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ALLEN, EDWIN L. See COLLEGES, 3
(Mt. Union C., Ohio).

ALLEN, FRANCIS D. See TUNE-BOOKS,
1818.

ALLEN, GEORGE N. U812-1877). See
Register, 4.

ALLEN, HEMAN (1836- ? ). See Regis-
ter, 5.

ALLEN, NATHAN HALE (Apr. 14, 1848,
Marion, Mass.), after schooling in Provi-
dence and at Phillips (Andover) Academy, in
1868 went to Germany. In Berlin he was a
pupil of Grell in singing and of Haupt in
organ-playing, and later studied instrumenta-
tion with Van der Stucken in New York.
From about 1870 he was organist in Hartford,
Conn., in 1883-1906 at the Center Congrega-
tional Church. Five years were then spent
at Piedmont Church in Worcester, and in
1915 he returned to Hartford. He has taught
many prominent organists and has been
active as concert-organist and chorus-con-
ductor. .He has composed many songs, part-
songs, organ- and piano-pieces, a collection of
40 liturgical responses and two sacred cantatas.
Many of his fifty published anthems have been
widely used. Among the compositions as yet
unpublished are a number of organ-pieces, in-
cluding a 'Piece Symphonique' and a 'Sym-
phonic Fantasia'; a 'Concertante' for organ



and piano ; ' In Memoriam ' for organ, piano
and strings ; pieces for piano, violin and 'cello ;
and numerous vocal compositions, including
the cantata ' The Apotheosis of St. Dorothy.'
He has several printed addresses on musical
subjects, and has devoted much time to inves-
tigating the musical history of New England.
He is one of the founders of the A. G. O., an
original member of the New York Manu-
script Society, and has repeatedly served as
associate-conductor of the Litchfield Festival
Chorus. With Leonard W. Bacon he edited
The Hymns of Martin Luther, 1883. [ R.6 ]

ALLEN, WARREN DWIGHT (b. 1885).
See COLLEGES, 3 (C. of the Pacific, Cal.).

ALLEN, WILLIAM FRANCIS (1830-
1889). See Register, 5.

ALLER, GEORGE HENRY (b. 1871). See
Register, 8.

ALTHOUSE, PAUL SHEARER (b. 1889).
See Register, 10.

ALTSCHULER, MODEST (Feb. 15, 1873,
Mogilev, Russia), was at first a violin-student,
but soon changed to the 'cello, which he
studied in 1884-86 with Gobelt at the Warsaw
Conservatory. His first public appearance,
at thirteen, was with the conservatory orches-
tra under the direction of Zarzycki. Gradu-
ating with honors, he won a scholarship at the
Moscow Conservatory, where he studied 'cello
with Fitzenhagen and Von Glen and com-
position with Arensky, Tanieiev and Safonov.
On graduating in 1890 he was awarded a silver
medal. He toured Europe with the Moscow
Trio, and finally came to New York as 'cellist
and teacher. In 1903 he organized the
Russian Symphony Orchestra, of which he
has since been conductor. Its first concert
was on Jan. 7, 1904, in New York. Since
that time the Orchestra has visited most of
the cities in the United States, making three
trans-continental tours before 1914. He has
orchestrated several modern Russian works,
including the Tchaikovsky piano-trio. [ R.9 ]

AMATO, PASQUALE (Mar. 21, 1878,
Naples, Italy), after graduating from the
Institute Tecnico Domenico, studied at the
Naples Conservatory in 1896-99 and made
his debut as Germont in 'La Traviata' at the
Teatro Bellini in 1900. He then made the
round of the leading theaters of Italy, and
sang in Prague, Munich, Dresden, Leipzig,
Berlin, Budapest, Vienna, Brussels and Paris.
In 1908 he came to the Metropolitan Opera
House in New York, continuing to the present.
He has sung two seasons in London and six in
Buenos Aires, and is regarded as one of the
leading operatic baritones of the day. His
favorite r61es are in ' I Pagliacci,' ' II Trovatore, 1
'Un Ballo in Maschera,' 'Prince Igor,' Napo-
leon in 'Madame Sans-Gene,' Amfortas in
'Parsifal' and the Toreador in 'Carmen.'



