George Grote.

A history of Greece : from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great (Volume 2) online

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Online LibraryGeorge GroteA history of Greece : from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 107)
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Lyric Poetry.— The Seven Wise Men.

pa ok

Age and duration of the Greek lyric poetry 43

Epical age preceding the lyrical 43

wider range of subjects for poetry— new meters— enlarged musical scale. . 44

Improvement of the harp by Terpander— of the flute by Olympus and others 44

Archilochus, Kallinus, Tyrtseus, and Alkman— G70-600 b.c 45

New meters superadded to the Hexameter— Elegiac, Iambic, Trochaic 45

Archilochus 46

Simonides of Amorgos, Kallinus, Tyrtaeus 47

Musical and poetical tendencies at Sparta 47

Choric training — Alkman, Thaletas 49

Doric dialect employed in the choric compositions 50

Arion and Stesichorus— substitution of the professional in place of the

popular chorus 50

Distribution of the chorus by Stesichorus— Strophe,— Antistrophe,— Epodus 51

Alkeeus and Sappho 51

Gnomic or moralizing poets 52

Solon and Theognis 52

Subordination of musical and orchestrical accompaniment to the words and

meaning 53

Seven Wise Men 53

They were the first men who acquired an Hellenic reputation, without

poetical genius 54

Early manifestation of philosophy— in the form of maxims 54

Subsequent growth of dialectics and discussion 65

Increase of the habit of writing — commencement of prose compositions 55

First beginnings of Grecian art 56

Restricted character of early art from religious associations 56

Monumental ornaments in the cities— begin in the sixth century b.o 67

Importance of Grecian art as a means of Hellenic union 67


Grecian Affairs during the Government of Peisistratus and his Sons at


Peisistratus and his sons at Athens— b.c. 5G0-510— uncertain chronology as to

Peisistratus 58

State of feeling in Attica at the accession of Peisistratus 69

Retirement of Peisistratus, and stratagem whereby he is reinstated 69




Quarrel of Peisistratus with the Alkmaeonids— his second retirement 60

His second and final restoration 60

His strong government — mercenaries — purification of Delos 61

Mild despotism of Peisistratus 61

His sons Hippias and Hipparchus 63

Harmodius and Aristogeiton 63

They conspire and kill Hipparchus, B.C. 514 64

Strong and lasting sentiment, coupled with great historical mistake, in the

Athenian public 64

Hippias despot alone — 514-510 B.C.— his cruelty and conscious insecurity 65

Connection of Athens with the Thracian Chersonesus and the Asiatic coast

of the Hellespont 66

First Miltiades— cekist of the Chersonese 66

Second Miltiades— sent out thither by the Peisistratids 67

Proceedings of the exiled Alkmaeonidse against Hippias 67

Conflagration and rebuilding of the Delphian temple 68

The Alkmaeonidse rebuild the temple with magnificence 68

Gratitude of the Delphian toward them — they procure from the oracle

directions to Sparta, enjoining the expulsion of Hippias 68

Spartan expeditions into Attica 69

Expulsion of Hippias, and liberation of Athens 69


Grecian Apfatrs after the Expulsion of the Peisistratids.— Revolution
of Kleisthenes and Establishment of Democracy at Athens.

State of Athens after the expulsion of Hippias 70

Opposing party-leaders — Kleisthenes — Isagoras 70

Democratical revolution headed by Kleisthenes 71

Re-arrangement and extension of the political franchise. Formation of ten

new tribes, including an increased number of the population 71

Imperfect description of this event in Herodotus— its real bearing 71

Grounds of opposition to it in ancient Athenian feeling 72

Names of the tribes— their relation to the demes 73

Demes belonging to each tribe usually not adjacent to each other 74

Arrangements and functions of the deme 75

Solonian constitution preserved with modifications 75

Change of military arrangement in the state. The ten strategi or generals. 75
The judicial assembly of citizens— or Heliaea— subsequently divided into

bodies judging apart. The political assembly, or Ekklesia 76

Financial arrangements

Senate of Five Hundred 77

Ekklesia, or political assembly

Kleisthenes the real author of the Athenian democracy

Judicial attributes of the people— their gradual enlargement

Three points in Athenian constitutional law, hanging together:— Universal
admissibility of citizens— Choice by lot — Reduced functions of the magis-
trates chosen by lot 80

