George Atherton Aitken.

The life and works of John Arbuthnot, M.D., fellow of the Royal College of Physicians online

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ventorum Aeoli, ut sequitur. — Latina eerie littora cum Aeneas
aderat, Lavina non nisi postea ab ipso nominata, lib. xii. ver.
193. — jactatus terris non con venit.

' See pages 59, 121.

Bb



37© WORKS OF DR. ARBUTHNOT.

II. Veb. 52.

Et quisquis numen Junonis adoret?
Et quisquis nomen Junonis adoret?
Longe melius, quam, ut antea, numen, et procul dubio sic

Virgilius.

III. Ver. 86.

Venti, velut agmine facto,
Qua data porta ruunt

Venti, velut aggere frado,

Qua data porta ruunt

Sic corrige, meo periculo.

IV. Ver. 117.

Fidumquc vehebat Orontem.
Fortemque vehebat Orontem.
Non fidum, quia Epitheton Achatae notisstmum Oronti nun-

quam datur.

V. Ver. 119.

Excutitur, pronusque magister

Volvitur in caput

Excutitur: pronusque magis ter

Volvitur in caput

Aio Virgilium alitor non scripsisse, quod plane confirmatur ex
sequentibus — Ast ilium tevfliictiis ibidem torquet.

VI. Ver. 122.
Apparent ran nantes in gurgite vasto
Arma virum

Armi liominiim : ridicule antea arma virum, quae, ex ferro
conflata, quomodo possunt natare ?

VII. Ver. 151.

Atque rotis summas leviter perlabitur undas.

Atque rotis spumas leviter perlabitur udas.
Summas, et leviter jyerlahi, j^leonasmus est: mirifice altera lectio
Neptuni agiKtatem et celeritatem exprimit ; simili modo noster
de Camilla, Aen. xi.

Ilia vel intactae segetis per sumnia volaret, &c. hyperbolice.

VIII. Ver. 154.

Jamque faces et saxa volant, furor arma ministrat.
Jam faeces et saxa volant, fugiuntque ministri :



VIRGILIUS RESTAURATUS. 371

uti Solent, instaiiti periculo. — Faeces facihus longe praestant, quid
enim nisi faeces jactarent wilgus sordiclum ?

IX. Ver. 170.

Fronte sub adversa scopuUs xjendentibus antrum,
Intus aquae dulces, vivoque sedilia saxo.

Fronte sub adversa pojmJis prandentihiis antnim.
Sic maliin, longe j^otius quam scopulis pendentibus : nugae !
nonne Addes versu sequenti dulces aquas ad potandum et sedilia
ad discumbendiun dari ? in quorum usiun ? quippe prandentium.

X. Vek. 188.
Tres littore cervos

Prospiclt errantes : hos tota armenta sequuntur

A tergo

Tres littore corvos
Aspkit errantes : hos agmina tota sequuntur
A tergo

Cervi, lectio vulgata, absurditas notissima : haec animalia in
Africa non inventa, quis nescit ? at motus et ambulandi ritus
corvoruni, quis non agnovit hoc loco ? Littore, locus ubi errant
coi-vi, uti noster alibi,

Et sola in sicca secum spatiatur arena.

Omen praeclarissimum, immo et agminibus militiim frequenter
obseiTatum, ut patet ex historicis.

XI. Vee. 748.

Arcturum, pluviasque Hyades, geminosque Triones.
EiTor gra^dssimus. Corrigo, — septemque Triones.

XII. Vee. 631.
Quare agite, juvenes, tectis succedite nostris.
Lectis potius dicebat Dido, poHta magis oratione, et quae unica
voce et torum et mensam expiimebat : hanc lectionem probe
confirmat appellatio juvenes ! DupUcem hunc sensmn aUbi
etiam Maro lepide innuit, Aen. iv. ver. 1 9.

Huic uni forsan potui succumbere ciilpae :

Anna ! fatebor enim

Sic corriges,

Huic uni \viro scil.] forsan potui succumbere ; cidpas ?
Anna ! fatebor enim, etc.
Vox succumhere quam eleganter ambigua!

