAL REPORT
over with hoes. Broken stone or gravel thoroughly cleaned of dirt, drenched
with water, but containing no loose water in the heap, shall then be added to
the mortar in the proper proportion. The concrete will then be turned and
mixed until mortar adheres to each fragment.
13. The concrete shall haye such a consistency that when rammed the
mass will not shake like jelly, but will, when struck, compact within the area
of the face of the rammer without displacing the material laterally.
14. The concrete thus prepared shall be immediately placed in the work.
It shall be spread and thoroughly compacted by ramming, until free mortar
appears dn the surface.
15. The whole operation of mixing and laying each batch of concrete
shall be performed in an expeditious and workmanlike manner, and be
thoroughly completed before the cement has begun to set.
16. No retemperlng of concrete will be permitted, and concrete in which
the mortar has begun to set will be rejected.
STATE GEOLOGIST. 223
MACHINERY AND TOOLS,
It is not the object here to present anything upon the machinery
used in the manufacture of cement, but upon the implements used in the
making of concrete, cement mortar, and mortar and concrete work.
It is frequently cheaper to buy and install a rock crusher with the
necessary power to operate it than it is to buy the stone already crushed
and pay for shipping it from a distance and hauling it upon the work.
Fig. 124. — Gates' Gyratory Crusher, No. T/z,
There are a good many kinds of rock crushers in the market ; a few
illustrating the different types will be presented here. Figure 124 shows
a Gates crusher. It is a gyratory crusher, having a heavy rotating head
or cone within the shell, which gyrates eccentrically, crushing the stone
between the gyrating head and the stationary outer shell.
Figure 125 shows a section through the machine more clearly illus-
trating the principle. It is claimed for this form of stone crusher that it
Fig. 125. — Section of Gates' Crusher.
The names of the several
may be found in the following
1 Bottom Plate 11
2 Bottom Shell. 12
3 Top Shell 13
4 Bearing Cap 14
5 Oil Cellar Cap 15
6 Spider 16
7 Hopper 17
8 Eccentric 18
9 Bevel Wheel 19
10 Wearing Ring 22
parts designated by numbers in the above illustration
Upper Ring Nut
Lower Ring Nut
Lighter Screw, Jam Nut
Chilled Wearing Plates
STATE GEOLOGIST. 225
requires 30 per cent, less power under similar conditions to do the same
amount of Work which can be done, by the other form of machine — the jaw
crusher. It is also claimed that, because of the concave stationary surface
and the impact of the revolving cone at the unsupported center of the
masses of stone, a more perfect cubiform product is obtained.
Naturally it requires more power to break stone to one-half inch size
than it does to break it to two and one-half inch size. This must be
taken into account in ordering machines. The manufacturers of this
machine claim that "The Gates' breaker will not require over one horse
power per ton of rock broken per hour," for the hardest stone broken so
as to pass a 2j4 inch ring.
Figure 126 shows a section of the Austin portable crusher, which is
a very simple machine of a similar type.
Figures 127 and 128 show view and section of the Farrel crusher,
a very substantial compact machine of the jaw crushing type.
Figure 129 illustrates revolving screens. The perforated screen
sheets are easily removed and replaced when worn out, or they can be
changed quickly when other sizes of stone are required.
Cheaper gravity screens can be used, but they are not quite so efficient
in screening. They are of perforated sheet metal, as the revolving screens,
but are in flat sheets and attached in the bottom of inclined chutes down
which the crushed stone is allowed to slide dropping through the holes
in the various sections as the size of aperture admits.
There are numerous forms of concrete mixers, and many makers of
the same form. At first engineers were averse to accepting machine
mixed concrete, fearing inferior mixing, improper proportions of water
and various othier troubles. Now a large majority of engineers prefer
machine mixed concrete, electing, however, to choose the form of mixer
which shall be used.
The Drum JWixcn — The Ransome patents cover a drum mixer, a
cylindrical machine having openings at either end and resting upon fric-
tion rollers. It is driven by cog wheels working in a cogged rim to the
drum and the whole driven by steam, air, or electricity.
Inside this drum are kneading wings for mixing, and hinged shelves
by which the concrete is lifted and thrown into a chute. These shelves
are set for mixing or discharging by the movement of a single lever
without stopping the machine. Figures 130 and 131 show the receiving
and discharging ends of the machine respectively.
15— s. G.
