George Bradford Bartlett.

The Concord guide book online

. (page 1 of 8)
Online LibraryGeorge Bradford BartlettThe Concord guide book → online text (page 1 of 8)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES



3 3433 08190911 5



.>^






CONCORD .




; of Interest.




\ v\



^vvv^



^<i -




MR. FRENCH S BUST OF EMERSON,



THE CONCORD



GUIDE BOOK.



EDITED BY

GEORGE B. BARTLETT.



illustrations by
Miss L. B. Humphrey and Robert Lewis.



BOSTON:
D. LOTHROP AND COMPANY,

FRANKLIN STREET, CORNER OF HAWLEY.






COPYRIGHT BY

D. LOTHROP & CO.



Press of Rockwell and Churchill

39 Arch St., Boston.



PR EFACE



This is not a history but a simple Guide Book by which a pilgrim
can find his way to all the objects of interest in Concord. For this
reason only places which still exist are mentioned and the persons and
legends connected with them. If any critic is not satisfied that a Guide
Book to this village is needed, he can stand on the common any fine
day and answer questions until he is satisfied. To those who find
it too full of praise, the author respectfully replies that when a per-
son is not proud of his native place his nativ^e place is seldom proud
of him.

Thanks are due to Mrs, Rose Hawthorne Lathrop for her account
of her father's home ; to Mrs. Delano Goddard for her Voyage on
the Assabet ; to Miss Munroe for her Memoir of the Founder of the
Library ; to Mrs. W. S. Robinson for her Memoir of " Warrington "
to W. W. Wheildon Esq. for the articles on Walden Pond, the Con-
cord Grape, and the Masonic Institutions ; to Mr. A. Munroe for the
history of the Library, the Water Supply and the Curiosity Shop; to
Mr. S. R. Bartlett for the sketch of Daniel Chester French and his
studio, and to F. M. Holland Esq, for '' The Clubs."

Full credit also should be given to Rev. G. Reynolds, and to F. B.
Sanborn Esq. for quotations from their writings as well as to Shattuck's
History, the Diary of Rev. Wm. Emerson, and the Pamphlets of Rev.
Dr. Ripley, and others,

G. B. B.
Concord, Mass.

5



INDEX



Alcott Family

Artillery, Concord .

Bank, Concord .

Battle Ground .

Brown, Lieut. Governor

Burying Grounds

Carnival of Boats

Centennial Celebration

Churches

Clubs ....

Concord Grape

Early History

Free Public Library .

French, Hon. H. F. .

French's Studio

Hawthorne

Hemlocks

Hoar, Hon. Samuel .

Hoar, Judge E. R.

Home of Emerson

Houses of Historical Interest

Houses of Literary Interest

Hudson, Frederic



Page.

67
117
119

27

156

152

II

121

114
10
90

155
107

58
149

65
66

48

48
^S4



8 Index.

Institution of Masonry ii8

Manse 53

Middlesex Fire Insurance Co 112

Monuments 99

Monroe, W 87

Old Curiosity Shop . 109

Orchard House (£

Ripley, Dr 56

Rivers and Their Surroundings 142

Robinson, W. S 80

Sanborn, F. B 78

School of Philosophy 124

Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 18

Social Circle . . 121

Thoreau . . 60

Walden Pond 136

Wayside 58

Wheildon, W. W 82



THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK.



CHAPTER I



EARLY HISTORY, CHURCHES AND BURYING GROUNDS.

Passengers for Concord, Mass., can take the ears in
Boston by way of the Fitchburg or Boston and Lowell Rail
Roads, which are near each other on Causeway street. Com-
ing from New York by rail or steamboat via Fall River or New
Haven, or from tlie West by Boston and Albany road, they
can connect at South Framingham, or from the East and North
at Ayer Junction. At the Concord depot carriages are always
in readiness to convey tourists to all objects of interest in and
about the town, to which this little book endeavors to call their

9



lo THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK.

attention by giving a glance at the history, legends, and litera-
ture which have rendered the place somewhat noted.

