George Grote.

A history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great online

. (page 1 of 62)
Online LibraryGeorge GroteA history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great → online text (page 1 of 62)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

at http : //books . google . com/|

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

Digitized by VjOOQIC

J. at.^:;ms noyes,
caml3id:^e, mass.










Digitized by VjOOQIC

Kl> 6IH13(0


Vol. I, Portrait of Author.

Vol. n. Map of Greece.

VoL IV. (1) Maliac Gulf and Thermopylae.
(2) Battle of Salamis.
(8) Battle of Platsea.

VoL V. (1) Battle between Athenian and Peloponnesian Fleet.
(2) Battle of Amphipolis.

Vol. VI. (1) Syraouse— operations of the siege.

(2) Syraouse — Wken Demosthenes .wrived.

VoL Vn. Marches of the Greeks after the Battle of Kunaza.

VoL Vin. (1) Battle of Mantineia.

(2) Plan of Syracuse at the invasion of Dion.

VoL X. (1) Battle of Issus.

(2) African Territoty of Garthage.

Digitized by VjOOQIC




Pbom ths Rbsolutiok of the Athzkians to attack Straottsb,
DOWK TO the Fi&st Wintbb aftbb thsib Abriyal in Sicily.

Ptepanttions for the expedition
acainst Sicily— general entba-
aiftsm and aangaine hopes at
Athens .. .. .. ..

Abundance in the Athenian
tnasnnr— display of vealth
as well as of force in the

Matflation of the Herm» at
Athens. Numbers and sanc-
tity of the Hemm

Violent excitement and religioas
alarm produced by the act at

Ibe anthors (rf the act unknown—
bat it was certainly dcMie by
design and conspiracy. .

▼alioas parties suspected— great
probability beforehand that
n woold induce the Athenians
to a b and o n or postpone the

The political eoemies of Alki-
uadte take advantage of the
'* ' gexd t ementtotryand

Aniety of the Athenians to
detect and poniah the con-
spirat w s l ew a rds offered for

Informations glTen In— commis-^
sioners of mquirr appointed

First accusation of Alkibiadds, of
havine profaned and divulged
the Eleusinian mysteries

Violent speeches in the assembly
against Alkibladte unfavour-
ablv received

He denies the chaive and demands
immediate trial— his demand
is eluded hj his enemies

Departure of the armament from
Peirseua— splendour and ex-
citing character of the spec-
tacle .. #•

Solemnities of parting, on ship-
board and on the water's edge

Full muster of the armament at

Progress to Bhegium— oold recep-
tion by the Italian cities

Feeling at Syracuse as to the
qyproaching armament— dis-
position to underralne its
magnitnde. and even to
question Its intended coming

Stranoons exhortations of Her-
mokratte to be prepared

Tmper and parties In the Syxa-








Digitized by VjOOQIC





Beply of AfheDa^oTM, the popnlar
orator .. il

Interposition of the Strattel to
moderate the violence of the
debate 24

RelatiTe position of Athenacorae
and other parties at Syia-
cnse ib.

Pa dflc dlspodtiona of Athena-
goras t6

His general dennndatlons against
the oligarchical youth were
well founded <6.

AetiTe preparations at Syracuse
on the approach of the
Athenian armament . . 18

Diaconragement of the Athenians
at Bheginm on learning the
tmth respecting the poverty
of Bgesta* . i5»

Itie Athenian generals discuss
their plan of action— opinion
ofNiHas «7

Opinion of Alkibiadte .. ib,

O^nion of Lamachus 28

Soperior discernment of Lamachns
—plan of Alkibiadte preferred ib.

AlUbiadds at Mess«nA- Naxos
Joins the Athenians. Empty
display of the armament . . 90

AlUbiadte at Katana— the Athe-
nftuis masters of Katana—
they establish their station
there. Refusal of Kamarina 80

AlUbiadte is summoned home to
take his trial 81

Feelings and proceedings at
Athena ainoe the departure
of Uie armament . . A.

Number of citizena impriaoned on
anapicion— increaaed agony of
the public mind 88

Peiaander and Chariklte the com-
missioners of inquiry .. 84

Information of Diokleidte. . .. ib.

