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King of the Belgians.





GEORGE H. ALLEN, Ph.D., of the University of Penn-
sylvania, History Department; Fellow in Classical ARCHii-
OLOGY, American School of Classical Studies, Rome, Etc.,

HENRY C. WHITEHEAD, Captain in the
United States Army, Served in Europe, by
Official Assignment, for Observation, Etc.,


Admiral F. E. CHADWICK, U. S. N.




Copyrighted, 1916, by


Among the Illustrations in this Volume
ARE Reproductions of Photographs Copy-
righted BY Underwood and Underwood,
BY Paul Thompson, and by the
International News Service Company
Entered at Stationers' Hall, London

\c\\ t


Contents VII


in 1893. Further modification, improvements, and increases in 1899,
1905, 1911, 1912, and 1913. Opposition to Bismarck's military program.
Supremacy of the military party. Political divisions of the empire.
Growth of population. Term of military ser\ice. Strength of the army
in 1914. Military training schools. Education of officers for the line of
the army. Teclinical schools. Reserve, Landwehr, and Landsturm offi-
cers. Peace and war strength and equipment. Chief command. The
General Staff. An array corps. The available reserve. Quality of the
German soldier.

VI The Army of Austria-Hungary . . . 229-244

Decadency of the Holy Roman Empire. Mercenaries and feudal service.
A permanent force. Momentary glory under Charles V. The Thirty
Years' War. Passing of the imperial power. The Seven Years' War.
Dissolution of the empire. Austria becomes a separate empire ; its many
nationalities and languages. The Kingdom of Hungary. Austro-Prussian
War, 1866. Universal military service; a triple-headed army. Slow reor-
ganization after 1870. Military force under law of 1889. The problem of
nationalities. The Landwehr and the Landsturm. Exempted classes and
period of military service. The Ersatz Reserve. Training. Military
strength under law of 1912. Instruction of non-commissioned officers.
Officers of the Active Army and the Reserve. Forces constituting the first
and third line armies of 1914. The cavalry force and its equipment. The
artillery and equipment. The high commands. Organization of the land
forces on a war footing. Supplementary forces. Popularity of the army.

VII The Armies of Turkey and Bulgaria 245-266

Western migration of the Oghuz Turks; they settle in Asia Minor; adopt
crescent as their device. Foundation of the Ottoman Empire by Osman.
The first Vizier. Permanent military organization. The "Janissaries."
Suleiman, the Magnificent; his feudal forces; his navy; curbed power of
the Janissaries. Decline of the Ottoman power. Destruction of the Janis-
saries. Introduction of Western military and naval ideals. Foreign mili-
tary advisers. Army reform by the German General von der Goltz. The
German the army model ; the British the naval pattern. German officers
in Turkish army service. Universal military service. Quota of non-
Mohammedan troops. Peace and war strength. Training of non-com-
missioned officers. The General Staff. Military Law of 1910. Military
schools. General reorganization under a German commission, 1913. State
of organization in 1914; first, second, and third lines ; equipment; aviation
section ; the gendarmerie ; military council ; army inspection ; train troops ;
sanitary service. German commission enlarged. Quality of the army.
Bulgaria : Advent of the Bulgars. A mingled people. Original limits of
the Bulgarian Kingdom. Periods of decline and recovery. First incur-
sion of the Russians. Under the Byzantine Empire. A second Bulgarian
empire. A Turkish province. Russia restores the nation. Under Russian
influence. Eastern Roumelia incorporated in Bulgaria. The modern army :
service, military schools and training, annual contingent of recruits ; organi-
zation, strength, and equipment Qualities of the forces and approximate
strength in 1914.

VIII The Great War


VIII The Armies of the British Empire . 267-294

Military retrospect : original defensive forces, — the fyrd, a general levy ;
personal troops ; Norman system, military tenure ; scutage ; contract ser-
vice. The Honorable Artillery Company. Bowmen and archery. The
first cavalry. Yeomen of the Guard. Sergeants-at-arms. The London
Trained Bands. The militia. Dispute between Charles I and Parliament.
Cromwell's army. Beginning of a Regular force. Historic background of
famous regiments : Coldstream Guards ; Grenadier Guards ; Life Guards ;
Home Guards and others. First modern Standing Army. Standing
Army under James II. Parliamentary control. Contract enlistment. Re-
serve forces. Reforms after Franco-Prussian War. The Indian Army :
origin, development, and strength. The Canadian Army : origin, organi-
zation, service, and strength. Citizen armies of Australia and New Zea-
land : service, training, and number. South African citizen army : service,
training, and strength. The Expeditionary Force : Regulars, Special Re-
serve, and Territorial Army, — organization, service, strength, officers'
training, chief command, and equipment. General considerations.