The Town of Concord, probably so named from the peace-
ful manner of its purchase, was settled by a compan}^ of about
a dozen families, most of whom came directly from England for
that purpose, having been encouraged in this plan by a traveller
who visited the spot in the year 1633. These pilgrims endured
great hardships in their passage from tide water to this spot,
being compelled to wade through deep swamps and penetrate
with great difficulty through tangled thickets. They suffered
greatly from the loss of their cattle which died in great numbers
from change of diet and climate. The Indian name of the set-
tlement was Musket-a-quid or the Grass-Grown River, and the
broad meadows lying for many miles along the river were great-
ly esteemed by their aboriginal owners as hunting grounds and
corn fields ; but a peaceful purchase was made about the year
1637, the transaction having occurred, according to a legend,
under a great tree called Jethro's Oak, which stood near the
present site of the Middlesex Hotel. The savage proprietors
seemed to have been well disposed and friendl}^ to the new
comers who labored earnestly for their conversion and improve-
ment. The apostle Eliot often preached to them, and through
his influence, about the year 1656, a large compan}^ of praying
Indians existed, who cultivated the land and had an excellent
code of laws, a copy of which is still extant. During the next
twenty years the good feeling originally existing between the
English and Indians seems to have graduallj' given place to the



EA RL V HIS TOR V, CHUR CHES A ND B UR V/.VG GR O UNDS. 1 1

most bitter animosity, and Concord soon became a military post
and a centre of warlike operations, from which parties were
constantly sent out to the relief of neighboring villages, and for
the punishment of the enemy.

During Philip's War several block houses were maintained,
one of which tradition locates on the present site of the house
of Dr. Barrett, one near Merriam's Corner, and one near
the residence of Mr. Lewis Flint.

Several Indians convicted of the crime of murder and arson
were executed in the town, and also one white man for the
murder of an Indian. The general prejudice against the sav-
ages extended also to the praying Indians, a small party of
wdiom were living here under the protection of Mr. John Hoar,
who had built a building for them to use as a residence and
workshop ; and one Sunday a company of soldiers from Boston
entered the town and demanded them, and they were saved
with great difficulty by the courage and determination of their
guardian. It is stated that before proceeding to attack these
inoffensive Indians, the soldiers decorously attended public
worship, and waited until after service before stating the object
of tlieir mission.

The Old Church stood near the site of the present Unita-
rian house of worship, which was built on the old frame, so that
it contains the same timbers as the one in which the first Pro-
vincial Congress was held, on the fourteenth of October, 1774,
of wliich John Hancock was chosen president. In this assembly
were made those stirring speeches by himself, Adams, and other
patriots, which did so much to hasten the events of the Revolu-



12 THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK.

tion. The church was organized at Cambridge, in 1636, and in
1637 the Rev. Peter Bulkeley and John Jones were chosen as
the teacher and the pastor. In this organization, like most
of those under two heads, some difficulty seems to have arisen,
and a part of the congregation seceded for a time, and some of
the people followed Mr. Jones on his subsequent removal from







FIRST CHURCH.



the town. Mr. Bulkeley came from noble ancestry, was renowned
as a finished scholar and gentleman, and expended his means
and strength for his town and church with a liberality only
equalled by his piety. He died universally lamented, March
9th, 1659, at which time his son, the Rev. Edward, was in-
stalled in his place. The Rev. Joseph Esterbrook, Rev. Mr.
Whiting, and Rev. Mr. Bliss successively succeeded him.
After them came the eloquent divine and fearless patriot. Rev.



EA RL V HIS TOR V, CHUR CHES AND B UR YING GR O UNDS. 1 3

William Emerson, who preached for ten years, when he gave
his life to the service of his country. The Rev. Ezra Ripley
succeeded to the church and home of Mr. Emerson, whose
widow he married. Of both of the two last-named divines,
an account will be found in another place. The Rev. H. B.
Goodwin and the Rev. B. Frost were both colleagues of
Dr. Ripley, the latter being pastor of the church after him, in
which position he was succeeded by the present incumbent.
Rev. G. Reynolds, who has identified himself with the history
of this town, writing many valuable historical papers and
books.

The Congregational Church, under the charge of the Rev.
Henry M. Grout, is situated on the street behind the Old
Church, and was organized June 5, 1826.

The_ Catholic^ Church, which is in a flourishing condition,
occupies a fine site on the public square.

The Old Hill Burying Ground_ stands directly behind
the Catholic Church. The date of its opening is unknown, and
the location of no older one can be ascertained. The oldest
stone in this ground is probabl}' the monument to Joseph
Merriam, who died the twentieth of April, 1677 ; and the most
celebrated epitaph is that of John Jack, an old slave who died
in town in 1773. This has been widely copied at home and
abroad as a curious specimen of antithesis, and it is usually
attributed to the pen of Daniel Bliss. The stone, which has
been renewed, stands at the northerly corner of the yard, and a
well-worn track leads to it from the main path. The inscrip-
tion is here copied in full :



14 THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK.

God wills us free, man wills us slaves,

I will as God wills ; God's will be done.

Here lies the body ot"

JOHN JACK

A native of Africa, who died

March 1773 aged about sixty years.