Sectional View op Fahivcl'StYLE B**Ci«usHeR
Norn* and Numb«r of Parf-s,
• CeeanMc Shaft
17 B«ir for Te^qU Stock
18 C«v«r - Haiti Boarinq
19 * " SwinqJaw Shaft
4«win<| - -
l2Uw«r- - «
21 Balonea Wheal
22Bol» «w Swinq Jaw thaft
23 •• •• Main Bearinq
29 Sraooa B«i Covtr 3S Waahar
26 Boll- ma Thumb Scrtw MNanrf Wheal
2S ShacWa Ptn 9« Ruhbor Sprinq
29 Sprinq Ro4 ShacKIa «7 Betr Hr PkilloY
30 Spring Red 38 Sraaee box covtr
31 Spring Bar on Main Boeirinq
Fig. 128. — Sectional View of the Farrel Crusher.
230 ANNUAL REPORT
"Passing through the drum and supported upon the truck is a fold-
ing chute which receives the concrete from the drum and delivers it to the
wheelbarrow or other receptacle used for conveying the concrete away."
Inside of one minute the material has all been turned over thirty
or forty times and is well mixed. This mixer will mix 200 to 400
FIfl. 130.— Ransome Drum Mixer, Charging.
charges a day." Ransome claims to be able to mix concrete at a cost of 2
cents per cubic yard.
Smith Mixcn— The Smith concrete mixer consists of a revolving
drum or double cone with horizontal axis, constructed with deflecting
wings on the inside. The end of each cone is open, one serving as the
loading end, the other for the discharge end. The concrete is visible
during the entire period of mixing and can be discharged without stopping
the machine. The thoroughness of the mixing depends upon the time
spent or the number of revolutions given. Whenever the writer has seen
the machine in operation it has been turning out an excellent product.
Figure 132 shows the discharge end view of the Smith machine.
No. No. 1 No. 2 No. 2}4 No. 4 No. 5
Standard charge, cubic
feet 5 9 1S}4 16 21 28
Extreme capacity, cubic
feet 6 12 17 21 23 35
Cubic yards mixed per
hour, up to 5 10 16 20 22 85
Horse power required .8 6 8 10 14 18
Weight x>n skids with
pulley only, in pounds 1,600 2,500 8,800 4,500 5,570 7,300
Fig. 131. — Ransome Drum Mixer, In Position of DIscliarglng.
Fig. 132.— The Smith Mixer.
232 ANNUAL REPORT
Campbell Mixer* — The Campbell machine consists of a horizontal
circular pan revolving about a vertical axis and having a set of stationary
plows fixed to a frame which can be raised or lowered into the pan.
The pan carries the material against the plows and they throw the material
back and forth in the pan as it revolves until the concrete is thoroughly
mixed. A trap door in the bottom of the pan is then opened and the
plows raised, while a scraping bar is lowered and the batch of concrete is
scraped and dropped through the trap door into the transporting recep-
tacle below. There are two sets of plows, one right hand and the other
"Time actually consumed in charging machine for one yard of con-
crete, completing the mixture and dumping the machine ready for the
next batch, three minutes and ten seconds." Illustrations of the machine
are given in figures 133 and 134. Specifications, of size, weight and
capacity are also appended.
Cubical Mixers* — There is a variety of cubical mixers, prob-
ably developed because the United States army officers at one time threw
the weight of their commendations toward that form of mixer. This
general form is supported so as to revolve upon a diagonal axis and thus
throw the concrete mixture from one to the other of six different faces,
each rapidly assuming a different angle to the horizontal and vertical
planes as the cube revolves. One form of the cubical mixer is shown in
figure 135. This is so arranged that it can be loaded at one end and
discharged at the other, both operations taking place without stopping the
Gravity Mixer* — Figures 136 and 137 show a simple gravity mixer
which answers very well for some purposes. It consists of a funnel
shaped receiving end attached to a box shaped chute having staggered
rows of pins at frequent intervals along its length. It is also fitted with
deflecting plates to throw the material from side to side as it descends
through this chute, which is suspended at an angle of about 20 to 25
degrees from the vertical. The box is made in sections easily joined
together so that various lengths, from four to ten feet, may be used for
different classes of work* and surrounding conditions. There is some
doubt as to the thoroughness of the mixing obtained, also as to the even
tempering of the mixture with water. There is much rough concrete foun-
dation work, however, where this simple form of mixer might be satis-
factory. Limited space allows the description of but one of the many
other forms of mixers.
Dromedary Mixen — The Dromedary mixer is a unique development
of the two wheeled cart. The inventor evidently designed this to answer
two purposes, first to utilize horse power to do his mixing, and second, to
utilize for mixing, the power and time necessary to haul the material to
Fig. 133. — The Campbell Mixer, Steam Driven.
Fig. 134. — The Campbell Mixer, Horse-power Driven.
Weight on steel skids
Weight on wheels
Weight of engine and boiler
Capacity per batch
Batches per hour
Diameter of mixing pan
6 feet 6 inches
Fig. 136.~Qravlty Mixer, Full Length. Fig. 137.— Gravity Mixer, With Short Section Out.
