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paign; but the field armies would in future be oper-
ated by a group of officers of superior ability and special
training, under the direction of the head of the nation,
or with his acquiescence, depending on his quality as
a leader.

The army has now become a part, and the life-giving
part, of the nation itself. There is no more uprooting.
The hardy plant is now firmly rooted in the very soul of
the people as well as of the king. There is steady, healthy,
vigorous growth through a long period of peace. It has
elsewhere been accepted almost as an axiom that prolonged
peace takes the heart out of any army, that its various
branches gradually fall into decay, leaving it a helpless
parasite. This fatality, like every good quality, depends
on the character of the people. When after fifty years of
peace and prosperity the Prussian army produces such a
general staff as that directed by Moltke and his chief assist-
ants, Bronsart, Verdy du Vernois, and Brandenstein; such
army commanders as Steinmetz and Prince Frederick
Charles; such staff officers as Blumenthal, Stiehle, and
Sperling; corps commanders like Alvensleben, Manteuffel,



The German Army 207

Werder, and Goeben; when fifty years of patient, pains-
taking training results in two such campaigns as that of
1866 against Austria, and that of 1870 against France, the
Prussian military system needs no further justification.

After the formation of the empire at Versailles in 1871,
which placed the King of Prussia at its head, the army
developed without interruption according to the Prussian
model, with the emperor as supreme commander in war.
Bavaria retained the administration of her two army corps
in peace, subject to the right of inspection by the emperor.
Saxony provided one corps and had a minister of war, but
no separate general stafT. Wurttemberg and Baden each
furnished an army corps.

The "Constitution of the German Empire" made every
German a member of the Active Army for seven years,
and of the Landwehr for five years. Service with the
colors was for three years, and with the reserve four years.
Beginning with 1875 there were 18 army corps, 12 of
which were Prussian. The strength as fixed by the law
of 1874 was about 400,000. In 1881 the peace establish-
ment was increased by 34 battalions of infantry, 40 batteries
of field artillery, and other slight increases. No one
understood better than Bismarck that the unification of
Germany, the great work which he had pursued with
such singleness of purpose, was the work of the Pr>^-sian
army, and that the safety of the empire depended on the
maintenance of adequate land forces. He found it neces-
sary in 1886 to dissolve the Reichstag on account of its
opposition to an increase of the army, and after the elec-
tions (1887) 31 battalions of infantry and 24 batteries of
artillery were added. Two new army corps were organized
in 1890. The infantry was increased to 538 battalions and
the field artillery to 434 batteries. In 1893 the color ser-
vice was decreased to two years for all but the mounted



208 The Great War

service, bringing the peace strength up to more than a
half million, and providing for the mobilization of not less
than 4,000,000 trained men.

The population of Germany, 41,000,000 in 1871, was in-
creasing at the rate of a half million a year. There vi'as not
room in the army to train the available recruits. The reduc-
tion of color service to two years made it possible to pass
annually one half of the active army into the reserve. In
1899 two new Prussian and one new Bavarian army corps
were organized, bringing the number of corps to twenty-
three. In 1905 and in 1911 there were further increases;
a small number of men were added, but great improve-
ments were made in technical troops, and in the facilities
for training. The increases provided for by the law of 1911
were to extend over a period of four years, but a law passed
in 1912 added two more army corps, one for the eastern and
one for the western frontier, and provided for the imme-
diate accompHshment of the provisions of the law of 1911.
This brought the peace establishment up to a strength of
725,000 of all ranks. The law of June, 1913, created no
new army corps, but the peace strength of all units was in-
creased, especially of those on the frontier; the infantry was
finally equipped with a full complement of machine-guns,
and several new cavalry regiments were formed. Three
years were required to put this law fully into operation,
but its most important provisions were accomplished before
the outbreak of the great war. Provision was made for
669 battalions of infantry, 550 squadrons of cavalry, 633 bat-
teries of field artillery, 55 battalions of garrison artillery, 44
battalions of engineers, 31 battalions of communications,
and 26 battaHons of train troops — a grand total of 870,000
men in the peace strength of the active army.