More prisoners arrested — in-
creased terror in the city —
Andokidto among the peraona -^
imprisoned ^

Andokidte is soUdted by his
feUow-prisoners to stand for-
waid and give information-
he complies 88

Andokidte deaignatea the anthora
of the mufcUation of the
Hernu»— consequence of hia
lerelations 80

Qneationable authoilty of AndoU-
dte aa to what ne himaelf
really atated in information. . 40

Belief of theAthenianain hia in-


formation— its tranquiDfadng
effecta .. .. ^ 41

Anxiety and alarm revived re-
apecting the persona oon-
oemed In the profanation of
the Bleusinian mysteries . . 4t

Revival of the accusation against
Alkibiadte ./ .. a

Indictment presented by Thee-
aalua, aon of Klmdn, againat
Alkibiadte 4fr

Beaolution to send for AlUbiadds
home from SicUy to be
tried «.

Alkibiadte quits the army as if to
come home— makes his escape
at Thurii, and retires to Pelo-
ponnteus H^

Conduct of the Athenian public
in reference to Alldbiad de-
how far blameable. Conduct
of his enemies 48

Mischief to Athens from the
banishment of Alkibiadte.
Languid operations of the
SidUan armament under Ni-
kiaa 61

Increase of confidence and pre-
parationa at Syracuse, ariang
from the delavs of Nikias . . 6t

Manoeuvre of Ninas from Katana
—he lands his forces in the
Great Harbour of Syracuse . . 6ft

Return of the Syracusan army
from Katana to the Great
HariMur— preparations for
flghtinffNifias 64

Ftelings of the ancient soldier.
—Harangue of NiUaa 66

Battle near the Olympidon—
victory of the Atheniana . . ib.

Unabated confidence of the
^racuaana — they garriaon
the Olympieion— Nfkiaa re-
embarka hia army, and retuma
to Katana 6ft

He determinee to take up hia
winter quartera at Katana,
and aenaa to Athena for rein-
forcementa of horse .. 67

Hia failure at Meaadnd, through
the betrayal by AUdbiadte . . ib.

Salutary lesson to the Syracusans,
aridng out of the recent
defeat— mischiefs to the
Athenians from the delay of
Nikias ib.

Confidence of the Athenians at
home in Nikias— thdr good
temper— they send to him the
reinforcements demanded . . 6^

Digitized by VjOOQIC




OetenBdnMl f oeUng ftl SyncoM— from hii qiiaiien at Ea-

hnpirofred mearares of de- taoa flV

fence —reoooiiiiendattoiM of SyncoMii envoji sent to lolicit

Hennokiatte ei aid from Ck>rinth and Sparta 68

iBlammeot of the fortlflcatioos Alkibiadte at Sparta^hij intense

or Syracuse. Improvement hoetility to Athene . . ik

of their sitaatlon. Increaee Speech of Alkibiadte in the

of the diiBcQltSes of Ni- Lacednmonian aseembly .. m

kias ib. Great effect of his speech on

Hennokratte and Enphtems— the Peloponnesians .. 71

eoonter-enToys at Kamarina es Miszepreeeniations contained in

S p ee ch of Enphftmns .. M the speech 74

Hie KamariiMMUM maintain Besolntions of the Spartans 76

practical nentiality .. 07 Itie Laoedamonians send Ofllp-

Wfaner proceedings of mUas pas to Syiacose A.



Mdvttentsof NiUasintheearly cnsans— reaching across the

epring .. - , - 77 marsh, sonth of Epfpolas, to

Local condition and fortifications the river Anapns 88

^ Snacos^ at the time when This oonnter-work attacked and

Nikias arrrred.— Inner and taken by Lamachns— general

OoterCitv 78 battle— death of Lamachus . . ib.

iKiealities without the wan of the Danger of the Athenian Circle

^^^grcity-Epipoto .. _ .. ib. and of Nikias-Tictory of the

Possibilities of the siege when Athenians . 88

Nifclas first arriTed in Sidly- Entrance of the Athenian fleet

hicresseofdifBcnltiesthnragfa into the Great Harbonr 00

his delay.. .. . 70 The southern portion of the

iBcreased fanpoitance of the wall of blockade, across the

vpper gronnd of Bpipols. marsh to the Great Harbour,

Intention of the Syracnsana is prosecuted and nearly

to ocenpy the summit of finished ib.

^— __^^P^^ :• •■, ,•: 81 The Syracusans offer no further

Tha snnmit is surprised by the obstmction-Hiespondency at

Athenians .. ib, Syracuse -incressing dose-

Ibesncoemof ttiissniprise was ness of the siege .. ..01

esMntia ltothefrffecfivefuture Order of the besieging opera-

^waseTOtJon of ^e siege .. 88 tions successively undertaken

llBrt opwations of ttie siege. by the Athenians .. 08

It^'^J^^**' *^ AiS^ Triumphant prospects of the

lahum on Bpipola», called The A&enians. Disposition among

sw!Sj»i«:;-.nU# *w- o •• *• the Slkels and Italian Greeks

FHtoonnter-wall of the Syra- to favour them A.