B b a



372 WORKS OF DR. ARBUTHNOT.



LIBER SECUNDUS, Ver.i.

Conficuere omnes, mfentique ora tenebant ;
Inde toro pater Aeneas sic orsus ab alto.

Concuhuere omnes, mtcnteque ora tenebant ;
Inde toro satur Aeneas sic orsus ab alto.

Concuhuere, quia toro Aeneam vidimus accumbentem : quin
et altera ratio, scil. conticuere et ora tcnehant, tautologice dictum.
In manuscripto perquam rarissimo in patris museo, legitur, ore
gemehant ; sed magis ingeniose quam vere. Satur Aeneas,
quippe qui jamjam a prandio surrexit : pater nihil ad rem.

II. Ver. 3.

Infandum, regina, jubes renovare dolorem.
Infantum, regina, jubes renovare dolorem.

Sic baud dubito veterrimis codicibus scriptum fuisse : quod satis
constat ex perantiqua ilia Britannorum cantilena vocata Chevy
CJiace, cujus auctor bunc locum sibi ascivit in haec verba,
The child may rue that is unborn.

III. Ver. 4.
Trojanas ut opes, et lamentabile regnum
Eruerint Danai.

Trojanas ut ores et lamentabile regnum
Diruerint.

Mallem ores potius quam ojjes, quoniam in antiquissimis illis
temporibus oves et armenta divitiae regum fuere. Vel fortasse
oves Paridis innuit, quas super Idam nuperrime pascebat, et jam
in vindictam pro Helenae raptu, a Menelao, Ajace, [vid. Hor.
Sat. ii. 3.] aliisque ducibus, meiito occisas.

IV. Ver. 5.

Quaeque ipse miserrima vidi,
Et quorum pars magna fui.

Quaeque ipse miserrimus audi,
Et quoiaun pars magna fui

Omnia tam audita quam visa recta distinctione enarrare hie
Aeneas profitetur : multa, quorum nox ea fatalis sola conscia
fuit, vir probus et plus tanquam visa refen-e non potuit.



VIRGILIUS RESTAURATUS. 373

V. Ver. 7.

Quis talia fando
Temperet a laciyniis?

Quis talia flendo
Temperet in lachiymis ?

Major enini doloris indicatio, absque modo lachrymare, quain
solummodo a lachryniis non temperare.

VI. Ver. 9.

Et jam nox Jiumida coelo
Praecipitat, suadentque cadentia sydera somnos.

Et jam nox lumina coelo
Praecipitat, suadentque latent'm sydera somnos.
Lectio, humida, vespertinum rorem solum innuere videtur :
magis mi arridet lumina, quae latentia postquam praecipitantui-,
Aurorae adventum annunciant.

Sed si tantus amor casus cognoscere nostras,
Et hreviter Trojae stcpremum audire lahorem.
Sed si tantus amor curas cognoscere noctis,
Et hreve ter Trojae superumque audire lahores.

Curae noctis (scilicet noctis excidii Trojani) magis compendiose
(vel, ut dixit ipse, hreviter) totam belli catastrophen denotat,
quam diffusa ilia et indeterminata lectio, casits nostros. Ter
audii-e gratum fuisse Didoni, patet ex libro quarto, ubi dicitur,
Hiacosque iterum demons audire lahores exposcit : Ter enim pro
saepe usurpatui-. Trojae, superumque lahores, recte, quia non
tantum homines sed et Dii sese his laboribus immiscuerunt.
Vide Aen. ii. ver. 610, etc.

Quanquam animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit,

Incipiam.

Quanquam animus meminisse horret, luctusque resurgit.

Resiirgit multo propiius dolorem renascentem notat, quam,
ut hactenus, refugit.

VII. Ver. 19.

Fracti bello, fatisque repulsi
Ductores Danaum, tot jam labentibus annis,
Instar niontis Equum, divina Palladis arte,
Aedificant etc.



374 WORKS OF DR. ARBUTHNOT.

Tracti bello, fatisque repuki
Tracti et repulsi, antithesis perpulchra ! Fracti, frigide
et vulgariter.

