Cement, 0.78 sack at |0.62i^ per sack 48%
4 cu. ft. of sand and gravel at 75c. pepr 1^ cu. yds .09
Extra cost of facing material 01%
Cost of twelve blocks I .84
Cost of mortar and laying 1 sq.
Cost of hauling blocks to place of conctruction per yd 10
Total cost of 1 sq. yd. of lO-inch wall |1.42
He estimated brick layed at $12.50 per 1,600, and adding $30.00 per
1,000 for pressed brick facing, making no allowance for cut stone trim-
mings, the cost for a 9-inch brick wall would be $3.57 per square yard,
and for a 13-inch wall, $4.41 per square yard.
In bridge building as in other lines of construction concrete has taken
its place as a permanent structural material. In small country highway
bridges, the highway commissioner frequently considers himself not only
able to decide upon the character of bridge to be erected, but also competent
to design it. Wooden or metal bridges are erected and from the day
they are finished not a thought is given to their maintenance. They are
allowed to weather, rot and rust away until some accident occurs or
•Eng. News, Sept. 17, 1903.
80 ANNUAL REPORT
warning of such accident forces the attention of the authorities to the condi-
tion of the structure. Neither is the commissioner altogether to blame —
for when one official more careful than others reports the necessity for
the proper painting and maintenance of bridges, he will probably meet
the serious objection from the tax payer — ^that "there are enough ex-
penses now, without trying to make an out-of-the-way bridge look pretty."
If anyone doubts the expensiveness of this careless method of bridge
maintenance, he has only to examine some of the highway bridges crossing
the Olentangy and Scioto rivers in Franklin county, Ohio, to note how
little of real value is left in bridges after a few years of neglect.
Concrete bridges and culverts, however, have no corrosion. If they
are properly constructed they neither weather nor rot. The commissioner
may be as careless as he chooses, the tax payer need not be taxed again
for that particular bridge, it is there for the tax payer's lifetime, and
probably that of his son's also.
Concrete bridges are constructed both of plain concrete and of steel
concrete, mainly of the latter material. At this place only the plain
concrete bridge will be considered, leaving the descriptions of steel con-
crete bridges to be given with other structures under that division of the
Probably the first all-concrete bridge of any size constructed
in this country was built at Belleville, Illinois, in 1895. It was
built over Richland creek where it crosses Main street, the main traveled
road leading directly to St. Louis, Mo. It has a span of 40 feet with a
rise of 7 feet and is 52 feet wide over all. The abutments, spandrels,
and haunches were constructed of Louisville cenient concrete in the pro-
portions of I cement, 3 sand and 5 crushed stone. The arch was built of
Dyckerhoff Portland cement concrete of the same proportions. Exposed
finished surfaces were of mortar composed of i cement to 2y2 parts of
crushed granite. The arch is 24 inches thick at the crown and 30 inches
thick at the haunches. It cost $10,500; the bids upon a brick structure
in this place ranged from $11,259 ^^ $12,830.
After eight years' service, the city engineer of Belleville, Mr. Louis
Graner, writes : "The bridge is in perfect condition and the city has had
no expenditure in any way since its construction. It shows no cracks and
the weather has had no effect on it."
There are a great many concrete bridges throughout the United
States, but the majority of them are of steel concrete construction and
some of them will be described under that head.
Massive concrete is also used in foundations, pedestals and sub-
structures of towers, and monuments. The statue of Liberty on Bedloe's
Island is placed upon a massive stone faced concrete pedestal rising for
STATE GEOLOGIST. 81
90 or 100 feet above the top of an all concrete base which is itself 50 or
60 feet in height above the surface of the island. The interior surface
of all the concrete is as good as the day it was built. In places where it
has been (Cut into, the material appears more r^jfractory than ordinary
building stones. The surface of the base was plastered with cement
mortar after the construction forms were removed and this mortar
surface shows an immense number of hair-cracks which give the base an
unseemingly appearance, but which do not injure the stre;ngth of the
foundation. These cracks do not appear on surfaces not exposed to
rapid drying. The base is built of a natural cement concrete having the
following proportions, 2 parts Rosendale cement, 2 parts sand, 3 parts
small broken stone and 4 parts of 2 inch stone. Above ground the pro-
portions are i Portland cement, i Rosendale cement, 5 sand and 6
stone. The total height of the statue above water level is 324 feet.