T*. ISlISf.- ■.L-.*v'*^*v** Ax^" ^ Conduct of Nikias— his conw-

2Sf7S5if5?* ^ the Athe. spondents in the interior of

_ .man Orcle— its completion .. 86 Synujuse . 08

^**i5*JKf?l*i^?**'"^^'**~y®* ^ Confidence of Nikiis-H^paii.

wifcS JSitSS**^ •*!.•• *• . tive languor of his operations ib.

^S5<».*S'2!!L*?* u?*^P*®^ ApproachS GyUppus-he de-

^Si'2S5!?5f?v"^lf°?*^ ^ _ Spain of relieViSgSyrscuse.. 06

fiei^?S^Sf?^'J'?»?f** ^ Promss of Gylippus. in spite of

Sceoadcounter.wotlcirftheSyia' discouraging reports .; .. A.

Digitized by VjOOQIC



CHAPTER LnL—amtinued.

Approach of ChfUppni U made
known to Nikias. FadUty
of proTenting hia farther ad-
▼anoe— Nikias despises him,
and leaves him to come an-
obstmcted. He lands at
Himera in Sidlv 07

Blindness of Nikias— egresions
mistake of letting in Gylip-
pas ib.

Gyl^as lories an army and
marches across Sicily from
Himera to Syracase .. 06

The Corinthian Gongylus reaches
Syracose before Oylippas—
Jost in time to hinder the town
from capitulating 00

'ippas with his new-loTied
force enters Syracaae an-
opposed ib,

Unaccoantable inaction of Nikias 100

Vigorous and aggressive measores
of Ovlippus, immediately on
arrinng 101

Gylippas surprises and captures
ue Athenian fort of Labdalum 102

He begins the construction of
a third counter-wall, on the
north side of the Athenian
Circle 108

Nikias fortifies Cape Plemmyrium ib,

InoonTeniences of Plemmyrium
as a maritime stanon —
mischief which ensues to the
Athenian naval strength . . lOA

Operations of Gylippus in the
fleld-hU defeat ..105

His dedsive victory— the Athe-



nians are shut up vrithin their
lines. The Svracusan counter-
wall is carried on so far as
to cut the Athenian line of
blockade 106

Farther defences provided by
Gylippus, joining the higher
part of £pipol» vrith the
city-wall 108

Oonfldence of Gylippus and the
Syracusans— aggressive plans
against the Athenians, even
on the sea 107

Discouragement of Nikias and
the Athenians 109

Nikias sends home a despatch
to Athens, soliciting rein-
forcements ib.

Despatch of Nikias to the Athe-
nian people 100

Resolution of the Athenians
to send Demosthente with a
second armament . . 118

Remarks upoa the despatch of
Nikias ib.

Former despatches of Nikias . . 114

Effect of his despatch upon the
Athenians 116

Treatment of Nikias by the Athe-
nians 116

Capital mistake committed by
the Athenians 117

Hostilities from Sparta certain
and impending 118

Resolution of Sparta to invade
Attica forthwith, and to send
further reinforcements to
BicUy 110


From the Resumption of Direct Hostilities between Athens
AND Sparta down to, the Destruction op the Athenian
Armament in Sicily.

Active warlike preparations Gylippus surprises and takes

throughout Greece during the Plemmyrium 128

winter of 414— 418 B.C. .. 121 Important consequences of the

Invasion of Attica by Agis and capture ib,

the Peloponnesian force— Increased spirits and confidence

fortification of Dekeleia ..128 of the Syracnsans, even for

Second expedition from Athens sea-fight 187

against Syracuse, under De- Efforts of the Syracnsans to

mosthenAs 128 procure further reinforce-

Opetations of Gylippus at Syra- ments from the Sicilian towns ISS

ease. He determines to attack Conflicts between the Athenians

the Athenians at sea . . . . 124 and Syracusans in the Great

Naval combat in the harbour Harbour ib,

at Syracuse- the Athenians Defeat of a Sicilian reinforce-

victorioas 126 ment marching to aid Syracuse 189

Digitized by VjOOQIC





B«iaw«d tttaek by Oyttiypos
on the Atheidaiis ..180

IHaadvantagofl of the Athenlaa
fleet in the harbour. Their
naval tactics impoesible in
the narrow space i6.