236 ANNUAL REPORT
the point of construction. The machine consists of the two halves of a
cylindrical drum, hinged together at one edge and closing by a spring and
catch at the other. It is mounted upon the axle pi a two wheeled vehicle.
The drum is also so constructed that it can be made to revolve as the
Fig. 138. — The Dromedary Mixer, Loaded.
wheels revolve, or it can be thrown out of gear and allowed to swing free.
In one side is a door, through which the drum is loaded. When loaded,
(see, figure 138) it is thrown in gear and the horse hauls the dromedary
drum to the point of discharge. The concrete is mixed by being carried
Fig. 139. — The Dromedary Mixer, Dumping.
up the side of the revolving drum and sliding and falling in thin sheets over
the mass of material within. In unloading a bar is unlatched which causes
STATE GEOLOGIST. 237
one-half of the drum to slide forward upon the frame work of the sulky
and the batch is delivered upon the ground, thus leaving the drum in the
position shown in figure 139, which gave it the name ''Dromedary Mixer."
It is especially useful where conduit or street work is being done and the
material must be stored at intervals along the line of work, and must be
conveyed some little distance to the point of construction. These machines
are made in size for^ibout one-half yard batches and cost $250.00 apiece,
F. O. B., Washington, D. C.
The first forms or molds used were simply constructed of planed
lumber well braced and were for monolithic structures. The forms used
by the Ransome Company in their concrete construction consist of short
lumber frames reinforced with joists and bound together through the
walls with rods and wires. These forms are raised for every three or
four feet in elevation of the wall.
Thos. C. Farrell, of Washington, N. J., has designed a set of adjustable
forms for monolithic concrete construction that is quite simple in adjust-
ment. Metal shoes and "box caps" of cast iron shaped in the form of an
extended H make the holders for two inch plank. Figure 140 illustrates
their method of use under almost every condition to be met. The shoes
and cross bolts leave holes and indentations in the walls which must be
plastered up and smoothed over with cement mortar in order to make
the wall have a smooth uniform appearance. By the aid of these forms
but a comparatively small amount of lumber is necessary to carry on
relatively large building operations. The operation is to set one course of
ten inch planks around the entire structure as shown in the illustration,
fill with concrete and tamp. Set up another course and fill with con-
crete, and so continue until four ten inch courses are filled. Then
remove the bottom course and place it on top and proceed in this
manner to the finish. By this method, the course to be tamped never ex-
ceeds ten inches in depth. The builder can reduce the thickness of the
layers by making three layers of concrete to two tiers of plank if he so
desires. These forms are easily set up, taken down and moved from one
structure to another.
The Clark Patent Circtilar Mold is another form for monolithic
construction. It consists of an inner and outer metal shield or form,
braced and reinforced, leaving an annular space for the monolithic wall.
It is especially designed to fill the demand for concrete silos, tanks, grain
bins, manholes, etc.
The block machines are all very similar in general principles, but
differ in minor mechanical applications.
Fig. 140.— Farreii System of Molds for Concrete Wall Construction.
The Wingct Machine, manufactured in Columbus, Ohio, is illustrated
in figures 141 and 142. One ideal which all block machine makers strive
to attain, is the elasticity in size and shape of their blocks. Most block
machines attain this ideal to a greater or less degree. Another require-
ment is to keep strength and reduce material, which is accomplished by
making the block hollow — this also makes walls which keep more equable
temperatures within the structure, and which aid in preventing moisture
reaching the interior surface of the walls.
Fig. 141. — The Winget Concrete Block Machine,
Showing Block Ready to be Removed.
The Winget machine is so adjusted that the sides of a block can be
faced witji a richer mortar half or three-quarters of an inch thick. This
gives a neater, smoother face to the stone and makes it less pervious to
water. If desired, this outer shell can be colored, giving a very fair imi-
tation of natural stone without being, expensive in coloring matter. It
is said that four men using this machine can produce 150 blocks per ten
hours. The usual size is 9 inches by to inches by 32 inches. The Winget
machine makes blocks having very sharp, neat, well defined corners, which
is an essential to neat construction. The Winget Concrete Machine Com-
pany claim that blocks can be made with their machine and laid for about
thirty cents apiece. Figure 143 shows the various shapes and patterns
of blocks made in a Winget machine.
The Normandin Machine* — The Normandin machine also seems to
be a very good machine. Figure 144 illustrates this machine. Similar
to nearly all of the other block machines it has adjustable or exchangeable
sides so that face designs can be substituted for plain faces.
The Palmer Machine* — The Palmer machine is one of the first de-
signed of this class of machines. A great many neat houses have been
240 ANNUAL REPORT
put up with the Palmer block. This machine, samples of blocks made
upon it, and illustrations showing the use of its products are shown in
figures 23, 24, 25, and 26.
