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of one sanitary officer with the staff of the regiment and
two to each battalion. The battalion had a sanitary wagon
with equipment. To each company was assigned one non-
commissioned officer of the sanitary service, and five men
of the company were trained as wounded carriers. Every
man carried two first-aid dressings. The troops themselves
established the dressing stations which gave first-aid to the
wounded. The infantryman carried, besides his rifle with
bayonet and intrenching tool, a knapsack with rations, his
individual cooking and messing kit, aluminum drinking-
cup and canteen, and shelter tent, of a total weight of fifty-
eight or sixty pounds.

The battalion was equipped with range finder, field
glasses, and signal flags. Two bicycle-men per battalion
carried, in addition to the infantry equipment, blank forms
for reports and waterproof capes. The regimental train
was made up of 1 ammunition wagon, 1 baggage wagon, 1
ration wagon, and 1 field kitchen per company; 1 sanitary
wagon, 1 baggage wagon, and 1 market wagon per battalion ;
and 1 baggage wagon and 1 tool wagon per regiment. It
was divided into two sections; one of which, composed of
ammunition wagons, sanitarj'^ wagons, and field kitchens,
followed the troops into battle, while the other section,
composed of heavy baggage wagons, followed some distance
to the rear, and was only available in camp or cantonment.

The Jager and Schiitzen battalions were really battalions
of selected riflemen, not diff^ering in any essential from in-
fantry of the line, exxept that they had machine-gun com-
panies similar to those belonging to infantry regiments, and
bicycle sections numbering in peace 3 officers and 113 men.

220 The Great War

In addition to the machine-gun troops attached to the
infantry regiments there were 11 machine-gun sections, of
which 9 were Prussian, 1 Saxon, and 1 Bavarian; and 15
fortress machine-gun sections. The peace strength of the
section was 4 officers, 91 men, 54 horses, 6 four-horse
machine-gun wagons, 2 four-horse ammunition wagons,
and 1 ammunition wagon and 2 supply wagons without
teams. The war strength was 115 men, 6 machine-gun
wagons, 3 ammunition wagons, 2 supply wagons, 1 forage
wagon drawn by four horses; 1 baggage wagon and 1
ration wagon, each drawn by two horses. Each section
had one reserve gun with the ammunition column. The
fighting section was divided into 3 gun platoons of two
rifles each, and 1 ammunition platoon. The officers were
armed and equipped as infantry officers. The non-com-
missioned officers and drivers carried the artillery saber
and automatic pistol; other men the carbine with bayonet.
The machine-gun is a Maxim rifle of the same caliber as
the infantry rifle, and can be fired from the gun-carriage
or dismounted. The gun-c?arriage and limber contain
10,500 rounds of ammunition in belts of 250 cartridges,
and the 3 ammunition wagons carry 8,100 rounds. Further
reserves of ammunition are carried in the ammunition
columns. The individual equipment includes 60 cartridges
per carbine. The section is provided with intrenching
tools, axes, saws, range finder and field glasses, and a tent
and cooking outfit for each ten men.

The peace strength of the cavalry was 110 regiments, of
which 86 were Prussian, 12 Bavarian, 8 Saxon, and 4 were
from Wiirttemberg. There was no longer any difference
in the cavalry regiments except that those designated as
heavy cavalry and cuirassiers were made up of the largest
horses and tallest men, while the uhlans received the
medium horses and men, and to the dragoons and hussars

A German 21 -centimeter siege iimrtar with eaterpiUar wheels.

The new Kriipp aerial sfun.

The German Army 221

were assijjned the small horses and li^ht men. The organi-
zation, etiuipment, and training were the same for all. The
cavalry regiment was composed of five squadrons, each of
four platoons. The regiment mobilized only four squad-
rons, one being a depot squadron. Unlike the French
cavalry, the stjuadrons were uniform in material and train-
ing, a different squadron being designated each year as
depot squadron. The second and third line cavalry was to
be organized in war from the reserves, Landwehr and
Landsturm. The regiment was commanded by a colonel,
lieutenant-colonel, or major, and the squadron by a captain
(Riitmeister) with three or four subalterns and 146 men,
and 142 horses in peace. The war strength of the squad-
ron was about 150 troopers.

The officers and superior non-commissioned officers
carried saber and automatic pistol. The men in the ranks
were armed with the lance, saber, and carbine. The lance
was of steel, seven feet four inches long. The carbine was
of the make and caliber of the infantry rifle, but shorter
and lighter. The regiment had a telegraph detachment of
one officer and eight men, with one packhorse for the
material ; two six-horse bridge wagons carrying four half-
boats of steel and bridge material for the construction of
a bridge sixteen meters long and two meters wide; and a
telegraph wagon with telegraph material, including thirty
miles of wire. Each squadron carried twenty small in-
trenching tools on the saddle. The regimental train car-
ried a supply of larger tools. The bridge wagons carried
a supply of explosives for demolition work. There were
three sanitary officers and two non-commissioned officers,
with a sanitary wagon (ambulance) for each cavalry regi-
ment, and one non-commissioned officer for each squadron.
Four men in each squadron were trained as litter-bearers.
The regiment had also two packhorses with sanitary

222 The Great War

equipment. The squadron had one baggage wagon, one
ration wagon, and one forage wagon. The regimental
train included a forge wagon and forage wagons in addi-
tion to those already enumerated.