Universal admissibility of citizens to the archonship— not introduced until

after the battle of Platsea 82

Constitution of Kleisthenes retained the Solonian law of exclusion as to

individual office 88

Difference between that constitution and the political state of Athens after

Perikles 83

Senate of Areopagus 84

The ostracism 84

Weakness of the public force in the Grecian governments 86

Past violences of the Athenian nobles 89

Necessity of creating a constitutional morality 86

Purpose and working of the ostracism 8T



Securities against its abuse 88

Ostracism necessary as a protection to the early democracy — afterward

dispensed with 89

Ostracism analogous to the exclusion of a known pretender to the throne in

a monarchy 90

Effect of the long ascendency of Perikles in strengthening constitutional

morality 90

Ostracism in other Grecian cities 91

Striking effect of the revolution of Kleisthenes on the minds of the citizens. 92

Isagoras calls in Kleomenes and the Lacedaemonians against it 92

Kleomenes and Isagoras expelled from Athens 93

Recall of Kleisthenes — Athens solicits the alliance of the Persians 93

First connection between Athens and Plataea 93

Disputes between Plataea and Thebes — decision of Corinth 94

Second march of Kleomenes against Athens— desertion of his allies 94

First appearance of Sparta as acting head of Peloponnesian allies 95

Signal successes of Athens against Boeotians and Chalkidians 95

Plantation of Athenian settlers or Kleruchs in the territory of Chalkis 96

Distress of the Thebans— they ask assistance from ^Sgina 97

The Mginetuns make war on Athens 97

Preparations at Sparta to attack Athens anew — the Spartan allies summoned,

together with Hippias 98

First formal convocation at Sparta— march of Greece toward a political

system 98

Proceedings of the convocation— animated protest of Corinth against any

interference in favor of Hippias— the Spartan allies refuse to interfere 99

Aversion to single-headed rule — now predominant in Greece 99

Striking development of Athenian energy after the revolution of Kleisthenes

—language of Herodotus 100

Effect upon their minds of the idea or theory of democracy 101

Patriotism of an Athenian between 500-100 B.C. — combined with an eager

spirit of personal military exertion and sacrifice 108

Diminution of this active sentiment in the restored democracy after the

Thirty Tyrants 108


Rise op the Persian Empire. — Cyrus.

State of Asia before the rise of the Persian monarchy 103

Great power and alliances of Croesus 104

Rise of Cyrus— uncertainty of his early history 104

Story of Astyages 105

Herodotus and Ktesias : 105

Condition of the native Persians at the first rise of Cyrus 106

Territory of Iran — between Tigris and Indus 106

War between Cyrus and Croesus 107

Croesus tests the oracles— triumphant reply from Delphi— munificence of

Croesus to the oracle .*. 108

Advice given to him by the oracle 108

He solicits the alliance of Sparta 109

He crosses the Halys and attacks the Persians 109

Rapid march of Cyrus to Sardis 109

Siege and capture of Sardis 110

Crcasus becomes prisoner of Cyrus — how treated 110

Remonstrance addressed by Croesus to the Delphian god 110

Successful justification of the oracle Ill

Fate of Croesus impressive to the Greek mind Ill

The Mcerse or Fates 112

State of the Asiatic Greeks after the conquest of Lydia by Cyrus 112

They apply in vain to Sparta for aid 113



Cyrus quits Sardis— revolt of the Lydians suppressed 113

The Persian general Mazares attacks Ionia— the Lydian Paktyas 114

Harpagus succeeds Mazares— conquest of Ionia by the Persians 115

Fate of Phokaea 115

Emigration of the Phokseans vowed by all, executed only by one-half 116

Phoksean colony first at Alalia, then at Elea 117

Proposition of Bias for a Pan-Ionic emigration not adopted 118

. Entire conquest of Asia Minor by the Persians 118


Growth of the Persian Empire.

