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c? . Orange-yellow ; head and thorax much marked with white ;
abdomen ringed with white. Fore wing with white spot at base ;
oblique subbasal and antemedial white bands ; white streaks below

the costal gland and in end of
cell ; a postmedial white band
bent inwards at vein 5 and
running to the discocellulars, a
black line on its outer edge ; a
dark-edged curved submarginal
band bent inwards above inner
Fig. 121. Ambia iambealis, tf. j. margin, and running to the

antemedial band, but intersected

by a yellow line, and connected with inner margin by a white spot
before reaching it. Hind wing with subbasal and antemedial white
bands ; a postmedial white band with black line on its outer edge
from costa to vein 5, where it emits a fascia to discocellulars ; a
black-edged band from vein 2 to inner margin ; a sinuous black-
edged submarginal white band from costa to vein 2.

2 Fulvous yellow, suffused with fuscous. Fore wing with the
recurved part of the postmedial band represented by an obtuse
pale streak ; the recurved part of the submarginal band replaced
by a triangular mark between lower angle of cell and inner margin.
Hind wing with the fascia from postmedial band obsolete on
upperside.

Hal). Khasis ; Ceylon. Eocp. 16-18 millim.

c. Antennae of male thickened and fattened ; fore wing with a
glandular swelling at middle of costa, with a hyaline fovea
below it.

4665. Ambia marginalia, Moore, Lep. Afk. p. 211 ; C. Sf S. no. 4393,
Cymoriza albicomma, Sivinh. A. M. N. H. (6) xiv, p. 210.
Cymoriza fulvalis, Warr. A. M. N. H. (6) xviii, p. 224.

Orange-yellow. Fore wing with indistinct dark-edged sinuous
antemedial white band ; a black-ringed white spot in end of cell
connected by a streak with the similarly coloured postmedial band,
which is joined by another streak from beyond upper angle of



206 PYBALID.E.

cell and terminates on vein 3 ; a narrow black-edged submarginal
white band bent round above inner margin and expanding below
end of cell. Hind wing with black-edged white discocellular speck ;
a postmedial curved band from costa to vein 3, continued to inner
margin as an obscure dark line ; a narrow black-edged submarginal
white band ending before anal angle ; both wings with marginal
series of black spots ; the cilia black and white.
Hal. Sikhim ; Khasis. Exp. 22 millim.

4666. Arabia magnificalis, Swinh. A. M. N. H. (6) xvi, p. 299.
Cymoriza interruptalis, Warr. A. M. N. H. (6) xviii, p. 224.

rf . Black-brown ; tarsi ringed with white. Tore wing with
orange streak below base of median nervure; three white ante-
medial specks ; the fovea large and white ; a postmedial white
band from costa to vein 5 and spot above inner margin, followed
by a very indistinct fulvous band, enlarged and most prominent
at inner margin ; a fulvous marginal band with black edges, white
marks on its inner edge, and dark streaks at the veins. Hind wing
with orange spot below base of median nervure ; black discocellular
spot ; postmedial sinuous white band interrupted between veins
5 and 2 ; an orange fulvous marginal band with black edges, white
marks on its inner edge, and crossed by dark streaks at the veins.
Hob. Khasis. Exp. 20 millim.

B. (Opisthedeicta). Hind wing of male with two long /brands beyond
lower angle of cell on upperside betiveen veins 2 and 4, and two
short brands below their extremity.

4667. Ambia poritialis, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 951 ; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii,

pi. 179, fig. 11 ; C. 8f S. no. 4394.

Yellowish white with fulvous markings ; abdomen banded with
fulvous, the terminal segment with two black spots and a white
line. Fore wing with subbasal fulvous-edged white spot on costa ;
an antemedial white band with sinuous fulvous edges ; a similar
spot on costa, and band from subcostal nervure to below cell beyond
it; a large fulvous-edged discocellular white spot; the medial part
of costa spotted with fulvous and white ; a postmedial triangular
fulvous-edged white patch from below costa to vein 4 ; a sinuous
fulvous-edged postmedial white band running out to an acute angle
on vein 2 near the margin, then retracted to lower angle of cell
and running obliquely to middle of inner margin, its inner edge
defined by a prominent dark line from the costa to vein 2 ; a large
apical fulvous-edged white spot, continued as a narrow maculate
band to outer angle. Hind wing with subbasal fulvous spot ; a
nearly straight antemedial line, with a fulvous-edged triangular
white patch beyond it from costa to vein 4 ; a sinuous postmedial
dark-edged white band bent inwards at vein 4; a similar sub-
marginaJ band angled inwards on vein 6 and dilated above anal
angle; both wings with marginal fulvous band edged by black
lines ; the cilia fuscous.