Imp rove m ents in Syracosan
ships suited to the narrow
space 181

The ayiaoQsans threaten attack
vpoo the Athenian naval
station 18S

Additional preparations of Nikias
—battle renewed ib.

Complete defeat of the Athenians 188

Danger of the AttMmian anna'
meat-arrival of Demostbente
with the second annament .. 184

▼oyace of Demosthends from
Korkyra 186

Imposing effect of his entry into
theOreat Harbonr .. ..186

Revived coorage of the Athenians.
JndicSons and decisive resolu-
tions of Demostbente . . <&.

Poaitioa and plans of Demos-
theote 187

Noetomal march of Demostbente
to surprise £pipol», and torn
the Syracnsan line of defence 188

Partial sncc ess at first— complete
and ruinous defeat finally . . 188

Disorder of the Athenians—great
loss in the flight .. 140

Slate spirits and renewed aggres-
sive plans of the Syracuaans 141

Deliberation and different opi-
nions of the Athenian generals ttw

Demostbente insists on departing
from Sicily— Nikias opposes
him 142

Demostbente insists at least on
removing out of the Great
Harbour 148

5Ikias refuses to consent to such
removal 144

The annament remains in the
Great Harbour, neiUier acting
norrstiring ib,

Iniatoatfon MNiMas .. 146

Increase of force and confidence
In Syra cu s e N ikias at length
eoDsents to retreat. Orders
for retreat privately circu-
lated .. 147

■fliipse of the moon— Athenian
retreat postponed i6.

EdiDSss eonsidered as signs—
diflenntlv interpreted— opi-
nion of Pnflochonis ..148

Banewed attacksof the Syracusans


—defeat of the Athenian fleet

in the Great Harbour .. 140

Partial success ashore against
Oylippus 160

The Syracusans determine to
block up the mouth of the
harbour, and destroy or cap-
ture the whole Athenian ar-
mament 161

lAige views of Syracusans
against the power of Athens
—new basaros now opened to
endanger that power .. tt.

Yast numbers and miscellaneous
origin of the combatants now
en^^;ed in flghting for or
aininst Syracuse .. 16t

The Syracusans block up the
month of the harbour . . lb.

The Athenians resolve to force
their way out— preparations
made by the generals . . 168

Exhortations of Nikias on putting
the crews abocLTd ..164

Agony of Nikias— bis efforts to
encourage the officers . . 166

Bold and animated language
of Oylippus to the Syracunan
fleet 160

Syracuaan arrangements. Con-
dition of the Great Harbour
-sympathizing population
surrounding it 167

Attempt of the Athenian fleet
to break out— battle in the
Great Harbour 168

Long-continued and desperate
struggle— intense emotion—
totaldefeat of the Athenians 160

Military operations of ancient
times— strong emotions which
accompanied them .. lOO

Osnses oi the defeat of the
Athenians 181

Feelings of the victors and van-
quiiBhed after the batUe .. 108

Besolution of Demostbente and
Nikias to make a second
attempt— the armament are
too much discouraged to obey 168

The Athenians determine to re-
treat by land— they postpone
their retreat under false com-
munications from Syracuse . . ib.

The Syracusans block up the
roads to intercept their re-
treat 104

Retreat of the Athenians— miser-
able condition of the army .. 186

Wretchedness arising from aban-
doning the sick and wounded ib.

Digitized by VjOOQIC



CHAPTER LX.~etm(iAtM(i.



Attompi of the genmmlt to
maintain icme order— eneigy
ofNikias 166

Szhortations of Nikiaa to the
■afTering army Al

Commencement of the retreat
—harassed and impeded by
the Syracusans

ContinQea conflict— no progres s
made by the retreating army

Violent storm— effect prodaoed
on both parties— change of
feeling in the last two years

Mi^t march of the Athenians,
in an altered direction, to-
wards the southern sea

Separation of the two diTisions
under Nikias and Demos-
thends. The first division
under Nikias gets across riTer

The rear division under Demos-
thente la pursued, overtaken,
and forced to surrender . . ib.

Oylippus overtakes and attacks
& division of Nikias . . 174

Nikias gets to the river Asinarus—
Int^erable thirst and suffering




of the soldiers he and his
division become prisoners .. 176

Total numbers captured .. ..176

Hard treatment and sufferings
of the Athenian prisoners at
Syracuse 177

Treatment of Nikias and Demoe-
thente— difference of opinion
among the conquerors . . 176

Influence of the Corinthian*—
efforts of Gylippna— both the
generals are sudn A.