IX The French Army 295-312

Napoleon's great army. Degenerated military state in 1870. Universal
service, 1872. Frontier defenses: coast, eastern, central, and southern.
State of fortifications in 1914. Universal compulsory service law of 1913 :
classification of conscripts; volunteers; the colonial service; recruiting
districts ; remount service ; officers of the active and reserve forces.
Home and African establishments. First and second lines on war basis.
Infantry arms and equipment. Care of the wounded. Organization and
training of the infantry. Cavalry organization and equipment. The
French cavalry officer. Saumur School of Equitation. Artillery equip-
ment and strength. Supplementary equipment. Technical troops. En-
gineers and Train. The Flying Corps The Gendarmerie. Forest and
Customs forces. Peace and war strength. Chief command. The General
Staff. A defensive force.

X The Russian Army 313-343

Racial elements in Russia. Rise of the Slavs. Early territorial extension.
Tatar invasion : An autocracy established. Tatar dominion ends. The
Slre!t(2, the first permanent military force. Conquest of Kazan. Ivan's
army. Organization under Godunoff. The Cossacks. Reforms of Peter
the Great. Revolt of the Strelitz. Cossack revolt. Defeat by the Swedes
at Narva and victory over them at Poltava. Army reforms. Victories
over Finland, Sweden, and Persia. The Seven Years' War. Victories over
Turkey and Poland. Defeat by France. Reconstruction ; military colo-
nies. Campaign against Turkev, 1828-1829. Reorganization of 1833-1834.
The Crimean War. Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878. The Russo-Japanese
War. Organization under law of 1912: service; the Cossacks; annual
enrollment of recruits; strength, officers, and training; infantr>', cavalry
and artillery, and equipment. Supreme command. General Staff. Army
corps, peace and war strength. Infantry division, war strength. Cavalry
division. Retrospect of ameliorations. Quality of the modern force.

Contents IX


XI The Armies of Serbia, Belgium, and

Italy 344-369

Advent of the Serbs into Europe. Separation from tlic kindred Croats.
Early subjection of the Serbians. Serbian victories and greatness in the
fourteenth centurj'. Annexed by Turkey in the fifteenth century. Cen-
turies of unrest. Momentary independence, 1804. A^ain under Turkish
rule. Independence reestablished. Tour decades of turbulence. Assassi-
nation of King Alexander and Queen Draga, 1903. Peter Karageorgevitch
proclaimed king. Population and resources. Military inefficiency. Prog-
ress under Peter. Militao' service, peace and war strength, training and
organization. Territorial increase in 1913. Augmentation of military
strength. Campaign of 1912, against Turkey, and 1913, against Bulgaria.
Belgium: Union of Belgium and Holland. Revolution of 1830. The
nucleus of a national army. Military conditions under Spanish rule and
development of national ideal. Independence under guarantee of the
Great Powers. Neglect of the army. Defensive measures after Franco-
Prussian War. Military system and defenses before law of 1909. Compul-
sory ser\ ice and strength under 1909 law. Increased force enacted in 1913 ;
organization and equipment. State of the army in 1914. Italy : State of
army in 1815. The army of liberation. Causes operating against military
efficiency. The army of 1914 ; service, strength, training of officers,
quality of troops, the Carabinieri and Bersaglieri ; organization and equip-
ment ; peace and war strength.

XII The Naval Forces of the Bellig-

erents 370-388

Place of the navy in international affairs. The modem war vessel and
her armament. The Dreadnought. Maximum tonnage of constructions
in 1914. Turrets and their armament. Typical heavy guns. Defensive
armor. The submarine foe. Relative strength of the warring powers in
completed "capital" ships. Battleships in construction in 1914. Great
Britain's preponderance in battleships. Other naval constructions of the
Entente and the Teutonic allies. Auxiliary cruisers. Wireless telegraphy
and aeroplane service. Dockyards. Personnel. Torpedo boats and de-
stroyers. Submarine development. Mines. The automobile torpedo. Air-
ships and their equipment. Naval expenditures of Great Britain, Germany,
France, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia. Naval forces in the North Sea,
the English Channel, and the Mediterranean. Review of British fleet off
Portsmouth, July 18, 1914. Ships in Eastern waters. German raiders.