AMBROSE



AM. GUILD OF ORGANISTS 113



He has created the parts of King Hadraot
(in 'Armida'), Carlo Worms (in 'Germania'),
Jack Ranee (in 'The Girl of the Golden West')
and Golaud (in 'Pelleas et Melisande').
Equally popular as a concert-singer, he has
appeared with the Boston, Philadelphia and
Chicago Symphony Orchestras and the New
York Philharmonic Society. He is a popular
'festival-artist' and has made many concert-
tours. [ R.9 ]

AMBROSE, PAUL (Oct. 11, 1868, Hamil-
ton, Ont.) , was the son of the composer Robert
S. Ambrose. His general education was in the
public schools of Hamilton and at the Colle-
giate Institute. He studied piano there with
his father, and in New York with Parsons
and Miss Chittenden, composition with Klein
and orchestration with Buck. He was organist
at the Madison Avenue (M. E.) Church in
1886-1890, organist at St. James' (M. E.)
Church in 1890-1917, and since 1917 at the
First Presbyterian Church in Trenton, N. J.
He has taught and lectured on music-history
at several schools," including the Institute of
Applied Music in New York, and since 1904
has been director of music at the State Normal
School at Trenton. He has composed songs,
choruses, piano- and organ-pieces. [ R.7 ]

'AMERICA' is the title usually applied
either to the patriotic hymn beginning 'My
country, 'tis of thee' or to the tune associated
with it. The hymn is by Rev. Samuel Francis
Smith, D. D. (1808-1895), a distinguished
Baptist clergyman, professor, editor and
hymnist. The tune is the same as that of the
English 'God save the King,' which has also
been adopted into German and Danish use.
Dr. Smith wrote the verses early in 1832,
while still a theological student at Andover
Seminary, to fit the music as found in a German
song-book referred to him by Lowell Mason.
They were probably first sung publicly under
Mason's direction at a children's celebration
at Park Street Church in Boston on July 4,
1832, and they soon became popular and were
included in standard hymn-books from Smith
and Stow's Psalmist (1843) onwards. See
Bun-age, Baptist Hymn-Writers, pp. 329-34,
Julian, Diet, of Hymnology, under 'Smith'
and 'God save the King,' and many other
books on hymnody, and also Vol. ii. 188-91,
of this Dictionary, Sonneck, Report on ' The
Star Spangled Banner, 1 etc., pp. 73-8, 158-60,
and many books on popular and national
airs.

'AMERICAN ART JOURNAL, THE,'
established in New York in 1863, for many
years gave much attention to musical subjects.
See Watson, H. C., in Register, 4, and Thorns,
W. M., in Register, 5.

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF MUSICIANS,
THE, was organized in 1884 by Edward M.
I



Bowman under the general auspices of the
Music Teachers' National Association. It
was modeled upon the College of Organists in
England, and was intended to be exclusively
an agency for examination and certification
as to professional proficiency. The branches
included were piano, organ, voice, violin,
theory and, later, public-school teaching, and
grades of attainment were marked by grant-
ing the use of the terms 'associate,' 'fellow' or
'master.' About 1895 the Board of Regents
of the State of New York empowered the
College to grant the degrees of Mus.B. and
Mus.D. The organization began with about
140 charter-members, including a fine repre-
sentation of foremost musicians. The presi-
dent from 1884 was Mr. Bowman, who was
succeeded in 1893 by A. R. Parsons. For
ten years or more the system of examinations
was maintained upon a high plane, and the
total number of candidates was about 235, of
whom about half were approved, mostly as
'associates.' But after 1895, apparently for
mechanical and financial reasons, the organ-
ization became inoperative. In 1910 Mr.
Bowman urged the revival of its work, but
without practical result. See Mathews, Hun-
dred Years of Music, pp. 539-41, and a paper
by Bowman in M . T. N. A. Proceedings, 1912,
pp. 145-56.

AMERICAN CONSERVATORY OF MU-
SIC, THE, of Chicago, was organized in
1886 and incorporated in 1887. The founder
was John J. Hattstaedt, who has remained its
director since 1894, assisted by Karleton
Hackett and Adolf Weidig. Its aim is 'to
offer the best instruction in all branches of
music and dramatic art by teachers of broad
education thoroughly in sympathy with Amer-
ican life and its needs.' The number of
teachers is about 100, and the number of
students over 2200 annually. There are over
1400 graduates, of whom about 275 received the
degree of Mus.B. In addition to all the lines of
usual instruction fine opportunities are given for
choral and orchestral experience, for operatic
and dramatic training, for musical pedagogy in
all its applications, etc.