Figure 2^ shows the lower base of the statue of Liberty. Close examina-
tion will disclose the hair-cracks so common to plastered surfaces. Figure
28 shows the Statue of Liberty.
Fig. 27. — Concrete Foundation Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor.
6— S. G.
82 ANNUAL REPORT
The Washington monument is also an instance of the use of concrete
for heavy foundations. The monument is of marble and granite 555 feet
high and 50 feet square at the base. The comer stone was laid on July
4, 1848. The construction was carried on in a desultory manner so that
the monument was not completed until 1884. In 1877, when the tower
was about 175 feet high, it was decided that the original foundations
were not of sufficient extent and strength to safely support the finished
tower. An additional concrete sub- foundation 13J/2 feet deep and cov-
ering 21,000 square feet of surface was skillfully constructed beneath
the original foundation in sector shaped pieces. The concrete was com-
posed of I cement, 2 sand, 3 gravel and 4 broken stone. The result seems
to be perfectly satisfactory.
Fig. 28.— statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, Showing Concrete Pedestal In Full.
The concrete sea wall built by the United States government during
its occupation of Cuba, along the sea front of the fort of La Punta in
Havana, illustrates the use of concrete for this purpose. A wall was first
planned for this place by a Spanish officer in 1875, but was not built. When
the Americans occupied Havana, this shore was used for a refuse dump
and was in a seriously unsanitary condition. Under the changed condi-
tions, it was necessary to construct a different improvement than that
planned by the Spanish officer. The work was done under the direction of
Major Wm. M. Black, of the Engineering Corps of the U. S. A.
The wall was set back 30 feet from ordinary high water mark and a
paved toe extends down the slope about 26 feet, having stones set in the
paving and extending above the surface of the same in order to retard the
wave effect. Three hundred and sixty-seven feet of wall was built dur-
ing the last four months of 1900. The toe was built first to act as a pro-
tection during the erection of the wall proper, which was afterwards built in
sections from 33 to 50 feet long with vertical dovetail joints, to bond the
sections together. Near the fort, a broad flight of steps was constructed
to give access to the beach and to break the effect in appearance between the
modern concrete wall and the ancient masonry of the fort. The total
cost of the improvement was $9,567.00. The wall was constructed of
a I-2J4-5 concrete, faced 2 inches deep with a i to 2 mortar. The facing
was placed in the molds and rammed at the same time with the body of
The toe pavement was constructed of a 1-3-6 concrete top-dressed
with 2 inches of i to 2 mortar with large stones projecting above the sur-
face as shown in the illustration, figure 29.
Fig. 29.— Section Showing Sea-Wall Building at Havana, Cuba.
Galveston Sea WalL* — In September, 1900, a storm of great severity
swept over the island upon which the city of Galveston, Texas, is situated,
carrying the waters of the gulf over the island to a depth varying from
10 to 16 feet. The city suffered a great loss of life and property by this
storm. Soon afterward a commission of engineers was appointed by the
city to devise adequate means of protection against repetitions of such
storms. This commission found that in 38 years 82 hurricanes originated
in the West Indies of which 38 came into the gulf and 11 reached the
•Eng. New, April 24, 1902 also, Eng. News, January 15, 1903.
Texas coast, or one storm for each three and one-half years. If Galves-
ton was to prosper, ample protection must be afforded against these oft
recurring dangerous storms.
The commission proposed and the city is now building a great sea
wall three and one-half miles long of solid concrete, the monolithic
character of concrete suggesting a safer wall than block masonry, besides
being very much cheaper in first cost.
This wall is being built upon a pile foundation, the heads of the piles
extending about 2 feet above mean low water. The wall is 16 feet wide
at the base, 16 feet high, and 5 feet wide at the top, with a curved water
face. The base of the wall is one foot above mean low tide, resting on
and enclosing the top of the piles. Extending the toe of the wall there
will be 27 feet of stone rip-rap 3 feet deep, protecting the wall from under
wash by wave action. Behind the wall the land will be filled to the height
of the wall for a width of 95 feet ; the 35 feet next the wall being paved
for road and walk purposes, the remainder being well sodded.