These several increases extending over a period of forty
years of peace were logical developments of the principle




German Red Crusb iini;iil with Jugs ii.scU ti) ;i,->siit in (intliiig the wouiuiiil.




German infantry on the march.



The German Army 209

that every German capable of bearing arms should be
trained for the defense of the Fatherland. They were not
accomplished without great political struggles, resulting
twice during Bismarck's official life in the dissolution of the
Reichstag. Notwithstanding the development of Socialism,
however, no such arbitrary measures have been necessary
in recent years. The military activity of France and Rus-
sia during the same period, the Franco-Russian alliance to
which Great Britain later became a party, enabled the gov-
ernment again and again to secure the legislation considered
necessary for national defense. The combination of Rus-
sia's great army on the east, with a peace strength e(iual to
that of Germany and Austria combined ; the French army
on the west, always following closely the strength of that
of Germany; and the great British navy with unquestioned
command of the sea; above all, the spirit of the German
people, who have never hesitated to assume the burdens of
a miHtary training, the educational and economic value of
which they well understand, made possible the German
army of 1914, which merits consideration in some detail.

Germany is composed of twenty-six States : Prussia, Bava-
ria, Wiirttemberg, Baden, Saxony, Hesse, Mecklenburg-
Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg, Brunswick,
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Mei-
ningen, Saxe-Altenburg, Waldeck, Lippe, Schaumburg-
Lippe, Reuss (elder line), Reuss (younger line), Anhalt,
Schwarz-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Ham-
burg, Bremen, Liibeck, and the Reichsland, — Alsace-Lor-
raine. Its area is less than that of Texas. The population
increased between 1900 and 1910 at the rate of 1.41 per
cent per annum. This increase, and the limited normal
emigration, which for 1911 amounted to only 22,000, indi-
cates a healthy growth and an economic development
well abreast of the increasing population. Educationally



210 The Great War

the German soldier was the best developed in Europe.
Among the recruits there was only one analphabetic in five
thousand.

Universal compulsory military service dates in Prussia
from 1814. Substitution or other means of evading this
national duty is unknown. Every German is liable to mili-
tary service between the ages of eighteen and forty-five.
He actually belongs to the national army from the begin-
ning of his twenty-first year until he is thirty-nine years
old. Those who enter the service before they are twenty
years old pass into the Landsturm (general levy) after nine-
teen years. All remain in the Landsturm until they are
forty-five. Service in the first line is for seven years. The
cavalry and horse artillery serve three years with the colors
and four in the reserve. For other arms, service with the
colors is for two years, and in the reserve, five years. Reserv-
ists are subject to two musters annually, and to two periods
of training not to exceed eight weeks' duration. From the
reserve the soldier passes into the first category of the
Landwehr where the cavalryman and the horse artilleryman
remain three years; the men of other arms, five years.
With the exception of the cavalry, the first ban of the
Landwehr is subject to an annual muster and two periods
of training of from eight to fourteen days' duration. The
soldier passes from the first to the second category of the
Landwehr, where he remains until March 31st of his
thirty-ninth year.

The first category of the Landsturm is composed of un-
trained men between the ages of seventeen and thirty-nine.
It includes youths who have not yet reached the age for
active service, and those who have not been incorporated
because the army was not large enough to accommodate
them. The second category of the Landsturm includes
trained and untrained men who have passed through the



The German Army 211

other divisions of the land forces — all men hetween the ages
of thirty-nine and forty-five.

The sons of well-to-do Germans who do not become
officers of the active army serve, as a rule, as one-year vol-
unteers (Einjohrig-Freiwillige) . Young men who possess
the required qualifications are passed into the reserve after
one year in the arm of the service which they themselves
select. They clothe and equip themselves and provide their
own quarters and board. Those found qualified are per-
mitted, after completing an additional training of eight
weeks, to take the examination for appointment as reserve
officers. If successful in the examination, they are appointed
as superior non-commissioned officers (Vize-Feldwebel).
After a second period of training those qualified are ap-
pointed officers of the reserve.