Disgrace of Nikias after Us
death, at Athena— continued
respect for the memory of
Demoethente 180

Opinion of Thucydidte about
Nikiaa 181

How far that opinion is Just . . 182 .

Opinion of the Athenians about
Nikias— their steady over*oon-
fidence and over-esteem for
him, arising from his respect-
able and religious character. . 186

Over-confidence in Nikias was
the greatest personal mistake
which the Athenian publio
ever committed .. *. ift.


DRED AT Athens.

Coiise<iuence8 of the ruin of
the Athenian armament in

Occupation of Dekeleia by the
Lacedmnonians— its ruinous
effects upon Athens . .

Athens becomes a military post
—heavy duty in arms imposed

her Thradan


Iriven back with
the Thebans . .
n of Naupaktus
the naval superi-


»ar Naupaktus—


j Athenians from

Syracuse— ruin of the army
there not ofiBcially made

186 known to them

Beluctanoe of the Athenians to

believe the fuU truth . .

ib. Terror and affliction at Athens . .

Energetic resolutions adopted

by the Athenians— Board of

186 ProbiUi

187 Prodigious effect of the catas-

trophe upon all Greeks-
enemies and allies of Athens

188 as well as neutrals— and even
on the Persians

188 Motions of King Afds

The Buboeans appiv to Agis for

aid in revolting uom Athens—
ib, the Lesbians also apply and

are preferred A.

190 The Chians, with the same view,

make application to Sparta . . <ii.





Digitized by VjOOQIC



CHAPTER ULL—contiMisd.


BDTm froB Thaphernte And
PtMmftbanu oobm to Sparte
at the Mme time ..197

ADdbtedte at Sparta— Ida re-
commendatioiM determine the
f*redii*monianii to send aid
toChioa 106

Sjnod of the Peloponneilaii
allies at Corinth— meaaovM
raaolved U»

Irthmtan festival— aeniplee of
the Oorinthiane— delay abooft
CMoe WMpidone of Athene ik,

Falopowwdan fleet from Corinth
toChioe Itiadefeatedbythe

^ Athmians .. ^ ^ 201

ftnall aqnadroB starts from
Sparta onder CbaUddeos and
AUbiad«e,togotoChioe .. A.

Snerintie adrtee of AlUbiadta—
Us great ttsefnlness to Sparta 208

Anival of AUdbiadte at Chioe
ref<dt of the island from
Athens ib,

Oeneral population of Chios was
disinclined to rerolt from
Athens 208

Diamaj ooeasioned at Athens
by the roToIt of Chios— the
Athenians set free and ap-
propriate their reserved fond 204

Athenian force despatched to
ChkM under Strombichidte.. 801

Aetirity of the Chians in pro-
moting revolt among the other
Athenian aUies-Ilkibiadte
dstenninea MilAtns to re-
volt 800

Vbst alUanoe between the Pelo-
pomieaians and Tlssaphemte.
oonefaMled by Chalkideas at
MnMns .. 207

Diahoaonrable and disadvan-
tageons conditions of the
treaty 206

Snenetk efforts of Athens—
democmtlcal revolution at
Saaoe iflc

Fslopoonesian fleet at KenchreiB
—Aatyoohns is sent as Spartan
admiral to Ionia ..818

■zpeditlon of the Chians against
Lesbos ./^ .. iA.

m-snceesB of the Chians— Leebos
Is maintahied b^ the Athe-
nians 218

fffameeing operations of the
Athenians against Chios . . 814

Hardships suffered bv the Chians
-prosperity of the island up
tothtetfane : tl8

Fresh forces from Athens— rictory
of the Athenians near MOA-
tus SU

Ftesh Peloponneelan forces
arrive— the Athenians retire,
pursuant to the strong re-
commendation of Pnrynl-
chus 817

Capture of lasus by the Pelo-
ponnesians- rich plunder—
Amorgte made prisoner . . 818

Tissaphemte begins to furnish
pay to the Peloponnesian
fleet He reduces the rate of
pay for the future ..810

Pow erfu l Athenian fleet at Samos
—unexpected renovation of
the navy of Athens ..880

Astyochus at Chios and on the
opposite coast ik

Pedaritus, Lacedaemonian gover-
nor at Chios— disagreement

Online LibraryGeorge GroteA history of Greece: from the earliest period to the close of the generation contemporary with Alexander the Great → online text (page 1 of 62)