Fig. 142. — Winget Concrete Block Machine Empty.
The Dykema Machine* — The Dykema mold is illustrated in figures
1^5 and 146, the method of filling in figure 147, and the results ac-
complished, in figures 148, 149 and 150. The molds are made of
sheet steel pressed into the desired shapes. There are seven lugs
at each end of the side pieces allowing the adjustment of the end
pieces in such a way as to permit the length of stone to vary froni 19 to
25 inches. By the use of a special double core and dividing plate a still
greater flexibiltiy of length is given varying from a least length of 4^2
inches up to the 25 inches.
Fig. 143.~Coilection of Concrete Bioclcs, l\1ade on tlie Winget l^achlne.
STATE GEOLOGIST. 241
Fig. 144. — The Normandin Concrete Block Machine.
Fig. 145. — The Dykema Block Machine.
The stone manufactured by the Dykema process is made of very wet
concrete, so wet that it will flow into place around the cores. Mr. Dykema
claims that by this means he gets a denser concrete and at a considerable
saving in labor. For work which compares with common brick work, the
material is "struck" across the top of the mold after filling and troweled,
but for finer natural stone eflPects, a surface coat of sanri and cement is
242 ANNUAL REPORT
added to the top of the block and fine sand or sittings of some natural
stone are sifted over the surface producing the natural stone appearance.
The form of the block, as shown in figure 149, affords an excel-
lent means of handling the stone upon the wall. The company claim to do
the work for the following prices, quoting from Dykema's "Stone Making."
Cost of Stone* — "Figures here given are from actual experience and
based on the labor of men mixing by hand, and on the cost of labor and
material in Grand Rapids.
The 12 inch stone lays 1.35 square feet in the wall, including a
Yi inch mortar joint. This is equal to 30 bricks. One man can make 40
to 50 of these stone in a day, doing all the labor of setting up the mold,
mixing the material and finishing the stone. With ''correct concrete" 40
of these stones can be made from one barrel of Portland cement. Based
on a day's work for one man a 12 inch stone figures as follows :
Cement, 40 stone to the barrel at $1.50 per bbL . 0.03%
Gravel and sand .03
This is equal to $3.58 per 1,000 for brick. The 10 inch stone lays the
same surface in the wall, 10 inches thick. The cost is as follows :
Gravel and sand ^ly^
These stones are sufficiently strong to replace any work which would
otherwise be built of 12 inch brick walls."
Fjg. 146.— The Dykema Block Mold.
244 ANNUAL REPORT
For conditions at Columbus, these figures could not be substantiated.
Assuming it possible to make 40 blocks a day, labor at $2.00 per day.
Labor, per block $0.06
Cement, 40 stone to the barrel, at $2.00 05
1% yds. gravel and sand at $1.60 per cu. yd 06
Cost per block $0.16
To this must be added the interest and depreciation on the cost of
Fig. 148.— Dykema Block, Pebble Finished.
Fig. 149.— Dyl<ema Blocl<, Granite Finished.
STATE GEOLOGIST. 245
Fig. 150. — Interior Structure of Dykema Block.
Fig. 150a — The Hayden l^achine.
The Hayden Machine^ — The Hayden machine, manufactured in
Columbus, Ohio, is an automatic block machine in which the blocks are
made face down, with the face in a horizontal position. This enables
the operator to easily give a veneer facing of rich mortar to the block or
to make the face of colored mortar in imitation of natural building
stones. The machine is very compact and turns out blocks with comers
and edges sharp and true. It automatically releases the block from the
mold, delivering it upon a base plate to a support in front of the machine,
ready to be carried away. The machine will make blocks 8 to i6 inches
thick and 8 to 32 inches long.
Figure isoa illustrates the original Hayden machine. Experience has
shown them that this machine is set too high and is not rigid enough. In
the later machines now coming from their shops, they are reducing the
height of the frame and making it much heavier.
246 ANNUAL REPORT
TOOLS FOR CEMENT WORK*
Among the tocrfs for the use of cement as in sidewalk, curb, street
work, etc., come first the tools for hand mixing and handling. As these
tools are common to many forms of work even to gardening, no illustra-
tions or descriptions will be given. Among such tools are the shovel, hoe,
rake and wheelbarrow.
Round and square iron tampers are the best for concrete work.
Probably the square tamper is more serviceable for all kinds of work,
because it will fit into corners. For some classes of work, such as facings
in narrow places, the narrow or edge tamper is required. Figure 151
shows the foot of the square tamper. Prices are quoted by one maker
ranging from $3.20 for the 6 by 6 inch to $4.80 for the 12 by 12 inch, all
bases being J^ inch thick. These prices are subject to discount. Another