Medical students who apply for appointment in the Sani-
tary Corps serve six months with the armed forces, and six
months as assistant surgeons. Chemists or apothecaries
serve one year with troops, or, after six months, are trans-
ferred to the Sanitary Corps, if they pass the required
examination. There are corresponding provisions with
respect to the veterinary and supply services.

The minimum height for service under arms is five feet
one inch. The Guard and certain regiments of other corps
accept recruits of not less than five feet eight inches. There
is no minimum height established for the non-combatant
services, nor for the Landsturm. Men who are not of good
moral character serve in working organizations, and crimi-
nals are not permitted to serve. Recruiting is territorial
by corps districts, except for the Guard Corps and in
Poland and Alsace-Lorraine, where, beginning with 1904,
the recruits were drawn partially from the corps district.

The field armies (first line) had in 1914 a strength of
about 1,750,000; the Landwehr 1,800,000; the Landsturm



212 The Great War

4,500,000. There was in addition the Ersatz-reserve, com-
prising all men liable to service who were not included in
any of the categories already mentioned.

Horses for the use of the army were bought, usually
when young, by commissions. They were assembled in
remount depots, of which there were nineteen in Prussia,
one in Wiirttemberg, three in Saxony, and four in Bavaria.
All horses in the empire were inspected every eighteen
months as a basis for requisition in case of war.

The German army requires, in peace, more than 100,000
non-commissioned officers. Universal service makes the
problem of securing suitable non-commissioned officers a
comparatively simple one. Prussia and Saxony have each a
school for the education of the sons of soldiers for the ser-
vice. There are nine preparatory schools where boys are
prepared for the grade of non-commissioned officer, and
nine other state schools where young men between the
ages of seventeen and twenty are given a course of two to
three years as a preparation for the non-commissioned
officer's career. These schools furnish about one-fourth
of the number required for the dismounted services. In
addition, there are regimental schools where selected men
are trained. The non-commissioned officers are an excel-
lent body of men, generally of long service, who receive
appropriate civil appointments when they leave the color
service. The relations of confidence and mutual support
between the officers and the non-commissioned officers,
the only professional soldiers in Germany, are such as
one would expect to find between men who have dedi-
cated their lives to the military education of the nation,
with no hope or desire for other reward than that of a
sense of national duty faithfully performed in the sphere
in which their respective attainments and social relations
naturally place them. The German first sergeant, called



The German Army 213

Feldwebel in the Infantry and Wachtmeister in the Cavalry,
is a tower of strenj^tli, enjoying the confidence and
support of his superior officers and subordinate non-
commissioned officers to a high degree. A large meas-
ure of responsibility is placed on the non-commissioned
officer, but he is never left to shoulder this responsi-
bility alone. There is no disposition on the part of the
German officer to leave the training of the unit en-
trusted to him to his subordinates however capable the
latter may be.

The officers for the line of the army serve first in the
ranks, or they may be appointed from the several Cadet
Corps. Yoving men who are socially and physically accept-
able and who possess the necessary educational qualifica-
tions — such, in general, as would admit them to a univer-
sity — are accepted as Fahnaijimker with the grade of private
at a minimum age of seventeen years. The Fahnenjunker
who completes six months' service before he is twenty-
three years old, and demonstrates his fitness, may receive
the designation of Fahnrich, aspirant, or candidate for a
commission. The Fahnrich is sent normally to a war
school and, if before he is twenty-five years old he has com-
pleted a minimum of six months' service as such and has
passed the officer's examination, he is eligible for appoint-
ment as a commissioned officer. But before he receives
his commission he must be elected by a vote of the officers of
the regiment in which he seeks appointment. The young
officer must be acceptable to the regiment in which he is
to serve before he is appointed by the Kaiser. This is an
important factor in the unity and homogeneity of the corps
of officers of the German army. It was what the minister
of war had in mind when, asked in the Reichstag whether
the government would commission a Jew in the army, he
replied that he was not prepared to say what would be done



214 The Great War

if a Jew should comply with the requirements for appoint-
ment as an officer.