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF MUSI-
CIANS, THE, founded in 1895, aims to pro-
mote the interests of musicians employed in
orchestras, bands and the like. It has about
750 local unions in the United States and
Canada, with a total membership of about
85,000, the president being J. N. Weber, 110-
112 W. 40th St., New York.

AMERICAN GUILD OF ORGANISTS,
THE, See Vol. i. 77, and add that in 1919
the Guild had over 23 chapters in the United
States and Canada, and a total membership
of 1925, of whom 150 now rank as 'fellows.'
The honorary presidents have been from 1896



114 AM. INST. OF APPLIED MUSIC



ANDERSON



Dudley Buck, from 1899 Gerrit Smith, from
1902 S. P. Warren, from 1906 H. W. Parker,
and in 1909-12 Arthur Foote; in 1912 the
office was discontinued. The wardens have
been successively Gerrit Smith, Sumner
Salter, W. H. Hall, R. H. Woodman, S. A.
Baldwin, J. H. Brewer, W. R. Hedden, Frank
Wright, J. W. Andrews, Clifford Demarest
and Victor Baier. The Clemson anthem-prize
has been won by W. C. Macfarlane, S. N. Pen-
field, H. J.Stewart, J. S. Ford, W. Y. Webbe,
Mark Andrews, Herbert Sanders and William
Berwald. The general office is at 29 Vesey
Street, New York.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF APPLIED
MUSIC, THE, in New York, was incorpo-
rated in 1900 to continue the work of the
Metropolitan College of Music and other
schools. Kate S. Chittenden, founder of the
Synthetic Piano School in 1887 and on the staff
of the College from 1892, has been the efficient
dean from the first. In its regular curriculum
the Institute aims at systematic thoroughness,
with much emphasis upon pedagogical method,
largely with reference to those expecting to
teach. The enrolment averages about 350 per
year. More than 1000 teachers have received
certificates. The Institute is located at 212
West 59th Street.

AMERICAN OPERA COMPANY, THE,
was an enterprise organized in 1885 under the
lead of Mrs. Jeannette Thurber of New York
for the giving of opera in English with extreme
artistic perfection and, so far as practicable,
with American artists, not only in New York,
but in several other cities. Theodore Thomas
was secured as musical director, and no pains
were spared in recruiting the orchestra, the
staff of soloists and the chorus. The Academy
of Music was tastefully renovated for the
New York season, which opened on Jan. 4,
1886, and ran to sixty-six performances, with
a later tour to Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore,
Washington, Chicago, etc. The repertoire
included 'Orpheus,' 'The Magic Flute,'
'Martha,' 'The Merry Wives,' 'The Flying
Dutchman,' ' Lohengrin,' Masse's 'The Mar-
riage of Jeannette,' ' The Taming of the Shrew'
and 'LakmeV The venture proved over-
ambitious and its financial foundation in-
sufficient, and in 1887 it was abandoned and
was succeeded by a new organization, called
the National Opera Company. See Mrs.
Thomas, Memoirs of Theodore Thomas, pp.
279-96, and Krehbiel, Chapters of Opera, pp.
139-44. '

AMERICAN ORGAN. The English name
for the type of reed-organ developed in the
United States from about 1850-60. See Vol. i.
77-8, and pamphlet by Henry L. Mason, The
History and Development of the American
Cabinet Organ, n. d.



AMERICAN PIANO COMPANY, THE,
of New York, was formed in 1908, with a
capital of $12,000,000, to unite the interests
of Chickering & Sons, Knabe & Co., Haines
Brothers, Marshall & Wendell and several
other firms. It has not only carried forward
the established business of all of these, but
developed with marked success the player-
pianos and similar devices connected with
them. The name 'Ampico' is applied to the
most perfect of these latter, which has excep-
tional facility in recording and reproducing
tone-colors and nuances. Its inventor was
Charles D. Stoddard, and it was first publicly
shown in 1916.

'AMERICAN SYMPHONY.' A name
often given to Dvorak's Symphony No. 5, in
E minor, 'From the New World,' produced in
New York in 1893.