It is estimated that the complete wall will contain 127,000 cubic yards
of concrete and that the entire protection will cost $3,500,000.
Figure 30 gives a section of the wall ;and improvement as it is being
Lincoln Park Shore WalL — The concrete shore wall along the lake
in Lincoln Park; Chicago, is another example of first class concrete work.
Like the Havana wall, the Lincoln Park wall is protected from the. direct
assault of the waves by an intermediate pavement, which in this case is of
granite blocks firmly set between a strong curbing at the water's edge and
the wall. On the inner or land face of the wall is a concrete gutter or
bicycle path. The illustration in figure 31 shows the general appearance
of the improvement which has been in for ten or fifteen years.
At Jackson Park, Chicago, similar improvements with a broad con-
crete walk were constructed previous to the World's Fair.
Concrete breakwaters have been constructed for many years, and by
nearly every country having a sea coast. Concrete superstructures upon
random stone substructures have been built in India, Turkey, Russia,
Austria, Holland, England, and the United States. They range from 24
to 50 feet high and from 12 to 38 feet wide on top.
At Newhaven, on the south coast of England, a plastic concrete break-
water 1,500 feet long and 30 feet wide, 10 feet above high water, was con-
structed in 1880-85. It was 50. feet wide at the bottom some 15 feet below
low water, at spring tide. The foundation up to 2 feet above low water was
laid in large jute bags containing 100 tons of concrete. They were dropped
into place from the bottom of a patent steam hopper barge. When in
86 ANNUAL REPORT
place and flattened out the bags were about 2>^ feet thick. The forms
for the superstructure were of timber trussed with i^ inch iron rods, the
sheeting being of 3 inch plank, with planed edges and surface. The con-
crete was composed of i cement to 7 sand and gravel, except in quiet water
and unexposed places where 9 parts of sand and gravel were used. The
average cost of the concrete in place was $5.50 per cubic yard. This work
has withstood the wave action excellently and is not affected by salt water.
Fig. 31.— Concrete Shore-Wall, Lincoln Park, Chicago, III.
The timber breakwater constructed at Marquette, Mich., in 1870, be-
came inadequate for the needs about 1888, and efforts were made to have
the government extend it. These efforts finally succeeded in 1895, ^^d the
government proceeded to improve the harbor. The old breakwater was in
bad condition above low water and it was decided to replace the timber
top with a permanent one of concrete.
The original structure was cut down to one foot below low water
and the concrete superstructure with dimensions as shown in figure 32
was added. Within this solid concrete mass on the harbor side a gallery
2.83 feet wide and 6.25 feet high was built to give a passageway during
heavy storms to the lighthouse at the end of the breakwater. The super-
structure was made in 10 foot sections, alternate sections being constructed
and allowed to set, then the intermediate blocks built between. The pro-
portions of Portland concrete used in the base beneath water level was i
part cement, 2^ parts sand, and 5 parts stone, and cost $6.35 per cubic
8 v: ~uj
yard in place. Milwaukee natural cement concrete was used for about
27 per cent, of the heart of the mass above low-water ; this cost $3.64 per
cubic yard, and reduced the cost of the total mass of concrete to $4.72
per cubic yard, in place.
View of Block, Lake fbce.
**^i^f^ I >^^y' DetaUa of '^%-
View of Block, Harbor Face.
Fig. 34->Sectlon of Buffalo Breakwater Showing IVIethod of Construction.
The section shown will illustrate the manner of construction and the
method of reducing the shock of wave action.
The Buffalo breakwaters, but lately completed, constitute one of the
largest pieces of such work undertaken by the Government. The Buffalo
breakwaters are known as the Stony Point, South Harbor, Old and North
breakwaters, comprising 19,872 feet, or 3^ miles ,of harbor protection,
enclosing about 1,000 acres of harbor. Some portions are rock-filled tim-
ber cribbing, other portions are loose rock rubble work, but large portions
are now capped with concrete either in large blocks or monolithic. In
portions of the work, concrete blocks 7,2 by 5 by 8 feet in dimensions and
weighing 18.92 tons were carefully set in place and interlocked by dovetail
or joggle joints. On top of these, monolithic concrete caps were con-
structed. Sections are given in figures 33 and 34 showing the different
forms and methods of construction used. Figur-es 35 and 36 show the
work in different stages of construction.