AMBIA. OLIGOSTIGMA. 207

Nilgiri^ specimens have the dark edges to the markings and
the marginal band more prominent than spesimens from other
localities.

Hob. Nilgiris ; Ceylon ; Sumatra. Exp. 18-20 millim.

C. Hind wing of male with fringes of hair along veins 2, 3, 4 on
underside; the apical area clothed with thick fulvous scales;
the inner margin with a lobe fringed with very long liair ; the
anal area clothed with hair ; abdomen with paired tufts of Uack
hair from base; the hind tibice fringed with Uackish tufts on
outer side.

4668. Ambia lobophoralis, n. sp.

3 . Bright fulvous ; head, thorax, and base of abdomen striped
with white, the last with dark rings towards extremity. Eore wing
with large white subbasal patch ; black streaks on costa and sub-
costals to beyond end of cell ; a white spot in end of cell and white
streaks beyond upper and lower angles ; two brown submarginal
lines, with white patch inside it below costa, the lines curving
inwards below vein 2 and enclosing a pale band between them,
expanding into a large white spot above inner margin ; the margin
yellow ; a dark line through the cilia. Hind wing more orange ;
a white basal patch with diffused fuscous on its outer edge ; a white
spot above the lobe ; a series of black spots just inside the margin,
with a black line on their inner side, obsolescent, except towards
costa ; a black streak with white spot inside it above anal angle ; a
black line through the cilia.

Hob. Sikhim (Pilcher) ; Nagas (Doherty). Exp. 18 millim. Type
in coll. Elwes.

Genus OLIGOSTIGMA.

Oligostigma, Guen. Delt. $ Pyr. p. 260 (1854).

Type, O.junceale, G-uen., from N. America.

Range. The tropical and warmer temperate zones.

Differs from Nymphula in the outer margin of hind wing being
excised below apex, then lobed ; the ocelli usually not so prominent.

In the typical species vein 10 of the fore wing sometimes arises
from the cell.

SECT. I. Mid tibiae of male without groove and tuft.

A. Antennce of male not thickened and flattened.
a. Hind legs of male without tufts of hair on the coxae.

4669. Oligostigma hapilista, Svrinh. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1892, p. 20, pi. i,

fig- 11.
Oligostigma albidivisa, Warr. A. M. N. H. (6) xviii, p. 221.

$ . Head and thorax fuscous and grey ; abdomen fulvous, the
basal segment white. Fore wing with the basal half fuscous ; the
basal two-thirds of costa orange ; a dark-edged triangular orange



208

mark arising from the subcostal nervure from middle to beyond
end of cell, its apex curved and ending on vein 3 beyond the lower
angle, where it is met by a curved submarginal dark-edged orange
band, with a large orange patch between it and inner margin,
where it is conjoined to the orange marginal band, which is defined
by fine black lines ; the ground-colour between the triangular
patch, the submarginal and marginal bands, silvery white ; cilia
fuscous, blackish at base. Hind wing with the base fuscous, fol-
lowed by a broad silvery-white band ; the outer half orange, with
curved black inner edge ; a fine curved jet-black postmedial line
from costa to vein 2 ; fine black marginal lines and line through
the cilia interrupted by four black spots, with white between them
at veins 6 to 3.

Nab. Khasis. Exp. 22 milJim.

4670. Oligostigma villidale, Wlk. Cat. xvii, p. 435.
Hydrocampa sacadasalis, Wlk. Cat. xix, p. 963.

Oligostigma unilinealis, Snett. Tijd. v. Ent. xix, p. 197, pi. 8, fig. 2.

cJ . Differs from bilineale in the fore wing having no black line
through the cell ; a discocellular black spot ; no line from disco-
cellulars to postmedial band. Hind wing with no subbasal line ;
a waved black line just inside the margin.