AMERICAN SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA,
THE, of Chicago, was founded in 1915 by
Glenn Dillard Gunn, who has remained its
conductor. Its object is to present American
compositions exclusively. Among the im-
portant works thus far brought forward are
the following :

H. K. Hadley : Dramatic Overture, ' Herod.'

Eric DeLamarter: 'Alice in Wonderland' Suite;

1 Overture to a Comedy.'
J. A. Carpenter : ' Gitangili,' songs for soprano and

orchestra (texts by Tagore).
Leo Sowerby : ' Homage to English Country-Folk.'

settings of three folk-songs; Symphonic Poem,

' The Sorrows of Midath ' ; Concerto for violin

and orchestra; 'Marching-Song,' for strings and

piano.
Clarence Loomis : Concerto for piano and orchestra ;

Fantasy for piano and orchestra.
R. G. Cole : Symphonic Prelude, ' King Robert of

Sicily.'

Arthur Dunham : Overture, ' In Autumn.'
George Colburn : ' Montezuma ' Suite ; ' The Song

of the Drum,' for chorus and orchestra.
Clarence Burley : Concerto for violin and orchestra.
C. W. Cadman : ' Indian ' Suite.
Roland Leach : Overture, ' Legend.'
Herbert Butler : Ballade.

ANDERSON, ARTHUR OLAF (Jan. 30,
1880, Newport, R. I.), was a pupil of Norris in
Boston, of Guilmant, Guiraud and d'Indy in
Paris, of Dura in Berlin, and of Sgambati
in Rome. In 1905-08 he taught theory in
Berlin. In 1908 he came to Chicago and
joined the faculty of the American Conserva-
tory, with which he is still connected. He
has composed an orchestral suite, 'The Brook' ;
other music for large and small orchestra ;
suites for piano, organ and violin ; two sonatas
for piano; twelve fugues; an 'Ave Maria,'
for soprano and orchestra; two song-cycles,
'Pilgrimage to Kevlaar' and 'The Child's
Garden of Verses ' ; fifty songs and various
choruses. [ R.9 J



ANDERSON



APOLLO CLUB



115



ANDERSON, JOHANNA. See COLLEGES,
3^(11. of Omaha, Neb.).

ANDERSON, [O. WALDEMAR. See COL-
LEGES, 3 (Gustavus Adolphus C., Minn.).

ANDERSON, STYLES R. See COLLEGES,
3 (Simmons C., Tex.).

ANDRES, HENRY GEORGE (1838- ? ).
See Register, 5.

ANDREWS. See TUNE-BOOKS, 1800.

ANDREWS, GEORGE WHITFIELD (Jan.
19, 1861, Wayne, O.), has been associated with
Oberlin, O., for almost his entire life. He
began the study of piano there at six, organ at
nine (with F. B. Rice) and at twelve made his
first public appearance, playing a Bach Prel-
ude and Fugue. For a time before 1879 he
was organist of the First Church of Oberlin,
and then played and taught two years at
Meadville, Pa., and one year at Toledo. In
1882 he became organist of the Second Church
in Oberlin, a position he still holds. Since
1882, also, he has been connected with the
Musical Union, first as organist and since 1900
as conductor. In 1886 he began teaching at
the Conservatory, and since 1892 has been
professor of organ, composition and orchestra
tion. He graduated from the Conservatory
in 1879 in organ, piano, violin and theory, and
studied in Leipzig with Papperitz (organ)
and Jadassohn (theory, composition and piano) ,
in Munich with Rheinberger (organ, composi-
tion and orchestration, 1885-6), and in Paris
with Guilmant (organ and composition) and
d'Indy (composition and orchestration, 1898-
99). He was made Mus.D. by Oberlin College
in 1903. His interest has centered in the
duties connected with his work as teacher and
conductor, and he has been highly successful
in both fields, besides appearing as organ-
recitalist in all parts of the country, including
the great Expositions. He was a founder of
the A. G. O. and is now dean of the Northern
Ohio Chapter. His published organ-composi-
tions are a March in C Minor and 'Poco
Agitato' (Schirmer), Serenade No. 1 and
'Aria* (Ashmall), Serenade No. 2 and 'Con
Grazia' (J. Fischer & Bro.), and Fugue in
A minor (Leduc, Paris). The Church Co.
publishes three sacred songs for baritone.
Still in manuscript are a Suite in C for orches-
tra (played at Oberlin by the Chicago Sym-
phony Orchestra), six organ-sonatas, four
suites for organ, a Theme and Variations,
many separate pieces for organ, a piano-trio,
'Morning' for piano, a Magnificat for soprano
and piano, and a Processional and Recessional
for chorus. [ R.6 ]