Conquest of Cyrus in Asia 119

His attack of Babylon 120

Difficult approach to Babylon— no resistance made to the invaders 120

Cyrus distributes the river Gyndes into many channels 121

He takes Babylon, by drawing off for a time the waters of the Euphrates. . 121

Babylon left in undiminished strength and population 122

Cyrus attacks the 3Iassagetas — is defeated and slain 122

Extraordinary stimulus to the Persians, from the conquests of Cyrus 123

Character of the Persians 124

Thirst for foreign conquest among the Persians, for three reigns after

Cyrus 124

Kambyses succeeds his father Cyrus— his invasion of Egypt 1 25

Death "of Amasis, king of Egypt," at the time when the Persian expedition

was preparing— his son Psammenitus succeeds 125

Conquest of Egypt by Kambyses 125

Submission of Kyrene and Barka to Kambyses— his projects for conquering

Libya and Ethiopia. disappointed 125

Insults of Kambyses to the Egyptian religion 126

Madness of Kambyses— he puts to death his younger brother, Smerdis 126

Conspiracy of the Magian Patizeithes, who sets up his brother as king under

the name of Smerdis 127

Death of Kambyses 127

Reign of the false Smerdis — conspiracy of the seven Persian noblemen

against him— he is slain— Darius succeeds to the throne 127

Political bearing of this conspiracy— Smerdis represents Median preponder-
ance, which is again put down by Darius 128

Revolt of the Medes— suppressed. Discontents of the satraps 129

Revolt of Babylon 130

Reconquered and dismantled by Darius 131

Organization of the Persian empire by Darius 132

Twenty satrapies with a fixed tribute apportioned to each 133

Imposts upon the different satrapies 134

Organizing tendency of Darius— first imperial coinage— imperial roads and

posts 135

Island of Samos— its condition at the accession of Darius. Polykrates 135

Polykrates breaks with Amasis, king of Egypt, and allies himself with

Ka mbyses 136

The Saniian exiles, expelled by Polykrates. apply to Sparta for aid. 137

The Lacedaemonians attack Samos, but are repulsed 137

Attack on Siphnos by the Sarnian exiles 138

Prosperity of Polykrates 138

He is slain by the" Persian satrap Orcetes 139

Maeandrius, lieutenant of Polykrates in Samos— he desires to establish a free

government after the death of Polykrates — conduct of the Samians 139

Maeandrius becomes despot. Contrast between the Athenians and the

Samians 140

Syloson, brother of Polykrates, lands with a Persian army in Samos— his

history 141



Maeandrius agrees to evacuate the island 141

Many Persian officers slain— slaughter of the Samians 14:>

Syloson despot at Samoa 143

Application of Maeandrius to Sparta for aid— refused 143


Demokedes.— Darivs ikvades Scythia.

Conquering dispositions of Darius 143

Influence of his wife Atossa 144

Demokedes— the Krototiiate surgeon — his adventures— he is carried as a

slave to Susa 144

He cures Darius, who rewards him munificently 145

He procures .permission, by artifice and through the influence of Atossoa, to

return to Greece 145

> Darius an expedition against Greece — Demokedes with

some Persians is sent to procure information for him 146

• of Demokedes along the coast of Greece — he stays at Kroton— fate

of his Persian companions ." 147

Consequences which might have been expected to happen if Darius had

then undertaken his expedition against < treece. 147

Darius marches against S<\ thia 14'J

His naval force formed of Asiatic and insular Creeks 150

He directs the Greek-. to throw a bridge over the Danube and crosses the

river 150

He marches Into Scythia— narrative of his march impossible and unintelli-
gible, considered as history 151

Tin- description of his march i- rather to be looked upon as a fancy picture,

Illustrative of Scythian warfare i"i

Poetical grouping of the Scythians and their neighbors by Hit... lot us 152

Strong Impression produced upon the imagination of Herodotus by the Scy-
thians " 153

Orders given by Darius to the [onians at the bridge over the Danube 153

The Iomans left in guard of the bridge; their conduct when Darius'a return

is delayed 155

The Ionion despots preserve the bridge and enable Darius to recross the

river, as a means of support to their own 'loin in ion at home 155

Opportunity lost of emancipation from the Persians 156

Conquest of Thrace bj the Persians as far as the river Strymon — Myrkinus

near that river riven to Histiseus ". 156

Macedonians and Paeonian- conquered by ftfegabazus 157

Insolence and murder of the Persian envoi a in Macedonia 157

Histiauis founds a prosperous colony at Myrkinus — Darius sends for him

into Asia 157

( ttanes Persian general on the Hellespont— he conquers the Pelasgian popu-
lation of Lemnos, Imbros. etc 157

Lemnos and Dnbros captured by the Athenians and Miltiades 158


Ionic Revolt.