XIII The Mobilization of the Financial

Resources 391-427

The "sinews of war." Survey of the financial resources of the belliger-
ents. The situation in the leading financial nations. United Kingdom :
London as banking center ; the Bank of England ; bills of exchange ; Lon-
don as the world's clearing-house. The crisis, Mr. Lloyd George and the
government's measures; moratorium, £1 and 10-shilling notes, maritime
insurance. France : the French as investors ; the French banking system ;
the Bank of France and its currency ; moratorium. Germany : exceptional
features of the German situation; great development of credit; financial

X The Great War


preparation ; Imperial Bank ; the financial measures in 1913 ; the finan-
cial war plan ; the war-loan. Austria-Hungary : war-loan banks ; supple-
mentarj- currency. Russia : financial preparedness ; reserve and circulation
of the iJank of Russia ; treasury notes ; prohibition of sale of vodka ; taxes
in lieu of the abandoned revenue from spirits. Italy : recent great com-
mercial gain; stability of the public credit ; banks of issue ; treasury notes ;
expansion of bank currency in 1914 ; issues of government notes and loans.

XIV The Mobilization of the Military

Forces 428-457

Universal service, reserve, and mobilization. Political aspect of mobiliza-
tion. Mobilizations: in Serbia; in Austria-Hungarj', partial mobilization
ordered on July 28th, extended to Galicia on the 30lh, became general on
August 1st ; in Russia, partial mobilization on July 29th, general moliiliza-
tion on the 31st; in Germany, military preparations, general mobilization
on August 1st; in France, precautionary measures, general mobilization on
August 1st; in Belgium, August 1st decreed first day of mobilization.
Dispersal of British naval units postponed ; navy mobilization ordered
August 2d ; concentration of the Expeditionary Force. Time required for
mobilization. Assignment of reser\'ists. Equipping the German reservist.
Railway service in France. French army corps' headquarters. Trains
required in France. Transporting the British Expeditionary Force. Head-
quarters of the Germany army corps. Military administration of German
railway service. Secrecy of military movements.

Appendix 459-467

Despatch from the British ambassador at Berlin respecting the rupture
of diplomatic relations with the German government.

Appendix 469-470

Official Text of the Treaties guaranteeing the independence and per-
petual neutrality of Belgium.

<(i) Treaty bet^veen Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia
of the one part and Belgium of the other. Concluded and signed at
London, 19 April 1839.

Appendix 471-477

Official Copy made at Brussels conformable to the collated text, word
by word, of the original instrument signed by the respective pleni-

(b) Treaty made and signed at London, 19 .\pril 1839, between Bel-
gium and Holland, relative to the separation of their respective

Chronological Table 479-486

Index 487-494



Albert I, King of the Belgians Title

Count Stephen Tisza 4

Count Julius Andrassy 4

The Hofburg, Vienna, offices of the Ministry of War . . . . 13

The French Embassy, Vienna 13

The Houses of Parliament, London 17

The Reichstag, Berlin 17

Sacking the house and destroying the furniture of a Serbian in

Sarajevo 20

The younger generation's enthusiastic reception in Berlin of the

news of the war .20

Charts showing the precincts which returned Social Democrats to

the Reichstag in 1903, 1907, and 1912 29

Siegesallee, Avenue of Victory, Berlin 32

Emperor William speaking from the balcony of the palace in

Berlin 32

Count Helmuth von Moltke 36

The Session of the Reichstag, August 4, 19 14 45

Historical maps of Belgium 64

The Palace of Justice, Brussels 69

Disappearing armored gun turret sunk and raised for firing ... 76

Pentagonal Brialmont fort 76

Triangular Brialmont fort or fortin 76

William Ewart Gladstone 85

Bernhard Dernburg 85


XII The Great War


Exchanging the crepe drapery for flags and flowers on the Strass-

burg monument, Paris 92

The Prime Minister of Belgium speaking from the balcony of the

Parliament House 92

Plan showing forts on the Franco-German frontier 97

Cartoon which appeared in Punch, August 12, 19 14 lOi

L' embarquement des Pilots. Cartoon drawn by L. Sabattier, which

appeared in U Illustration, January, 1912 101

Jean Leon Jaures 108

August Bebel 108

The Ribot Cabinet 112

The Caillaux Trial 112

Louis Barthou 116

Gaston Doumergue 116

The Palais Bourbon, Paris, where the French deputies sit . . .119

The Chamber of Deputies 119

Aristide Briand 125

Alexandre Millerand 125

Demonstration in Rome in favor of war 129

Italian Parliament 129

George V, King of Great Britain 132

Ulster volunteers, armed and drilling preparatory to forcibly reject-
ing Home Rule 144