ANDREWS, J. WARREN (Apr. 6, 1860,
Lynn, Mass.), was organist at Swampscott,
Mass., when but twelve. At sixteen he went
to the First Baptist Church of Lynn, Mass.,
and also played at the Boston Street Methodist



Church. In 1879 he was engaged by Old
Trinity Church at Newport, R. I., where he
remained nine years. Then followed a three-
year sojourn at the Pilgrim Church in Cam-
bridge and seven years at the Plymouth Church
in Minneapolis. In 1898 he removed to the
Church of the Divine Paternity in New York,
where he still remains. He was a founder of
the A. G. O., its warden in 1913-16 and a
member of the council for many years. He
has also held official positions in the N. A. O.
In 1895 he established a school for organists
and singers in Minneapolis, and has continued
as teacher in New York. Many well-known
church-musicians have been among his pupils.
His published works are few, but he has organ-
pieces, anthems, Te Deums and Canticles that
may sometime be published. [ R.6 ]

ANGER, JOSEPH HUMPHREY (June 3,
1862, Berkshire, England : June 11, 1913,
Toronto), had his first appointment as organist
at Frenchay, near Bristol, and while there
(1888) he won the gold medal offered by the
Bath Philharmonic Society for a setting of
Psalm 96 for voices and orchestra. Later
he matriculated at Oxford, proceeding as
Mus.B. in 1889. He became assistant-master
of Surrey County School, Cranleigh, and
then organist at Ludlow. In 1893 he was
appointed professor of harmony and theory
at the Toronto Conservatory, a position he re-
tained until his death. He was also examiner
in music at the University of Toronto, presi-
dent of the Clef Club, conductor of the Phil-
harmonic Society, dean of the Ontario chapter
of the A. G. O., and organist at St. Andrew's
Presbyterian Church and later at the Central
Methodist Church. He received the degree
of Mus.D. from the University in 1902 in
appreciation of his services toward the advance-
ment of musical education in Canada, particu-
larly in Toronto. He was the author of a
text-book on harmony, Form in Music, and
a pamphlet on The Modern Enharmonic Scale,
1907, which have had wide use. His madrigal
'Bonnie Belle' won the London Madrigal
Society's prize in 1890. [ R.8 ]

ANSCHUTZ, KARL (1815-1870). See Reg-
ister, 4.

'ANTONIO.' A lyric opera by Silas G.
Pratt, written about 1870 while studying at
Munich and Berlin. Selections were per-
formed at Chicago in 1874 under Balatka, and
in March, 1887, a rewritten version under the
title 'Lucille' was given entire at the Colum-
bian Theatre there.

' APOLLO.' No. 13 of the ' Grove-Plays ' of
the San Francisco Bohemian Club, produced
in 1915. The text is by Frank Pixley and the
music by Edward F. Schneider.

APOLLO CLUB, THE, of Boston, was
founded in 1871 and incorporated in 1873, its



116



APOLLO CLUB



APTHORP



nucleus being the earlier Chickering Club. It
has had a singularly unbroken history along
the lines originally planned. It aims to main-
tain a male chorus of superior singers for the
study and performance of part-songs and
concerted works for an audience limited to
singers and subscribers. The active members
now number about 80, and the associate mem-
bers 500. From 1871 till his resignation
in 1901 the conductor was B. J. Lang, who
made the Club famous. He was followed by
Emil Mollenhauer, who has continued the
same brilliant record. The Club Rooms are at
3 Joy Street. Four concerts are given annu-
ally, the total number being about 250, with
eminent soloists, vocal and instrumental, and
often a full orchestra as well. In the list of
works with orchestra given in Boston for the
first time have been Mendelssohn's 'Antigone'
and 'CEdipus in Colonos,' Killer's 'Easter
Morning,' Brambach's 'Columbus,' Bruch's
'Roman Song of Triumph,' Paine's 'CEdipus
Tyrannus' and 'Summons to Love,' Brahms'
'Rinaldo,' Whiting's 'March of the Monks
of Bangor,' 'Free Lances' and 'Henry of
Navarre,' Foote's 'Farewell of Hiawatha,'
and Nicode's 'The Sea' several of these
having been written for the Club. Many
part-songs by American composers have been
prominent on the programs. See Vol. i. 369,
and article in 'The New England Magazine,'
April, 1910, by Ethel Syford.