Darius carries Histiaeus to Susa 159

Application of the banished Hippias to Artaphernes, satrap of Sardis 160

State of the island of Naxos— Xaxian exiles solicit aid from Aristagoras of

Miletus 100

Expedition against Naxos, undertaken by Aristagoras with the assistance

of Artaphernes the satrap 161

Its failure through dispute between Aristagoras and the Persian general

llegates 161



Alarm of Aristagoras— he determines to revolt against Persia— instigation

to the same effect from Histiaeus 161

Revolt of Aristagoras and the Milesians— the despots in the various cities

deposed and seized 162

Extension of the revolt throughout Asiatic Greece — Aristagoras goes to

solicit aid from Sparta 163

Refusal of the Spartans to assist him 164

Aristagoras applies to Athens— obtains aid both from Athens and Eretria. . 164
March of Aristagoras up to Sardis with the Athenian and Eretrian allies-
burning of the town— retreat and defeat of these Greeks by the Persians. 165

The Athenians abandon the alliance 16fi

Extension of the revolt to Cyprus and Byzantium 166

Phenician fleet called forth by the Persians 166

Persian and Phenician armament sent against Cyprus — the Ionians sent aid

thither — victory of the Persians— they reconquer the island 167

Successes of the Persians against the revolted coast of Asia Minor 167

Aristagoras loses courage and abandons the country : 168

Appearance of Histiaeus, who had obtained leave of departure from Susa. 169

Histiaeus suspected by Artaphernes— flees to Chios 170

He attempts in vain to procure admission into Miletus— puts himself at the

head of a small piratical squadron 170

Large Persian force assembled, aided by the Phenician fleet, for the siege

of Miletus 171

The allied Grecian fleet mustered at Lade 171

Attempts of the Persians to disunite the allies, by means of the exiled

despots 171

Want of command and discipline in the Grecian fleet 172

Energy of the Phoka>an Dionysius— he is allowed to assume the command. 172

Discontent of the Grecian crews— they refuse to act under Dionysius 172

Contrast of this incapacity of the Ionic crews with the subsequent severe

discipline of the Athenian seamen 173

Disorder and mistrust grow up in the fleet— treachery of the Samian cap-
tains 173

Complete victory of the Persian fleet at Lade— ruin of the Ionic fleet^severe

loss of the Chians 174

Voluntary exile and adventures of Dionysius 174

Siege, capture, and ruin of Miletus by the Persians 175

The Phenician fleet reconquers all the coast towns and islands 175

Narrow escape of Miltiades from their pursuit 175

Cruelties of the Persians after the reconquest 176

Movements and death of Histiaeus 176

Sympathy and terror of the Athenians at the capture of Miletus— the tragic
writer Phrynichus is fined 177


From Ionic Revolt to Battle of Marathon.

Proceedings of the satrap Artaphernes after the reconquest of Ionia 178

Mardonius comes with an army into Ionia — he puts down the despots in the

Greek cities 179

He marches into Thrace and Macedonia — his fleet destroyed by a terrible

storm near Mount Athos— he returns into Asia 179

Island of Thasos — prepares to revolt from the Persians — forced to submit. . 180
Preparations of Darius for invading Greece — he sends heralds round the

Grecian towns to demand earth and water — many of them submit 180

.3Sgina among those towns which submitted — state and relations of this

island 181

Heralds from Darius are put to death both at Athens and Sparta 181

Effects of this act in throwing Sparta into a state of hostility against Persia 182
The Athenians appeal to Sparta, in consequence of the medism of ^Egina . . 182



Interference of Sparta— her distinct acquisition and acceptance of the lead-
ership of Greece 182

One condition of recognized Spartan leadership was— the extreme weakness

of Argos at this moment 183

Victorious war of Sparta against Argos \<\

Destruction of the Argeians by Kleomenes in the grove of the hero Argus. 184

Kleomenes returns without having attacked Argos 184

He is tried— his peculiar mode of defense— acquitted 185

Argos unable to interfere with Sparta In the affair of iEgina and in her

presidential power 185

Kleomenes goes to ..•Egina to seize the medizing leaders— resistance made

to him, at the instigation of his colleague Demaratus 186

Demaratus deposed, and Leotychides chosen King, by the intrigues of Kleo-
menes 187

Demaratus leaves Sparta and goes to Darius 187

Kleomenes and Leotychides go to .Egina, seize ten hostages, and convey

them as prisoners to Athens 188

Important effect of this proceeding npon the result of the first Persian inva-
sion of Greece 188