Lord Haldane, Lord Chancellor and former Minister of War, arriving

with Lord Kitchener at the War Office 144

Cheering crowd surrounding the car of Mr. Asquith, the British

Prime Minister 148

A crowd in Whitehall, opposite Downing Street, waiting for a glimpse

of ministers and other notables 148

Andrew Bonar Law i57

J. Keir Hardie I57

Lord Morley 160

John Burns 160

John Redmond 177

J. Ramsay MacDonald i77

Nicholas n, Tsar of Russia, and the Tsarevitch, Grand Duke Alexis 183

List of Illustrations XIII


The Tsar of Russia tasting soldiers' soup 187

Russian cavalry in maneuvers 187

The winter palace, St. Petersburg . . . , 188

Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaievitch 190

Ivan Longinovitch Goremykin 193

The Duma in session 196

The Tauris Palace, St. Petersburg 196

The Kaiser at trials of rapid-fire guns 205

The Death's-head Hussars 205

German Red Cross squad with dogs 208

German infantry on the march 208

German general (Alexander von Kluck) and staff at army maneu-
vers 212

A German 2 1 -centimeter siege mortar 221

The new Krupp aerial gun 221

Naval balloon carrier 224

Zeppelin Victoria Louise flying over the Sachsen, which is at rest on

the ground 224

Austrian infantry on dress parade 241

Portable cooking stoves used in the Austrian army 241

Russian armored train 244

Siege gun used in the Austrian army . . 244

Turkish artillery 253

Turkish infantry 253

Bulgarian army: Field Artillery^ Field gun unlimbered ready for action^

Machine gum^ Infantry at drill 257

British Territorials : the London Scottish at bayonet charge prac-
tice 272

British cavalry: the Scots Greys 272

Sudanese infantry 277

Sikh infantry of the Indian army 277

British regular army: Coldstream Guards in field uniform . . . . 284

Interior of a British ambulance train 284

Brrtish warship with starting platform for aeroplane 288

British aviation camp 288

Indian cavalryman with campaign kit 290

XIV The Great War


Highlanders in service uniform 290

Canadians at bayonet practice 293

British marines at heliograph practice 293

Map of France, showing how the country is divided into districts
for the purposes of command, administration, and recruiting of

the army 295

French tank motor-trucks for carrying pure water 298

French army pontoons 298

French infantry in field kit at army maneuvers 300

Turcos: French Colonial forces 300

French artillery: A 75 millimeter rapid-fire field gun with

caisson 303

French motor-trucks drawing heavy artillery and ammunition

wagons 305

French 200 millimeter (8-inch) howitzer mounted on specially con-
structed railway carriage 305

Range finding with the telemeter as used in the French army . . . 309

Field telegraph as used by the French army 309

Troop of Cossacks 316

Russian infantry 316

Siberian infantry 341

Russian artillery 341

Heavy Serbian artillery 348

Serbian commissary train 348

Code message on wing of Belgium carrier pigeon 353

Collapsible observation tower as used by the German army . . . 353

Belgian rapid-fire guns in carts drawn by dogs 357

Belgian battery screened by woods 357

Italian cavalry in training 364

Italian Alpine Chasseurs 364

Italian armored automobile 368

Belgian armored automobile 368

British battleship Dreadnought 372

British battleship Iron Duke 372

British battleship Agincourt (ex Birinjl Osman) 372

German battleship Thiiringen 375

List of Illustrations XV


German battleship Nassau 375

German battle-cruiser Moltke 375

French battleship Paris 378

French battleship Bouvet 378

Italian battleship Dante Jtighieri 378

Shipping a torpedo on board the French submarine X;/>^/a . . .381

Submarine running submerged, with periscope exposed 381

Destroyer Swi/t, the fastest vessel in the British navy 385

British mine-layer Iphigenia 385

British battle-cruiser Lion in a 32,000 ton floating dry dock . . . 385

French submarine Pala^ois 388

Type of English submarine 388

Sir George Paish 397

David Lloyd George 397

The British Foreign Office, London 400

The Bank of England 400

Line waiting in the courtyard of the Bank of England to change

notes into gold during the first week of August, 1914 . . . 404
Crowds in financial district, London, during the days of tension . . 404