Hob. Margharita, Assam ; Ceylon ; Java ; Borneo ; Australia ;
Fiji. Exp. 18 millim.

4671. Oligostigma fumibasale, n. sp.

<j> . Differs from bilineale in the thorax and abdomen being
banded with fuscous. Fore wing suffused with fuscous to beyond
the cell, and with no white fascia through the cell ; no oblique
white discocellular band meeting the postmedial white band ; the
submarginal band leaden colour ; the orange areas of . both wings
deeper in colour. Hind wing with the postmedial white band
more complete ; a marginal black line, with a series of black specks
just inside it developed into three white-centered ocelli at the lobe,
which is slight.

Hab. Puttalam, Ceylon (Pole). Exp. 18 millim. Type in
B. M.

4672. Oligostigma bilineale, SneU. Tijd. v. Ent. xix, p. 190, pi. 8,
figs. 1 a-c ; C. $ S. no. 4406.

Head white ; thorax and abdomen white banded with fuscous.
Fore wing white, the basal two-thirds of costal area fuscous ; a
fuscous line, with a few yellow scales on it, from base of inner
margin to upper angle of cell, from which an oblique dark line
runs to the angle of the dark-edged postmedial band, which at
vein 2 is recurved to inner margin before middle ; a submarginal
dark-edged yellow band conjoined at vein 2 to the postmedial band,
and at costa and inner margin to the black-edged yellow marginal
band. Hind wing with the basal half white, with oblique black

tL*4ttf vw*



OLIGOSTIGMA. 209 1

subbatsdl and antemedial lines, the outer half yellow, with black
inner edge ; a black-edged postmedial white band from vein 6 to
near inner margin ; a marginal black line interrupted at the
excision and lobe by four black spots with white patches between
them.

Bab. Dharmsala ; Calcutta. Exp. 14 millim.

4673. Oligostigma angulipenne, Hmpsn. III. Net. viii, p. 139, pi. 155,

tig. 6.

$ . Head anS thorax ochreous and fuscous ; abdomen tinged
with fulvous, the basal segment white. Pore wing fuscous ; a
fulvous fascia from base through the cell to beyond discocellulars,
with black specks on it in cell and on discocellulars and a black
line on its outer edge ; an obscure fulvous fascia in interno-median
interspace ; a submarginal fulvous band terminating on vein 3,
with black outer edge and a white band between it and the marginal
orange band, which is denned by black lines. Hind wing with the
base fuscous ; a broad oblique antemedial white band ; the outer
area fuscous, with broad orange postmedial and marginal bands
denned by black lines ; a black line through the base of the cilia,
interrupted by two black spots with white between them at the
lobe ; cilia of both wings fuscous.

Hob. Nilgiris. Exp. 18 millim.

4674. Oligostigma parvale, Moore, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 616 ; C. $ S,

no. 4412.

$ . Orange-fulvous ; head, thorax, and abdomen marked with
white. Fore wing with a white fascia on median nervure, met
beyond the cell by the apex of a triangular patch which has its
base on costa ; a black-edged submarginal black band, narrowing
and not reaching inner margin. Hind wing with white fascia along
basal part of costa ; a curved black-edged white postmedial band ;
a black marginal line and single black spot at the projection.

Hob. Andamans ; Borneo. Eoop. 14 millim.

4675. Oligostigma conspurcatale, Warr. A. M. N. H. (6) xvii,p. 202.

cJ . Fuscous irrorated with grey. Fore wing with indistinct
minutely waved antemedial dark line angled on median nervure ;
an obliquely sinuous postmedial line excurved between veins 7
and 3 ; a sinuous marginal fulvous band, inwardly edged by a
black line with irregular white band inside it. Hind wing with
waved dark ante- and postmedial lines ; a series of black-and-white
specks just inside the margin, which is tinged with fulvous.

Hob. Khasis. Exp. 16 millim.