The second source from which officers are drawn is a
Cadet Corps, of which there are eight in Prussia, one in
Saxony, and one in Bavaria, besides the Principal Cadet
School at Gross-Lichterfelde West, near Berlin. The sons
of officers are admitted as cadets, beginning at the age of
ten, and those who complete the required courses are, when
of suitable age, qualified for appointment as officers with-
out further service in the ranks. These are the officers of
the fighting army from which the operating staff is selected.
The latter is not to be confounded with the officers of the
auxiliary services and the supply staff, who are charged with
duties of great importance, but who are neither responsible
for the military training of the German people, nor for the
leading of the fighting units on the field of battle.

Officers of the Sanitary and of the Veterinary Corps are
taken from doctors and veterinarians who either remain in
the service after they have completed their training, or
may be accepted later. They serve one half-year under
arms, and complete their service with their special corps.
Many officers of the Sanitary Corps receive their training
in the Kaiser-Wilhelms-Akademie in Berlin. The Mili-
tary Veterinary Academy in Berlin is for the training of
veterinary officers.

The German army is well supplied with schools for the
instruction of officers and non-commissioned officers of
the technical services, and for the technical instruction
of officers and non-commissioned officers of the line.
These schools are in general models on which have been
built similar institutions in most of the armies of the world.
The Prussian Kriegs-Akadetnie (War Academy) in Berlin
trains officers for the General Staff. The course is for
three years and is highly competitive. The normal career



The German Army 215

of an officer who tinally is appointed to the General Staff
is full of hard work. Lieutenants who are recommended
by their regimental commanders are permitted to take the
examination for entrance to the Kriegs-Akademie. This
examination is professional in character, and requires of
the applicant proficiency in one foreign language. It is
said to be exceptional that an officer is successful in his
first examination on account of the keen competition for
the appointment. For one of the recent classes there were
1,200 applicants, of whom 120 were selected. During the
school course student officers are assigned for the summer
training and maneuver periods to regiments of arms of the
service other than their own for instruction. Thus an
officer of cavalry receives practical instruction with the
infantry and artillery to supplement his technical studies;
and officers of the infantry and artillery are given corre-
sponding opportunities for learning the practical work of
the other fighting arms. Competition continues through-
out the course, so that an officer who is appointed to the
General Staff has demonstrated his fitness by a long period
of close application that has made the officers of the Ger-
man General Staff masters of the profession of arms. Even
the General Staff itself is a trying-out school for the Great
General Staff, which is a permanent corps. The Bavarian
army has in Munich a Kriegs-Akademie, modelled on the
lines of that of the Berlin school, which draws officers
from the rest of the German army. The Military Tech-
nical Academy {Militdr-Technische Akademie)m. Berlin trains
not only the officers of the garrison artillery (Fiissartillerie),
of engineers, of the Pioneer and Communication Corps,
but also gives officers of the line training in the technical
branches. The Artillery and Engineer School in Munich
is for the superior education of officers of artillery, engin-
eers, and pioneers of the Bavarian army. The course is



216 The Great War

from nine to twenty-one months. The Kreigsschulen (War
Schools) at Anklam, Cassel, Danzig, Engers, Glogau, Han-
over, Hersfeld, Metz, Munich, Neisse, and Potsdam prepare
candidates for commissions for the officers' examinations.
The Prussian School of Fire for Infantry at Wunsdorf has
annual training courses for general officers and other officers
and non-commissioned officers. There is a corresponding
school for the Bavarian army at Lechfeld. The Prussian
schools of fire for field artillery and garrison artillery are at
Jiiterbog, near Berlin. The jUterbog reservation is utilized
also for field exercises of troops of the line. There are
riding schools in Soltau and in Paderborn for training
young officers of the mounted services. The Imperial
Riding School iMUitdr-Keitinstitut) at Hanover includes a
school for officers of the cavalry and field artillery, and
one for non-commissioned officers. The course is two
years. Each regiment sends one lieutenant to Hanover.
Bavaria and Saxony have riding schools in Munich and
in Dresden.