Though born in a land of slavery.

He was born free.

Though he lived in a land of liberty.

Hi lived a slave ;

Till by his honest though stolen labors.

He acquired the source of slavery,

Which gave him his freedom :

Though not long before

Death the grand tyrant,

Gave him his final emancipation.

And put him on a footing with kings.

Though a slave to vice.

He practised those virtues,

Without which kings are but slaves.

On the first white stone Avhich was placed in this cemetery is
this inscription, enrious as showing the date when white marble
superseded the common shite :

This stone is designed

by its durability

to perpetuate the memory,

and by its colour

to signify the moral character,

of
MISS ABIGAIL DUDLEY.




OLD HILL BURYING GROUND.



EARLY HISTORY, CHURCHES AND BURIAL GROUNDS. 17

Who died Jan 4, 181 2,
aged -jy

In the same yard is this beautiful epitaph :



"VIVENS
DILECTISSIMA."

ORPHA BRYANT.

Born December 24 1797,

Died October i, 1798.

She was the joy of her father,

and the deUght of her mother,

MORTUA LACHRYMABILLIMA.

In this yard is the grave of Major John Buttrick, who led the
fight at the old North Bridge^. He lies at the head of a large
family, which includes his son who accompanied him as fifer,
both these facts being properly noted on their gravestones,
which may be seen near the crest of the hill by the side of the
small mjiga zine , in which the powder is kept for the village stores.
Very near are the g raves of tlie lamented pastors of the town,
including that of tlie Rev. William E merson a s shown in the
picture. It was probably near_ this spot that CoJ^ Smith
and Maj. Pit cairn, who commanded the British on the day of
the Fight, stoocl to review the movements of their troops en-
gaged in various parts of the town, and to watch the Ameri-
cans as they assembled from various quarters. On the same
hill a hundred rods farther south, was the Liberty Pole erected
by the patriots, which was cut down by the British on the morn-
ing of the battle. By the side of the tomb of Rev. William



i8



THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK.




TuMB OF REV. WIL-
LIAM EMERSON.



Emerson is that of JoImBe atton,
an eccentric and frugal Scotchman
vvlio accumulated a large fortune
and made a liberal bequest to the
church wliich still goes by the
name of the Beatton fund and is
annually devoted to pious uses.

The Burial Ground on Main
Street was, according to tradition,
the gift of two maiden ladies. In
1775 the road probably went around
tlie back side of it, and across the
upper end, for which reason most
of the stones face the west, toward
what was then the principal street. The oldest stone is that
of Thomas Hartshorn, who died Xov. 17, 1697 ; and no other
one appears there until 1713.

Slee;^ Hollow Cemetery was purchased by the town, of
tlie heirs of Keuben Brown, in 1855, and was laid out according
to plans furnished by Morris Copeland, Esq.

The architect has followed, wisely, the natural foi-m of the
ground, and left undisturbed the amphitheatre wduch has existed
for years in tlie center, and which had borne the name of Sleepy
Hollow long before it was thought of as a phice of burial. On
the nineteenth of April, 1856, a tree-bee was organized, and
over an hundred trees were set out in a single day by the citi-
zens, each one of whom thus brouglit his own memorial. The
ladies held two festivals in the same year to raise money for



EARLY HISTORY, CHURCHES AXD BURYEXG GROUNDS. 19

seats and Jecorations. The oration at tlie dedication was deliv-
ered by Emerson, and an ode by F. B. Sanborn was snng, which
is copied here from " Parnassus."

Shine kindly forth, September sun.

From heavens calm and clear.
That no untimely cloud may run

Before thy golden sphere,
To vex our simple rites to-day

With one prophetic tear.

With steady voices let us raise

The fitting psalm and prayer ;
Remembered grief of other days

Breathes softening in the air :
Who knows not Death — who mourns no loss —

He has with us no share.

To holy sorrow, solemn joy,

We consecrate the place
Where soon shall sleep the maid and boy,

The father and his race, .
The mother with her tender babe,

The venerable face.

These waving woods, these valleys low,

Between these tufted knolls,
Year after year shall dearer grow

To many loving souls ;
And flowers be sweeter here than blow

Elsewhere between the poles.



20 THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK.

For deathless Love and blessed Grief

Shall guard these wooded aisles,
When either Autumn casts the leaf,

Or blushing Summer smiles,
Or Winter whitens o'er the land,

Or Spring the buds uncoils.