4676. Oligostigma fuscifusale, Hmpsn. III. Ret. ix ; p. 177, pi. 174.

fig. 28.

c? . Rufous-brown. Fore wing with obscure black speck at
middle of cell and chestnut spot beyond discocellulars ; the inner

YOL. IV. P



210 PYRALLD^E.

medial area somewhat paler ; a yellowish marginal band defined by
fine black lines and with some whitish marks on its inner edge ;
<*ilia pale and fuscous. Hind wing with the base dark fuscous
brown, followed by a medial pale fuscous band, then a chestnut
band ; a marginal yellowish band defined by black lines and with
white inside it except towards costa ; the marginal black line
interrupted by white at the excision and lobe, and with one black
speck on the lobe.

Hob. Khasis ; Ceylon. Exp. 14 millim.

4677. Oligostigma niveinotatum, Hmpm. Ill Het. ix, p. 176, pi. 174,

fig. 32.

Head and thorax dark brown and white ; abdomen orange ringed
with black, the basal segment white, the extremity fuscous. Fore
wing fuscous ; an orange fascia on postmedial part of costa ; an
obscure orange fascia through the cell, extending beyond it and
with a black mark in end of cell ; an oblique white band at middle
of inner area from below vein 2 to inner margin ; a postmedial
white patch between veins 6 and 2 ; a broad submarginal white
band, rounded off below costa and tapering to above inner margin ;
a marginal orange band, with a series of black spots on it. Hind
wing with the basal area white, with dark patch at base of inner
area ; the outer area greyish fuscous, with a medial line angled
above vein 5 and defined on its outer side by orange, which is
diffused outwards above middle to the lobe ; a submarginal lunu-
late orange-and -black line running out to the margin at the lobe ;
a black line through base of cilia interrupted at the lobe by two
black spots, with white above them and orange inside them ; cilia
of both wings fuscous and grey.

Hob. Ceylon. Exp., J 22, $ 26 millim.

b. Hind legs of male with large tufts of curved hair extending
backwards from the coxce.

4678. Oligostigma picale, Guen. Delt. $ Pyr. p. 274 ; Hmpsn. III. Het.

ix, pi. 174, fig. 23.

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous and white. Fore wing
fuscous, with a large white patch covering the whole basal area
except costa, and bounded by an oblique dark antemedial band
arising from an orbicular mark in cell ; the whole medial area

white except the costa, and a
large oval postmedial fulvous
mark below costa with dark
edges and dark centre ; a
postmedial line excurved be-
tween veins 5 and 2, then

b r* r a , rds to b t ow -^

or cell, the area beyond it

towards inner margin, and \\ith a large white patch from
costa to vein 4 and small spot below vein 2 ; a marginal orange




OLIGOSTIGMA. 211

band defined inwardly by a black line and outwardly by a maculate
line. Hind wing with the basal half white, with dark patch on
base of inner area ; the outer half greyish fuscous, with slightly
sinuous postmedial fulvous band ; a marginal series of black spots ;
two black spots and two white specks at the lobe, with orange
inside them ; cilia of both wings fuscous.

2 with the whole of fore wing fuscous, obscuring the markings
as far as the white submarginal patch, except a white patch on
middle of inner margin.

Hob. Granjam ; Ceylon. Exp., c? 14, $ 16 millirn.

B. Antenna? of male thickened and flattened by appressed serrations.

4679. Oligostigma dianale, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, p. 177, pi. 174,%. 27.

c? . Head and thorax fulvous, the vertex of head white, the
prothorax and a spot on metathorax white ; abdomen orange, the
extremity white. Tore wing fulvous, the costal area and apical
third of wing orange ; the cell striated with silvery grey ; a grey
fascia below median nervure ; a white fascia on middle of inner
margin ; a postmedial black spot on costa ; a postmedial oblique
white line from subcostals to vein 4 ; a submarginal white band
with black outer edge ; a marginal series of black spots. Hind
wing fulvous ; a broad oblique white antemedial band ; the apical
area tinged with orange, with a silvery-white spot ; three black
spots on the lobe, the upper one with silvery-white centre ; the
anal area orange ; cilia of both wings pale grey, with silvery bases
on hind wing, except towards anal angle.

Hab.- Ceylon. Exp. 14 millim.

SECT. II. Mid tibiae of male with a tuft of long hair contained
in a groove.