There are many other technical schools of less general
importance, but nevertheless necessary for the efficient
training of the various elements which make up the nation
in arms. It is not in the character of a people who have
triumphed over all the disadvantages of a rigorous climate
and an indifferent soil within, and of everlasting menace from
without, to leave anything to chance. The greatest bless-
ing which climate, soil, and rival nations have conferred
on the German people is the burden they have imposed,
creating a nation which counts not on the favors of for-
tune, but is ready, not only in war, but what is much rarer,
also in peace, to make such sacrifices as the national idea
demands.

The highly technical training given to officers of the
active army was, of course, not possible for the officers of



The German Army 217

the reserve formations. The officers of the Reserve (used
in a technical sense) come principally from the one-year
volunteers by a process which we have already noted.
These young men, who come from families in comfort-
able circumstances, are, in large part, of the same class as
the officers of the active army. They are for one reason
or another imahle to devote their entire time to the army,
but would feel that they were doing less than their full
national duty if they did not prepare themselves to take
the places in the battle line in war to which their social
standing and mental training entitle them. They remain
three years longer than the legal period in the reserve, and
complete three periods of training as reserve officers. The
annual contingent of one-year volunteers had increased in
the last years before the war to nearly 20,000, forming a
body of reserve officers which was a real national treasure.
A single regiment, just before the war had some fifty such
reserve officers.

The officers of the Landwehr came by transfer of offi-
cers of the reserve, by appointment of candidates who did
not attain the grade of reserve officer, and from former
non-commissioned officers. The officers of the Landsturm
had previous service as officers with the active army, with
the Landwehr, or as non-commissioned officers of the
active army.

The peace strength of the infantry of the first line was
217 regiments; of these 166 regiments were Prussian. The
Guard Corps stationed in Berlin and Potsdam included 11
regiments. Wiirttemberg furnished 10 regiments and
Saxony 17 regiments. With the exception of the in-
fantry of the Prussian Guard, tlie regiments were num-
bered serially from 1 to 182, except in Bavaria, which
maintained 1 Leib-Regiment and 23 infantry regiments
numbered 1 to 23.



218 The Great War

The regiments were uniform throughout with three
battalions of four companies of three platoons each and a
machine-gun company. Thus the first line infantry num-
bered in war 651 battalions with provision for forming one
Ersatz battalion for each regiment. In war one or two of
the youngest reserve classes are required to bring the peace
establishment of the infantry to a war footing. The second
line infantry battalions are formed by the remaining classes of
the reserve reenforced by the youngest classes of the Land-
wehr. There still remain a large part of the Landwehr and
the whole of the Landsturm for the formation of the third
line. More than half of the infantry battalions were main-
tained at a peace strength of 19 officers and 642 men. The
remainder, including the infantry of the frontier corps, were
maintained at a peace strength of 19 officers and 720 men
per battalion. The battalion at war strength numbers about
1000 rifles. The peace strength of a machine-gun company
was 4 officers, 73 men, 27 horses, 6 two-horse machine-gun
wagons, and three ammunition wagons. The company has
a war strength of 100 men. Officers and superior non-
commissioned officers of the infantry carry the saber and
automatic pistol model 08. The man in the ranks carries
the German repeating rifle (Mauser type) caliber 7.9 mili-
meters (.30), sighted to 2000 meters. This model 1898 rifle,
weighing about nine pounds, is a most excellent modern
rifle. The infantryman carries about 150 rounds of ammu-
nition and the company ammunition wagon carries an addi-
tional supply of 16,000 rounds. The ammunition section
of the corps train carries a reserve of 140 rounds per rifle.
The battalion carries about 450 portable intrenching tools,
which are supplemented by heavier tools in the battalion
and regimental wagons.

Each regiment attached annually one officer, and each
battalion two non-commissioned officers, to a pioneer



The German Army 219

battalion of the same army corps for technical instruction.
These men became instructors fur the training of one non-
commissioned ofHcer and eight men per company in
pioneer duties. The regimental sanitary service consisted



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