Many of the most marked graves are on The Kidge.
Ascending the hill by Riclge^ Path, at the west, Xathaniel
Haw t ho rnet s grave is seen, snrronnded by a low hedge of arbor
vitse, as if the gifted author sought in death the modest retire-
ment which he loved in life. His eloquent epitaph consists
only of ]iis name on a plain white stone.

The grave of Thojeau^ is just behind, with a common red
stone : and by his side lies his brother Jolm, Avhose genius
might have outshone that of the poet, philosopher, and natural-
ist, had not he died in its first flush.

A little farther on, past the graves of Nathan Brooks and
John M. Cheney, citizens whose worth and virtue have caused
their names to be honored forever by their townsmen, may be
seen the Whiting monument, a copy of the Brewster monu-
ment at Plymouth, and that of Col. George L. Prescott, the
patriot martyr Avho fell in response to his country's earliest call
for help.

A plain brown slab commemorates in a Latin verse Mrs.
Samuel Ripley, whose classical attainments have been chron-
icled in the Centennial book by the loving hand of another of
the most gifted women that our country ever kncAv.

In the center of the same lot is the monument to her son,



EARLY HISTORY, CHURCHES AND BURYING GROUNDS. 23

Lieut. Ezra Ripley, a portion of whose epitaph is here copied :

Of the best Pilgrim stock,

descended from officers in the Revolutionary army

and from a long line of the ministers of Concord,

he was worthy of his lineage.

An able and successful lawyer,

he gave himself with persistent zeal

to the cause of the friendless and the oppressed.

Of slender physical strength

and of a nature refined and delicate.

He was led by patriotism and the love of freedom

to leave home and friends for the toilsome labors of war,

and shrank from no fatigue and danger,

until worn out in her service.

He gave his life for his country.

Just opposite is the plain shaft, erected by himself twenty
years before his death, of Dr. Josiah Bartlett, who practised
medicine in this town with devotion and success for a period of
fifty-five years. He was the son of Dr. Josiah Bartlett, of
Charlestown, who was a surgeon's mate, in 1775, at Concord
Fight, so that the practice of father and son extended over a
century. He was an earnest and fearless advocate of the cause
of temperance when it was most unpopular, and was alwaj^s on
the side of the oppressed. He died in January, 1878, in active
practice at the age of eighty-one.

On the side of the hill, qn^ Glen Pathj_ is the monument
designed by Hammatt Billings, and erected to the memory of
the Hon. Samirel Hoar, who by his descendants, as well as by
the probity and simple grandeur of his life, has done more to



24 THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK.

elevate the standard of living than any other man in the town
or count3\ His epitaph, which is here copied, will speak far
better than any words of this book. At the upper portion, on
a tablet resembling a window, is this q n otation from Pilgrim's
Progress :

" The pilgrim they laid in a chamber

Whose window opened toward the sunrising ;

The name of the chamber was Peace.

There he lay till break of day, and then

He arose and sang."

Lo wer on the same face of the monument :

SAMUEL HOAR

of Concord.

Born in Lincoln, May, 1778,

Died in Concord, Nov. 2, 1856.

He was long one of the most eminent lawyers

and best beloved citizens of Mass.,

a safe counsellor, a kind neighbor,

a Christian gentleman.

He had a dignity that commanded the respect,

and a sweetness and modesty that won the affection

of all men.

He practised an economy that never wasted,

and a liberality that never spared.

Of proved capacity for the highest offices.

He never avoided obscure duties.

He never sought stations of fame or emolument,

and never shrank

from positions of danger or obloquy.



EARLY HISTORY, CHURCHES AND BURYING GROUND. 25

His days were made happy

by public esteem and private affection.

To the latest moment of his long life

he preserved his clear intellect unimpaired,

and fully conscious of its approach,

met death with the perfect assurance of

immortal life.

We copy, also, another inscription from the same family lot,
in memory of his daughter, whose death was mourned as the
greatest of calamities, as her life was held by all as the greatest
of blessings.

MISS ELIZABETH HOAR.

Died April 7, 1878. aged 63.

Her sympathy with what is high and fair

brought her into intimacy with many

eminent men and women of her time.

Nothing excellent or beautiful escaped

her quick apprehension ; and in her

unfailing memory precious things

lay in exact order as in a royal treasury,

hospitably ready to instruct and

delight young and old. Her calm

courage and simple religious faith

triumphed over sickness and pain ; and

when Death transplanted her to her

place in the Garden of the Lord,

He found little perishable to prune away.

The first burial in Sleepy Hollow was that of Mrs. Maria
Holbrook, in the fall of 1855. The first burial in the New Hill



26 THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK,

Bmying Ground was that of Mrs. Anna Robbins in 1823, which
fact is noted on the stone. In tlie year 1869 the town pur-
chased the land of the Agricultural Society, and thus united
the New Hill Ground with Sleepy Hollow, which now com-
prises about thirty acres.