A. Male without tufts ofhair on base of mid and hind femora.

4680. Oligostigma pulchellale, Hmpsn. III. Het. ix, p. 178, pi. 174,

%. 30.

c? . Head white ; the palpi dark rufous ; thorax dark rufous
and white. Fore wing with a slight white line on basal half of
costa; a subcostal yellow fascia; a silvery fascia in cell ; a dark-edged
yellow fascia below median nervure ; the inner area white, with a
curved dark-edged yellow fascia from near base of inner margin
to outer angle, enclosing a dark mark on middle of inner margin ;
a postmedial dark-edged fulvous triangular patch obscurely dif-
ferentiated on its inner side from the basal fasciated area, and
joined at vein 3 by a curved fulvous submarginal band, with a
white patch inside it and a white band beyond it; a marginal
yellow band defined by' fine black lines. Hind wing white, with
a dark rufous patch on basal inner area ; a diffused rufous patch
in end of cell joined by a curved line from costa ; an ill-defined
sinuous rufous submarginal band conjoined to a patch on the lobe,

p 2



212 PTEALID^E.

which has three black spots with white lunules above them ; a
fine marginal black line ; cilia of both wings white intersected
with fuscous.

Hab. Khasis; Ceylon. Eaep. 12 millim.

B. Male with short tufts of hair from base of mid and hind femora,

hind tibice, and on 5th segment of abdomen below.

4681. Oligoetigma ornatum, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 299, pi. 181 r

fig. 11 ; C. 8f S. no. 4424.

Silvery white ; palpi and shoulders dark brown ; abdomen with
a yellow band on 2nd segment. Fore wing with the costa fuscous ;
a yellow fascia on medial part of inner area expanding outwardly ;
an oblique dark line from lower angle of cell to inner margin ; a
postmedial black spot on costa ; a dark-edged golden-yellow lunule
beyond discocellulars, with a fuscous line from its lower edge to
inner margin ; a submarginal golden-yellow band tapering to inner
margin and with dark outer edge ; a marginal golden baud defined
by tine black lines. Hind wing with oblique subbasal golden-
yellow band ; a postmedial golden-yellow band from below apex,
its medial part defined by fuscous lines and conjoined below apex
to the marginal yellow band, which is defined by fine black lines
and below the lobe has three black spots, the two upper with
white lunules above them.

Hab. Ceylon. Exp. 24 millim.

C. The tufts on hind femora developed into large tufts directed toivards

the base and enclosing a hollow, abdomen without tufts.

4682. Oligostigma bifurcale, Pryer, Cist. Ent. ii, p. 232, pi. 4, fig. 4.

d 1 . Head, thorax, and abdomen yellow and white. Fore wing
white, with the costal half to end of cell suffused with fuscous ; an
obscure fuscous triangular postmedial mark with its apex on inner
margin, its inner limb with a black speck on costa and enclosing a
yellow patch beyond discocellulars ; a yellow fascia on middle of
inner area expanding outwardly; a submarginal yellow band with
fuscous outer edge terminating above inner margin and with a
white band between it and the marginal yellow band, which is
defined inwardly by a black line, outwardly by a series of black
strigte. Hind wing white at base, followed by a broad black-edged
subbasal yellow band, then a white medial band ; the outer area
yellow, with black inner edge ; a small white apical patch ; incom-
plete waved black submarginal and marginal lines, interrupted at the
lobe by three black spots, the uppermost with a white spot inside it>

Hab. Chekang, China ; Khasis ; Shan States. Exp. 24 millim.

Genus AULACODES.

Autocodes, Guen. Delt. $ Pyr. p. 258 (1854).
Hydrophysa, Guen. Delt. $ Pyr. p. 25U (1854).

Type, A. achmialis, Guen., from Brazil.



AFLACODES. 213

Range. Neotropical region ; Oriental region to Celebes.