Fig. 35. — View of Buffalo Breakwater In Process of Construction.
Fig. 36. — Another View of the Buffalo Breakwater in Process of Construction.
The following table gives the cost for various portions of this work :
TABLE No. 19.
Cost of Breakwaters.
per lineal foot.
per cubic yard.
per cubic yard.
Old U. S. Breakwater, solid
concrete superstmctnre, 1889
Old U. S. Breakwater, solid
concrete snperstrncture, 189]
Old U. S. Breakwater, con-
North Breakwater, 36 foot sec-
North Breakwater, 24 foot sec-
South Harbor, concrete shell
Concrete wharves, piers and river jetties have also been constructed.
The Eads' jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi River are for a portion of
their length of concrete, an illustration being given in figure 37.
During the last few years concrete has been used in increasing quan-
tities for sewer construction. The first use of concrete for that purpose,
in this country, appears to have been in 1891. The Waring Sewer Pipe
Co., of Providence, R. I., patented during that year a^method of manufac-
turing sewer pipe in sectional pieces. They cast it in smooth iron molds,
the invert and arch, separately. The invert pieces were rabbeted or
grooved at the ends so that when two pieces were laid end to end the
groove could be filled with mortar.
The arch pieces had beveled shoulders which fitted snugly upon the top
edges of the invert ; the arch joint being plastered over with mortar from
the outside. Lateral connections were made through specially molded
junctions. The 4-foot main sewer, in Middlesborough, Ky.„ wa& con-
structed by this company, ,the invert being built in place. The cost, ac-
cording to the construction company, was 25 per cent cheaper than brick
In the same year A. C. Cheuowith, C. E., invented a seamless concrete
duct which was ^applicable either to sewer or electric duct service. The
first piece constructed was for electric ducts in Yonkers, N. Y. A thin
iron ribbon was wound spirally over a collapsable wooden mandrel or core,
a bed of plastic concrete was laid in the trench and the core laid upon this
and then covered with another layer of concrete. The wedges were then
taken out and the mandrel removed leaving the iron ribbon as a shell to
support the concrete until set, when the ribbon could be readily removed.
ya ANNUAL REPORT
In 1894 over a mile of ten-inch and twenty-four inch pipe of this make
was laid at Scarborough-on-Hudson, of a concrete composed of i cement,
2 sand, 5 stone at a cost of 30^cents per foot for the 10 inch and 95 cents
per foot for the 24 inch sewer.
Edward Mahim, C. E., constructed ,a large egg-shaped sewer, 2 feet
by 3 feet and 2 feet 10 inches by 4 feet 3 inches in dimensions, of mono-
lithic concrete, for the city of Victoria, B. C, in 1891. This shows that
several engineers began the work at about the same time.
A large concrete storm sewer was constructed for Maelbeek creek,
Brussels, Belgium, in 1895. This sewer had a circular form with a
diameter of about 15 feet in one part, and a section in another part of 29
feet 7 inches wide by 9 feet high. The remarkable feature of this large
concrete structure was the leanness of the concrete. The foundation was of
I part cement, 6 parts sand and 12 parts gravel, while the sides and arch
were of i part cement, 4 parts sand and 8 parts gravel with a i inch face
of I to' I mortar.
Reading* Pa* —In 1896 the city of Reading, Pa., constructed a large
amount of concrete sewers ranging in size from an oval sewer 4 feet 8
inches wide by 7 feet high to a circular sewer 14 feet in diameter.
Some $250,000 to $300,000 was expended in combined sewers for the city.
These were plain concrete sewers — no metal being used to reinforce the
concrete. The concrete was proportioned as follows: i part cement,
3 parts sand and 6 parts broken stone or gravel. The work was plastered
upon the inside with cement mortar after the forms were removed. This
plaster coat has peeled off in a very few places of limited extent, otherwise
the appearance of the sewer is as good as when it came from the forms.
The writer visited Reading in the summer of 1902 and examined
the sewers, but could see no appreciable evidence of wear or disintegra-
tion except as already stated. The engineer said there were velocities
ranging up to 19 feet per second or greater, in some places in these
sewers. At the outlet an abrupt 90 degree bend in the sewer shows
no evidence of wear.