CHAPTER II.



THE BATTLE GROUND.



The_Battle Ground was presented to the town by the Rev.
Dr. Ripley, who remarked in Town Meeting a half century ago
that the time woukl come wlien the spot woiikl be a phice of
great interest to man3\ How well the prediction has been ful-
filled, the daily stream of visitors bears abundant witness. It
is on Monu ment St^ nearly half a mile from the center of the
town, and near the Old Manse, having been a part of the farm
belonging to it, since the course of the road was changed which
formerly crossed the old North Bridge.

The legends of the Fight being somewhat contradictory in

27



28 THE CONCORD GUIDE BOOK.

minor parts, it has been thought best to follow in this brief
sketch the account of Lemuel Shattuck, and that of the Rev.
Dr. Ripley, adding in full the extract from the diary of the Rev.
Mr. William Emerson, which was discovered and first published
in 1835, by his grandson, Mr. R. W. Emerson. The following
is a concise statement abridged from Shattuck's History of Con-
cord, published in 1835. It should be borne in mind that it is
not within the scope of this book to allude to events which did
not take place in the town.

The morning had advanced to about seven o'clock, and the British army
were soon seen approaching the town on the Lexington road. The glitter-
ing arms of eight hundred soldiers, " the flower of the British army " were
full in view. At first it was thought best that our men should face the
enemy, as few as they were, and abide the consequences. Of this opinion,
among others, was the Rev. William Emerson, the clergyman of the town,
who had turned out amongst the first in the morning to animate and encour-
age his people by his counsel and patriotic example. " Let us stand our
ground," said he ; " if we die, let us die here ! " Eleazar Brooks of Lincoln
was then on the hill. " Let us go and meet them," said one to him. " No,"
he answered, '* it will not do for tis to begin the war." They did not then
know what had happened at Lexington. Their number was very small in
comparison with the enemy, and it was concluded best to retire a short dis-
tance, and wait for reinforcements. They consequently marched to the
northern declivity of the burying ground hill, near the present site of the
court house. They did not, however, leave their station till the British light
infantry had arrived within a few rods' distance. About this time Colonel
James Barrett, who was commander of the militia, and who had been almost
incessantly engaged that morning in securing the stores, rode up. Individ-
uals were frequently arriving, bringing different reports. It was difficult to
obtain correct information. Under these circumstances, he ordered the men
there paraded, being about one hundred and fifty, to march over the North



THE BATTLE GROUND. 29

Bridge, and there wait for reinforcements. In the meantime the British
troops entered the town. The six companies of light infantry were ordered
to enter on the hill, and disperse the minute men whom they had seen
paraded there. The grenadiers came up the main road, and halted on the
common. The first object of the British was to gain possession of the
North and South bridges, to prevent any militia from entering over them.
Accordingly, while Col. Smith remained in the center of the town, he de-
tached six companies of light infantry, under command of Capt. Lawrence
Parsons of his own regiment, to take possession of the North Bridge, and
proceed thence to places where stores were deposited. On their arrival
there, three companies under command of Capt. Laurie of the 43d reo -
iment, were left to protect the bridge ; one of those, commanded by Lieut.
Edward Thornton Gould, paraded at the bridge ; the other, of the 4th and
loth regiments, fell back in the rear towards the hill. Capt. Parsons, with
three companies, proceeded to Col. Barrett's to destroy the stores there
deposited. At the same time Capt. Mundey Pole, of the loth regiment, was
ordered to take possession of the South Bridge, and destroy such public
property as he could find in that direction. The grenadiers and marines,
under Smith and Pitcairn, remained in the center of the town, where all
means in their power were used to accomplish the destruction of military
stores. In the center of the town the grenadiers broke open about sixty
barrels of flour, nearly one half of which was afterwards saved, knocked off
the trunnions of three iron twenty-four pound cannon, and burnt sixteen
new carriage-wheels, and a few barrels of wooden trenchers and spoons.
The liberty-pole on the hill was cut down, and suffered the same fate.
About five hundred pounds of balls were thrown into the mill-pond and
into wells. While the British were thus engaged, our citizens and part of
our military men, having secured what articles of public property they could,
were assembling under arms. Beside the minute-men and militia of Con-
cord, the military companies from the adjoining towns began to assemble ;


1 3 4 5 6 7 8

Online LibraryGeorge Bradford BartlettThe Concord guide book → online text (page 1 of 8)