Equum jam Trojanum (ut vulgus loquitur) adeamus : quern
si equam Chnecam vocabis, lector, minime pecces : Solae enim
femellae utero gestant. Utervimque armato mUite complent —
Uteroque recusso Insonuere cavae — Atque utero sonitum quater
arma dedere — Inclusos utero Banaos, etc. Vox foeta non con-
venit maribus, — Scandit fafalis mach'ma micros, Foeta arniis. —
Palladem virginem, equo mari fabricando invigilare decuisse,
quis putat ? incredibile prorsus ! Quamobrem existimo veram
equae lectionem passim restituendam, nisi ubi forte, metri
caussa, eqmim potius quam equam, genus pro sexu, dixit Maro.
Vale ! dum haec paucula corriges, majus opus moveo.



TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

THE MAYOR AND ALDERMEN OF THE
CITY OF LONDON.

THE HUMBLE PETITION

OF THE

COLLIERS, COOKS, COOK-MAIDS, BLACKSMITHS,
JACKMAKERS, BRAZIERS AND OTHERS',

Sheweth,

That whereas eertain virtuosi disaffected to the goveminent,
and to the trade and prosperity of this kingdom, taking upon
them the name and title of the Catoptrical Victuallers, have
presumed by gathering, breaking, folding, and bundling up the
sunbeams by the help of certain glasses, to make, produce, and
kindle up several new focuses or fires within these his Majesty's
dominions, and thereby to boil, bake, stew, fry, and dress all
sorts of ^actuals and provisions, to brew, distil spirits, smelt ere,
and in general to perform all the ofiices of culinary fires, and
are endeavouring to procure to themselves the monopoly of
this their said mvention, We beg leave humbly to represent
to your honours.

That such grant or patent will utterly ruin and reduce
to beggary your petitioners, their wives, children, sei^vants,
and trades on them depending ; there being nothing left
to them, after the said invention, but warming of cellars and
dressing of suppers in the winter time. That the abolishing so
considerable a branch of the coasting trade as that of the col-
liers, will destroy the na^ngation of this kingdom. That
whereas the said catoptrical victuallers talk of making use of

' Published in 1716. See page 88.



376 WORKS OF DR. ARDUTHNOT.

the moon by night, as of the sun by day, they will utterly ruin
the numerous body of tallow-chandlers, and impair a veiy con-
siderable branch of the revenue, which arises from the tax upon
tallow and candles.

That the said catoptrical victuallers do profane the emana-
tions of that glorious luminary the sun, which is appointed to
rule the day, and not to roast mutton. And we humbly con-
ceive it will be found contrary to the known laws of this king-
dom to confine, forestall, and monopolize the beams of the
sun. And whereas the said catoptrical victuallers have under-
taken by burning-glasses made of ice to roast an ox upon the
Thames next winter, we conceive all such practices to be an
encroachment upon the rights and privileges of the comjiany of
watermen.

That the diversity of exposition of the several kitchens in this
great city, whereby some receive the rays of the sun sooner,
and others later, will occasion great irregularity as to the time
of dining of the several inhabitants, and consequently great
uncertainty and confusion in the despatch of business : and to
those, who by reason of their northern exposition will be still
forced to be at the expenses of culinary fires, it will reduce the
price of their manufacture to such inequality, as is inconsistent
with common justice : and the same inconveniency will affect
landlords in the value of then" rents.

That the use of the said glasses will oblige cooks and
cook-maids to study optics and astronomy, in order to
know the due distances of the said focuses or fires, and to
adjust the position of theu" glasses to the several altitudes of
the sun, varying according to the hours of the day, and the
seasons of the year ; which studies, at these years, will be
highly troublesome to the said cooks and cook-maids, not to say
anything of the utter incapacity of some of them to go through
with such difficult arts ; or (which is still a greater incon-
venience) it will throw the whole art of cookery into the hands
of astronomers and glass-grmders, persons utterly unskilled in
other parts of that profession, to the great detriment of the
health of his Majesty's good subjects.