Map of Europe 408

Crowd waiting to draw money from the Imperial Bank, Berlin . .413
An officer of infantry reading the announcement of war in Berlin . 413

P. L. Bark 417

Carl HelfFerich 417

Reading the proclamation of a moratorium in front of the Roval

Exchange, London 421

Enthusiastic Frenchmen on the streets of Paris singing patriotic

songs after the declaration of war 421

Notice posted in London calling up Austro-Hungarian reservists . . 428
Placard posted August i, 19 14, ordering general mobilization to be-
gin the next day in France 428

Russian reservists leaving to join the colors 432

German army and navy reservists obeying the order of mobiliza-
tion 432

Regiment of Canadian "Highlanders" on its way to mobilization

camp at Valcartier . . 437

XVI The Great War


Troops marching through Vienna in July, 1914 437

German warship in course of construction at the Krupp works,

Kiel 439

The French first class battleship Normandie in construction at

Saint-Nazaire 439

Map showing German army corps areas 442

German fleet anchored in Kiel Bay 444

British fleet anchored off Portsmouth 444

Map showing German advantage in strategic railways on the eastern

frontier 44^

British Expeditionary Force: a regiment of Highlanders marching

through Boulogne 45 ^


The subject with which this vokime deals is twofold.
The mention of material forces and their mobilization in
the contents of a history of a mitrhty war conveys at once
an approximately adequate notion of the intended treat-
ment. An examination of the armament and military
establishments of the belligerent powers, which forms a
natural part of the histor}' of any war, becomes an indis-
pensable feature of a comprehensive account of the present
conflict, by reason of the astounding progress in the methods
and equipment of warfare accomplished in recent years,
which very few persons outside the military profession
have had the leisure or inclination to follow intelligently.
This part of the subject requires neither apology nor

A few words of explanation are required, however, to
indicate the character and scope of the treatment of the
moral forces.

Our study of the motives and causes of the war does not
alone afford a satisfactory picture of the intense, palpitating
currents of human life and emotion during the memorable
days before, and at the commencement of, the gigantic
struggle. The subject-matter of the first volume may be
regarded as the anatomy of history. It remains for us in
this present volume to endeavor to invest the structure
with the quality of life, by representing the reaction
of human feeling in response to the impression of the


XVIII The Great War

momentous events, the nature and force of the opinion of
different classes of the population in the countries to which
the conflict spread, the spiritual forces which gave vigor
and buoyancy to national effort, and the action of these
factors in cabinet councils, the elaboration of policy, and
parliamentary proceedings. The scope of the first volume
was necessarily confined to the irreducible minimum re-
quired for the treatment of the essential motives and of the
causes and their operation. The present volume should
expand our view to enable us to contemplate with deeper
sympathy and broader intelligence the ineffaceable expe-
rience through which the moral life, the social conscious-
ness of the nations of Europe, passed in the midsummer
days of 1914.

Since the beginning of the war the different belligerent
governments have published collections, more or less in-
clusive, of their official correspondence, containing nego-
tiations, exchanges of views, and observations of all kinds
which preceded the initial stage of hostilities. These col-
lections have made their respective appearances in the
British Blue Book, French Yellow Book, Belgian Gray
Book, German White Book, Russian Orange Book, Austro-
Hungarian Red Books, Serbian Blue Book, and Italian
Green Book. These and other available contemporary
documents have been employed in the investigation of the
motives and causes of the war. These same sources must
again be brought into requisition for the inquiry which
we are about to undertake, and in addition we shall have
frequent recourse to expressions and illustrations of opinion
and feeling recorded in the press and the periodical litera-
ture of the different countries.

It is obviously impossible to treat this branch of the sub-
ject in an exhaustive sense, as its extent is almost boundless.
Besides, no arbitrary line of demarcation can be drawn

Preface XIX

between the province of this volume and that of the first.
It will be a constant aim to free the path from needless
difficulties by discretion in the choice of evidence which is
representative, characteristic, and suggestive, and by which
consistent and enduring impressions will be most readily

An insensible or indolent disposition may seek to gain a
cheap reputation for critical sagacity by postponing indefi-
nitely the examination of every question connected with

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