APOLLO CLUB, THE, of Brooklyn. See
Vol. iii. 367.

APOLLO CLUB, THE, of Cincinnati, was
organized in 1882 and under the leadership
of B. W. Foley attained a position of marked
importance.

APOLLO CLUB, THE, of St. Louis, was
founded in 1893. Its conductor till 1910
was Alfred G. Robyn and since that time
Charles Galloway. It is a male chorus,
limited to eighty voices. As a rule, three
concerts are given annually to subscribers and
guests.

APOLLO MALE CHORUS, THE, of Pitts-
burgh, was organized in 1904 by Rinehart
Mayer, who has been its conductor since
then.

APOLLO MUSICAL CLUB, THE, of
Chicago, was organized in 1872 the year
after the Great Fire through the efforts of
Silas G. Pratt and George P. Upton, and its
first concert was given in January, 1873.
Originally planned as a male chorus after the
model of the Apollo Club of Boston, in 1875 it
was expanded into a mixed chorus, so as to
undertake works of the largest dimensions.
Its early conductors were A. W. Dohn (1872-
74) and Karl Bergstein (1874-75), but the
establishment of the Club as a highly signifi-
cant artistic force was due to the leadership of



William L. Tomlins (1875-98) and since 1898
that of Harrison M. Wild, who has brought the
standard of quality, balance and interpreta-
tion to the highest point. The chorus now
numbers about 250 singers. The usual num-
ber of concerts annually is five, and the total
number since the beginning is over 200.

The Club's repertoire includes all the stand-
ard oratorios and similar large works. 'The
Messiah ' has been given more than fifty times.
In the list are Bach's St. Matthew Passion,
Mass in B minor and Magnificat, Handel's
'Judas Maccabseus,' Mozart's Requiem Mass,
Schumann's Missa Sacra, Berlioz' Requiem
and Te Deum, Verdi's Requiem, Brahms'
Requiem, Bruch's 'Frithjof,' Dvorak's Stabat
Mater, Massenet's 'Mary Magdalene' and
'Eve,' Grieg's 'Olaf Trygvason,' Elgar's
'Light of Life,' 'Apostles' and 'Caractacus,'
Pierne's 'Children's Crusade,' Parker's 'St.
Christopher' and 'Hora Novissima,' Georg
Schumann's 'Ruth,' Schmitt's 49th Psalm,
Wolf -Ferrari's 'New Life,' etc. First perform-
ances in America include Elgar's 'Dream of
Gerontius' (1903), Busch's 'King Olaf (1903),
Woyrsch's 'Dance of Death' (1911), and
Cowen's 'The Veil' (1915).

APPLETON, THOMAS. See Register, 3.

APPY, HENRI'(1828- ? ). See Register, 4.

APTHORP, WILLIAM FOSTER (Oct. 24,
1848, Boston : Feb. 19, 1913, Vevey, Switzer-
land), was long the most influential critic in
Boston. In 1856-60 he attended schools in
Dresden, Berlin and Rome. He graduated
from Harvard in 1869. Six years earlier he
had begun piano, harmony and counterpoint
with Paine and piano-study was continued
under Lang. During his last year at Harvard
he was conductor of the Pierian Sodality. He
taught piano and harmony at the National
College of Music in Boston in 1872-73, and
for thirteen years was with the New England
Conservatory, teaching piano and various
branches of theory. In 1872 Ho wells, then
editor of 'The Atlantic Monthly,' engaged him
as musical editor. In 1876 he undertook
musical criticism for the 'Sunday Courier'
and two years later both musical and dramatic
criticism for the 'Traveller.' In 1881 he be-
came music-critic on the ' Evening Transcript,'
soon assuming also the dramatic work. Both
positions he held until 1903, when he gave up
actual work. His remaining years were spent
chiefly in Switzerland. In addition to his
critical writing, which included many contribu-
tions to magazine and periodical literature,
he taught aesthetics and musical history for
some years in the College of Music of Boston
University, and gave courses of lectures at the
Lowell Institute in Boston and at the Peabody
Institute in Baltimore. From 1892 to 1901 he



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