That it is known by experience, that meat roasted mth sun-
beams is extremely unwholesome ; witness several that have
died suddenly after eating the provisions of the said catoptrical
victuallers ; forasmuch as the sunbeams taken inwardly render



PETITION OF THE COLLIERS, ETC. 377

the humours too hot and adust, occasion great sweatings, and
dry up the rectual moisture.

That sunbeams taken inwardly shed a malignant influence
upon the brain by their natural tendency towards the moon ;
and produce madness and distraction at the time of the full
moon. That the constant use of so great quantities of this
inward light will occasion the growth of Quakerism to the
danger of the Church, and of poetry to the danger of the
State.

That the influences of the constellations, through which the
sun passes, will with his beams be conveyed into the blood ;
and, when the sun is among the horned signs, may produce
such a spii'it of unchastity as is dangerous to the honour of
your worships' families.

That, mankind living much upon the seeds and other parts
of plants, these, being impregnated with the sunbeams, may
vegetate and grow in the bowels ; a tiling of more dangerous
consequence to human bodies than breeding of worms ; and
this will fall heaviest upon the poor, who live upon roots, and
the weak and sickly, who live upon barley and rice-gruel, &c.,
for which we are ready to produce to your honoui's the opinions
of eminent physicians ; and the taste and property of the
victuals is much altered to the worse by the said solar cookery,
the fricassees being deprived of the liaut gout they acquu-e by
being dressed over charcoal.

Lastly, should it happen by an eclipse of an extraordinary
length that this city should be deprived of the sunbeams for
several months, how will his Majesty's subjects subsist in
the interim, when common cookery, with the arts depending
upon it, is totally lost ?

In consideration of these, and many other inconveniences,
your petitioners huml^ly pray that your honours would
either totally prohibit the confinmg and manufacturing the
sunbeams for any of the useful purposes of life, or in the
ensuing parliament procure a tax to be laid upon them,
which may answer both the duty and price of coals,
and which we humbly conceive cannot be less than
thirty shillings j)er yard square, reserving the sole
right and privilege of the catoptrical cookery to the
Eoyal Society, and to the commanders and crew of the
bomb-vessels, under the dii-ection of Mr. Wliiston for



378 WORKS OF DR. ARBUTHNOT.

finding out the longitude \ who, by reason of the remote-
ness of their stations, may be reduced to straits for want
of firing.

And we likewise beg that your honours, as to the
forementioned points, would hear the Eeverend Mr.
Flamsteed", who is the legal officer appointed by the
government to look after the heavenly luminaries,
whom we have constituted our tiTisty and learned
solicitor.

1 See pages 67, 71-3. ^ See pages 36-7.



REASONS

HUMBLY OFFERED BY

THE COMPANY EXERCISING THE TRADE AND
MYSTERY OF UPHOLDERS,

Against part of the Bill for the better Viewing,
Searching, and Examining Drugs,
Medicines, &c., 1724^

Being called upon by several retailers and dispensers of
dnigs and medicines about to^^^l, to use our endeavours against
the bill now depending for viewing, &c., in regard of our
common interest, and in gratitude to the said retailers and dis-
pensers of medicines, which we have always found to be veiy
effectual, we presume to lay the following reasons before the
public against the said bill.

That the Company of Upholders are far from being averse to
the giving of drugs and medicines in general, provided they
may be of such qualities as we require, and administered by
such persons, in whom om- Company justly repose the greatest
confidence ; and provided they tend to the encouragement of
trade, and the consumption of the woollen manufacture^ of
this kingdom.

We beg leave to obsei-ve, that there hath been no complaint
from any of the nobility, gentry, and citizens whom we have
attended ; our practice, which consists chiefly in outward
applications, having been always so effectual, that none of our
patients have been obliged to undergo a second operation, ex-
cepting one gentlewoman, who, after her first burial, having
burthened her husband with a new brood of posthumous
children, her second funeral was by us performed without any

^ In the year 1 724 the physicians Reqiiests. See page 107.
made application to parliament to " An Act of i6;8 obliged the dead

prevent apothecaries dispensing to be bm-ied in woollen, to protect

medicine without the prescription homesimn goods against foreign

of a physician : during which this linen,
tract was dispersed in the Court of



3 Ho WORKS OF DR. ARBUTHNOT.

further charges to the said husband of the deceased. And we
humbly hope that one single instance of this kind, a mis-
fortune owing merely to the avarice of a sexton in cutting off a
ring', will not be imputed to any want of skill or care in our
Company.