Palpi upturned and hardly reaching vertex of head, the 2n
joint fringed with long hair in front, the 3rd short, with a small
triangular tuft ; maxillary palpi as long as labial and dilated with
scales at extremity ; antennae of male thickened and flattened, with
appressed serrations ; ocelli usually indistinct ; legs very long and
slender ; mid tibiae of male with a tuft of long hair contained in a
fold ; wings long and narrow. Fore wing with vein 3 from angle
of cell, which has the lower part extremely produced and the
discocellulars very oblique; 7 straight and well separated from
8, 9, 10 ; 11 from near end of cell, touching or anastomosing with
8, 9, 10. Hind wing with vein 3 from before lower angle of cell,
which is very much produced, and the discocellulars oblique ; 6, 7
from upper angle, 7 anastomosing with 8, which is much curved;
the outer margin excised below apex and lobed at vein 5,

In the typical species the secondary sexual characters consist of
fringes of hair on fore coxae and femora, and a very long fringe on
<each side of medial spur of hind tibiae.

$ECT. I. Fore and hind wings with veins 4, 5 stalked ; antennae of
male with no process on basal joint ; a small f ovea in end of
cell of fore wing.

4683. Aulacodes colonialis, Guen. Delt. $ Pyr. p. 262 ; Snell Tijd. v.

Ent. xix, p. 198, pi. 8, figs. 3 a-d j C. fy S. no. 4407.

c? . Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish, yellow, and fulvous.
Fore wing white, with the costal area fulvous ; a broad yellow-
fascia on inner area ; a curved yellow fascia from upper angle of
cell to vein 2, where it is joined by a submarginal band ; a dark
fulvous band between them from subcostals to vein 4 ; a yellow
marginal band defined by fine black lines. Hind wing white, with
broad oblique yellow band from below apex to middle of inner
margin, where it expands ; a yellow marginal band defined by fine
black lines from the lobe to anal angle, and with three black spots
below the lobe, the two upper with large silvery-white pupils.

Hob. Sikhim ; Bombay. Exp. 24 millim.

.SECT. II. Fore and hind wings with veins 4, 5 from angle of cell ;
antennae of male with a curved clubbed process from inner
side of basal joint.

A. Male luiih no tuft on hind femora ; fore winy with a small costal
fold at base and no costal fringe ; the tuft of scales confined to
end of cell and no sparse fringe on median nervure.

4684. Aulacodes sejunctalis, Snell. Tijd. v. Ent. xix, p. 207, pi. 9,

fig. 11 ; C. 8f S. no. 4413.
Cataclysta delicata, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 556, pi. 215, fig. 5 ;

& no. 4419.
Differs from peribocalis in the postmedial triangular patch of



214 PYRALIDJE.

fore wing being narrow and more elongate. Hind wing with a
small dark mark at base of inner area widely separated from the
broad yellow postmedial band; the silvery-white specks placed
between the black spots instead of on them.

Hob. Dharmsala; Sikhim; Ceylon. Exp.,<$ 18-30, $22millim.

4685. Aulacodes plicatalis, Wlk. Cat. xxxiv, p. 1332.
Oligostigma simplicialis, Snell. Tijd. v. Ent. xix, p. 201, pi. 8,

fig. 6.

Head, thorax, and abdomen white tinged with fawn colour.
Fore wing white, with the costa fawn-coloured; some obscure
brownish suffusion in cell and on median nervure ; a curved yellow
fascia from inner margin near base to near outer angle, where it is
joined by a triangular fulvous patch from costa beyond middle with
dark sinuous edges arid a dark-edged fulvous submarginal band ;
a marginal yellow band defined by fine black lines. Hind wing
white; a dark-edged yellow patch on inner area near base; a
broad curved dark-edged yellow postmedial band, diffused outwards
to the margin below apex ; a marginal yellow band defined by fine
black lines and with three white-centred black spots on it between
veins 5 and 2.

Hob. Dharmsala; Sikhim; Java; Celebes. Exp. 28-36 millim.

B. Hind femora of male with a thick tuft of short hair near
extremity.

a. Fore wing with a slight costal fringe of hair on upperside ; a thick
ridge of large scales from base through the cell, widening toivards
end of it.

4686. Aulacodes hamalis, Snell. Tijd. v. Ent. xix, p. 199, pi. 8,.

fig. 4a-c ; C.$S. no. 4410.
Cataclysta ochripicta, Moore, Lep. Atk. p. 209 ; C. fy S. no. 4423.



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