Assemblage of the vast Persian armament under Datisal Samoa 188

He crosses the -Hgean— carries the island of Naxos without resistance —

respects Delos 189

He reaches Euboea— siege and capture of Eretria 190

Datis lands at Marathon 191

Existing condition and character of the Athenians 191

Miltiades— his adventures— chosen one of the ten generals in the year in

which the Persians landed at Marathon 192

Themistokles 193

Aristeides 195

Miltiades, Aristeides, and perhaps Themistokles, were among the ten Strat-

egiin490B.c 196

The Athenians ask aid from Sparta— delay of the Spartans 197

Difference of opinion among the ten generals— five of them recommend an

immediate battle, the other five are adverse to it 197

Urgent instances of Miltiades in favor of an immediate battle — casting-vote

of the polemarch determines it 198

March or the Athenians to Marathon— the Plataeans spontaneously join

them there 198

Numbers of the armies 199

Locality of Marathon 199

Battle of Marathon— rapid charge of Miltiades— defeat of the Persians 200

Loss on both sides 201

Ulterior plans of the Persians against Athens— party in Attica favorable to

them 202

Rapid march of Miltiades back to Athens on the day of the battle 202

The Persians abandon the enterprise, and return home 203

Athens rescued by the speedy battle brought on by Miltiades 203

Change of Grecian feeling as the Persians — terror which the latter inspired

at the time of the battle of Marathon r 204

Immense effect of the Marathonian victory on the feelings of the Greeks —

especially of the Athenians 205

Who were the traitors that invited the Persians to Athens after the battle-
false imputation on the Alkmaeonids 205

Supernatural belief connected witli the battle— commemorations of it 206

Return of Datis to Asia— fate of the Eretrian captives 207

Glory of Miltiades— his subsequent conduct — unsuccessful expedition

against Paros— bad hurt of Miltiades 207

Disgrace of Miltiades on his return 208

He is fined— dies of his wound— the fine is paid by his son Kimon 209

Reflections on the closing adventures of the life of Miltiades 210




Fickleness and ingratitude imputed to the Athenians— how far they deserve

the charge 210

Usual temper of the Athenian dikasts in estimating previous services 212

Tendency of eminent Greeks to be corrupted by success 212

In what sense it is true that fickleness is an attribute of the Athenian democ-
racy 214


Ionic Philosophers.— Pythagoras.— Kroton and Stbaris.

Phalaris, despot of Agrigentum 216

Thales 216

Ionic philosophers — not a school or succession 217

Step in philosophy commenced by Thales 217

Vast problems with scanty means of solution 218

One cause of the vein of sckepticism which runs through Grecian phi-
losophy 218

Thales— primeval element of water or the fluid 21 9

Anaximander 219

Problem of the One and the Many— the Permanent and the Variable 220

Xenophanes — his doctrine the opposite of that of Anaximander 221

The Eleatic school. Parmenides and Zeno, springing from Xenophanes —

their dialectics— their great influence on Grecian speculation : 222

Pherekydes 222

History of Pythagoras 223

His character and doctrines 224

Pythagoras more a missionary and schoolmaster than a politician — his poli-
tical efficiency exaggerated by later witnesses 225

His ethical training— probably not applied to all the members of his order. 225

Decline and subsequent renovation of the Pythagorean order 226

Pythagoras not merely a borrower, but an original and ascendant mind. —

He passes from Sanios to Kroton 226

State of Kroton— oligarchical government — excellent gymnastic training

and medical skill 227

Rapid and wonderful effects said to have been produced by the exhorta-
tions of Pythagoras 228

He forms a powerful club or society, consisting of three hundred men

taken from the wealthy classes at Kroton 228

Political influence of Pythagoras— was an indirect result of the constitution

of the order 229

Causes which led to the subversion of the Pythagorean order 230

Violences which accompanied its subversion 231

The Pythagorean order is reduced to a religious and philosophical sect, in

which character it continues 232

War between Sybaris and Kroton 232

Defeat of the Sybarites, and destruction of their city, partly through the

aid of the Spartan Dorians 233

Sensation excited in the Hellenic world by the destruction of Sybaris. Grad-
ual decline of the Greek power in Italy 234

Contradictory statements and arguments respecting the presence of

Doricus 234

Herodotus does not mention the Pythagoreans, when he alludes to the war

between Sybaris and Kroton 235

Charondas, lawgiver of Katana, Naxos, Zankle, Rhegium, etc 236

From the Battle op Marathon to the March op Xerxes against Greece.

Resolutions of Darius to invade Greece a second time. His death 236

Succeeded by his son Xerxes 887



Revolt and reconquest of Egypt by the Persians 237

Online LibraryGeorge GroteA history of Greece : from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 107)