We humbly conceive that the power by this bill lodged in
the Censors of the College of Physicians to restrain any of Iris
Majesty's subjects from dispensing, and well-disposed persons
from taking what medicines they please, is a manifest encroach-
ment on the liberty and property of the subject.

As the Company exercising the trade and mysteiy of Uj)-
holders have an undisputed right in and upon the bodies of all
and eveiy the subjects of the kingdom, we conceive the pass-
ing of this bill, though not absolutely depriving them of their
said right, might keep them out of j)ossession by unreason-
able delays, to the great detriment of our company and theu'
numerous families.

We hope it will be considered, that there are multitudes of
necessitous heirs and penurious parents, persons in pinching
circumstances with numerous families of children, wives that
have lived long, many robust aged women with great jointures,
elder brothers with bad understandings, single heirs of great
estates, whereby the collateral line are for ever excluded, rever-
sionary patents, and reversionaiy promises of preferments,
leases upon single lives, and play-debts upon joint lives, and
that the persons so aggrieved have no hope of being speedily
relieved any other way than by the dispensing of drugs and
medicines in the manner they now are ; buiying alive being
judged repugnant to the known laws of this kingdom.

That there are many of the deceased, who by certain me-
chanical motions and powers are carried about town, who
would have been put into our hands long before this time by
any other well-ordered government : by want of a due police in
this particular our Company have been great sufferers.

That frequent funerals contribute to preserve the genealogies
of families, and the honours conferred by the crown, which are
no where so well illustrated as on this solemn occasion ; to
maintain necessitous clergy ; to enable the clerks to appear in
decent habits to officiate on Sundays ; to feed the great
retinue of sober and melancholy men, who appear at the said
funerals, and who must starve without constant and regular



REASONS OFFERED BY THE UPHOLDERS. 381

employment. Moreover we desire it may be remembered that
by the passing of this bill the nobility and gentiy will have
their old coaches lie uj^on their hands, which are now emj^loyed
by our Company.

And we further hope that frequent funerals will not be dis-
couraged, as is by this bill proposed, it being the only method
left of cariying some people to church.

We are afraid that by the hardshijis of this bill our Company
will be reduced to leave their business here, and practise at
York and Bristol, where the free use of bad medicines will still
be allowed.

It is therefore hoped that no specious pretence whatsoever will
be thought sufficient to introduce an arbitraiy and unlmiited
power for people to live (in defiance of art) as long as they can
by the course of nature, to the prejudice of our Company, and
the decay of trade.

That as our Company are like to suffer in some measure by the
power given to physicians to dissect the bodies of malefactors,
we humbly hope that the manufacture of cases for skeletons
will be reserved solely to the coffin-makers.

We likewise humbly presume that the interests of the
several trades and i)rofessions which depend upon ours may
be regarded ; such as that of hearses, coaches, coffins, epitaphs,
and bell-ropes, stone-cutters, feather-men, and bell-ringers ; and
especially the manufacturers of crapes, and the makers of
snuff, who use great quantities of old coffins, and who, con-
sidered in the consumption of theii- dnigs, emploj^ by far
the greatest number of hands of any manufacture of the
kingdom.



A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF
MR. JOHN GINGLICUTT'S TREATISE

CONCERNING THE

ALTEECATION OR SCOLDING OF THE ANCIENTS.

BY THE AUTHORS

I WAS bom near the Monument of that dreadful fire wliich
consumed this august city, where my mother, Mrs. Judith
Ginglicutt, being soon after my birth left a widow, has continued
to sell some fishes of the testaceous kind, which exert theii-
stimulating quality on the constitutions of such as eat them,
and in the discourse of such as vend them. My mother, by
an assiduous and honest traffic in the aforesaid commodity,
acquired wherewith, not only to maintain, but liberally to
educate me, her only child.