At the time the contract was let there were 15 bidders upon the
work. Alternate plans were drawn, one for brick, the other for concrete
— the 14 foot sewer with 4 rings of brick or 18 inches concrete, the 10
foot sewer with 4 rings of brick or 15 inches of concrete, the 6
foot sewer with 3 rings of brick or 10 inches of concrete. The ave.rage
of the bids upon the concrete was 85 per cent, of the bids for building
the same sewers with brick. Comparing each bidder's prices upon con-
crete with his prices upon brick sewers, the bids upon concrete ranged
from 67 per cent, to 103.6 per cent, of the prices bid for brick sewers.
Coltsmbtis Sewers* — A brief description of the concrete sewer work
now under construction in Columbus, Ohio, should also be given.
STATE GEOLOGIST. 93
Bids were accepted April 14, 1903, upon three different plans of
sewer construction for the Central Relief and the Beck Street sewers.
These sewers range from 51 inches to 10 feet 6 inches in diameter.
Fig. 38. — Outlet of the Relief Siewer, Columbus, Ohio.
One design was for the customary brick sewer, 'another for reinforced
concrete and a third for plain concrete. But two contractors bid — num-
ber one accustomed to construct concrete sewers, number two unaccus-
tomed to such construction. The bidder to whom concrete construction
was strange bid much higher upon concrete than upon brick.
Number one's bid upon concrete was 86.6 per cent, of his bid for brick
work, and only 85 per cent, of his competitor's bid upon brick work ; while
the bid of number two for concrete was 116 per cent, of his own bid upon
The lowest bid was accepted and the work is in progress. Figure 38
illustrates the outlet end of the 10^ foot sewer where it empties into
the Scioto River.
Electric wires for light, telephone, telegraph and power are laid
under ground in many of the large cities in tile or terra cotta pipes. In
order to protect the wires and insulation from dampness, these pipes are
imbedded in concrete as illustrated in Figure 39.
94 ANNUAL REPORT
In California, for a great many years, concrete pipe for irrigation and
water supply purposes has been manufactured. As early as 1880, 18 inch
to 24 inch pipes, 30 inches long were being made at Pomona, California,
for the Pomona Land and Water Company, to bring the water supply
from wells and tunnels onto their lands.
The Edison Electric Co., Redlands, California, have lately completed
a gravity water power line 25,000 feet long, to their Mill Creek Power
plant. It was constructed of 30 inch concrete pipe in 24 inch lengths;
the shell of the pipe being 2^4 inches thick. The economy of this pipe
over cast iron was largely due to the cost of freighting material to the
line of work. The cement was hauled twenty miles direct from the
works. Iron pipe would have been very expensive due to the great
cost of hauling. Gravel was obtained right upon the work. The pipe
was cast in metal forms, the concrete composed of i part Portland cement
and 3 parts gravel, using ^ gallon of water to a cubic foot of the mass.
The pipe cost $1.00 per foot to make and $1.00 per foot to lay it. The
pipes after being made were sprinkled frequently for about two weeks
and then allowed to season several months before laying.
The water supply of Cuneo, Italy, is brought 5,900 feet through a con-
crete pipe 9% inches in diameter, under a head of 78 feet. The engineer
originally estimated that the pipe would have to be 7J4 inches thick to
withstand the pressure, but after careful tests decided to reduce the
thickness to 3,15 inches. The pipe was built in 1888 or 1889 ^md is
serving the purpose satisfactorily.
In 1 89 1, an irrigation ditch at San Gabriel, California, 4 feet wide
at the bottom, 6 feet wide at the top and 3 feet, 4 inches deep, was built
with concrete sides and bottom. The concrete 2>4 inches thick, composed
of I part cement to 8 or 10 parts sand and gravel, was laid directly upon
the clean cut excavated bottom and sides of the ditch. The sand and
gravel was used just as it came from the ditch excavation. After laying,
the concrete was coated by brushing in upon the surface a neat cement
cream. Two years afterwards it was reported to be in good condition.
About the same time the Gage Canal, near Riverside, California, was
lined with i^ inches of cement-mortar composed of i part Portland
cement and 4 parts sand. This irrigation canal is 22 miles long and
belongs to the Riverside irrigation system. The work cost about $1.03
per lineal foot of canal. It was reported to be in perfect condition after