When I became thoroughly acquainted with the Greek and
Roman authors, I thought it incumbent upon me to do some-
thing towards the honour of the place of my nativity, and to
vindicate the rhetoric of this ancient forum of our metropolis
from the aspersions of the illiterate, by composmg a Treatise
of the Altercation of the Ancients ; wherein I have demon-
strated that the purity, sincerity, and simplicity of their diction
is no where so weU preserved as amongst my neighbourhood.

The word altercation, which properly signifies debating, has
likewise been translated scolding ; therefore, complying with
modern barbarity, I have taken it in the most extensive sense.

I propose publishing this my treatise by subscription ; the
reasons which have induced me to do it at this time are, first,
to rectify a general mistake of the moderns, who find fault

* Publislied in 1731. See pages 132-3.



MR, JOHN GTNGLICUTT'S TREATISE. 383

with the acute style of the present j)olitical disputations.
Secondly, to administer comfort unto such as think them-
selves abused on either side, by shewing that calling of names
is true Greek and Eoman eloquence, and bearing such appella-
tions is Greek and Eoman virtue. Thirdly, to dissipate the
fears of some well-meaning people, who think our liberty in
danger, which is impossible, as long as this truly ancient and
polite rhetoric subsists, which is both the symptom and
cause of jjublic liberty. Fourthly, to assist the promising-
geniuses which are daily rising in my native country.

The mistake of people who censure the plain appellations
and epithets which the political antagonists on each side bestow
on their adversaries proceeds from two causes ; the first is
the not sufficiently distinguishing between propriety and truth
of speech. Propriety of language is when an author maketh
use of the expression which is most apposite to his own idea,
but doth not suppose the idea to be either absolutely true or
false : thus he who thinks, and calls his adversary a rogue,
certainly speaks properly, though perhaps not truly ; those terms
of objurgation which so offend the moderns, are only short
and significant words to express a complex idea. Thus tell a
modern, 'Sir, you have often deceived me,' it would only j^ut
him upon his own vindication ; but if you call him a cheat,
you run the risk of a drubbing : and pray what should make
so wide a difference between a circumlocution and a noun-
substantive, which both express the same thing ? The second
cause of this general mistake, is ignorance of the languages
and manners of purest antiquity, wherein this opprobrious
language (so much censured nowadays) was quite familiar,
as I have showed through the whole body of my work. In
the first chapter I have settled the notion of the term bar-
barous, which was constantly applied to every thing that was
not Greek or Eoman, and ought still to retain the same
signification ; in consequence of which, I have proved that the
ceremonious, humble, low manner of speech and address of
the moderns, their pompous titles of honour, coats of arms,
and all the jargon of heraldry and chivalry, are gothic and
barbarous, introduced by the fall of the republics of Greece
and Eome. Did ever a citizen of any of those republics say
to his equal or superior, ' your devoted slave ' ? On the contrary,
the dialect of those republics, where they call things by



384 WORKS OF DR. ARBUTHNOT.

their plain names, is qvxite polite, as the other is imclassical
and barbarous. Polite and civil, the first a Greek, the second
a Latin word, signify what is customary in a well-ordered city,
or commonwealth ; and though the ignorant may be forgiven,
it is quite scandalous in men of a liberal education, to find
fault with calling of names in public papers and harangues,
and much more so, to make them the subjects of quari'els,
which every body knows is gothie. In my first chapter, I
settle the original right of this sort of altercation, which is
most indefeasible and unlimited in the female sex amongst all
ranks and degrees, except between old and young women ;
the latter being supposed to want the protection and benevolent
assistance of the former. Secondly, that there is no mutual
right of altercation between different sexes, except in the
matrimonial state. Thirdly, that the right of altercation
subsists between personages of equal rank, gods, goddesses,
monarchs, generals, and public orators ; likewise between



Online LibraryGeorge Atherton AitkenThe life and works of John Arbuthnot, M.D., fellow of the Royal College of Physicians → online text (page 34 of 47)