The cavalry was trained to fight mounted whenever
possible, using the lance, which was considered superior
to the saber. The saber was also carried, but there was
little faith in it. The importance of dismounted fire action
for the cavalry was not overlooked in training, but cavalry
commanders were loath to dismount in maneuvers. This
disinclination to dismount is easily explained by the fact
that the lance could not be carried by the dismounted
cavalryman or his mount; nor could the led horses be
maneuvered without abandoning the lance. Considering
the German cavalryman's faith in mounted action for the
cavalry, the careful attention given to intrenching was sur-
prising. One of the features of the squadron inspection
was the organization and intrenching of a section of the
firing line.

The strength of the first line army in artillery was 101
regiments. The normal strength of the regiment was 6
field batteries, but a number of regiments had also horse
or howitzer batteries, giving a total of 525 field batteries,
33 horse batteries, and 75 howitzer batteries. Two regi-
ments of 72 guns were assigned to each infantry division,
and 1 section and 3 horse batteries of four guns each to a
cavalry division. The field gun was a 3-inch quick-firer,
provided with steel shields for the protection of the can-
noneers. The battery carried 96 shrapnel and 42 high
explosive shells for each gun, and the light ammunition
column carried 119 rounds per gun, 104 of which were
shrapnel and 15 shell. The field howitzers were caliber
10.5 centimeters (4-inch) carrying 90 shells per gun with
the battery, and 70 in the ammunition column. Officers

The German Army 223

and men were armed throuu^hout with the automatic pistol.
The enlisted men of the field batteries carried a short rifle
and those of the horse batteries were provided with in-
trenching tools and field telephones. In addition to the
normal ecjuipment the batteries were provided with a
wagon carrying an observation tower which was erected
from the wagon. The sanitary personnel and equipment
was similar to that of the infantry. The Fiissartillerie in-
cluded the heavy artillery of the field armies, siege artillery
and fortress artillery. The peace strength of the first line
army was 24 regiments.

The Engineer Corps consisted of a highly trained body
of officers with suitable assistants who had charge of the
construction and maintenance of the fortresses both in
peace and in war. The engineering operations of the
field armies were entrusted to the Pioneer. The peace
strength was 35 battalions, 26 of which had each a search-
light section. The first line was to be largely increased on
mobilization, and there were a number of Reserve, Land-
wehr, and L,andsturm battalions destined for the second and
third lines in war. The peace strength of a pioneer bat-
talion was 29 officers and 610 men. The strength of the
searchlight sections, 2 officers and 38 men, was additional.

The Communication Troops numbered in peace, 34 rail-
road companies, 37 telegraph and wireless companies, and
5 traction companies. The aerial service included 16 air-
ship companies and 15 aeroplane companies. A number
of other aeroplane organizations were to be incorporated
in the army on the outbreak of war. The War Office
controlled 11 dirigibles in 1913 and there were 5 or more
under construction. Of these 10 were Zeppelins; the
others were either Parseval, Schiitte-Lanz, or a type con-
structed by the flying service in the war office. There
were 25 battalions of the train, in addition to one train

224 The Great War

depot and field bakery for each army corps of the active
army. Since the army corps was equipped with its own
transport, the train was intended to forward the baggage,
the technical and sanitary material, and the general sup-
plies of the field armies.

The Kaiser, as supreme commander of the armed forces
of the empire, controlled the army through the Militdr-
kabijiett. The Prussian Ministry of War was charged with
the administration of the war office, not only for Prussia,
but also for the empire. The war minister exercised, how-
ever, no command over the troops, to whom he could
give no orders. The German General Staff, whose chief
was independent of the war ministry and responsible
directly to the Kaiser, was charged with the theoretical and
practical instruction of the army, with the plans for mobil-
ization and preparation for war. Although the largest
peace command was the army corps, these corps were
grouped into eight "army inspections" vmder the direction
of general officers, some of whom would, without doubt,
command armies in case of war.

The Army Corps consisted of two divisions, 1 rifle
(Jager) battalion, 1 foot-artillery regiment, 1 pioneer bat-
talion, 1 train battalion. In addition to the machine-gun
companies of the regiments, there were, as we have seen,
numerous machine-gun organizations, which were avail-
able for assignment to the corps. The machine-gun is an
inexpensive arm and, under proper conditions, a very effec-
tive one, delivering a volume of fire equal to a section of
individual riflemen. Machine-guns open from concealed
positions sudden blasts of fire of such intensity that well-
launched attacks may break down completely under their
withering effect. But they are particularly vulnerable in the
open, and once located by hostile artillery, must quickly
shift their positions or be destroyed. There is reason to


bjI . -^a

Balloon infiaied on deck. Capti-x>e ballon rising for ohser-uation.

Naval hall i carrier.

Ztjipcliii I'liiana l.u:jt Hvinj; cmi the ,v,/. /.■.•( »;, wIirIi k :it rcit >m the gn'viiul.

The German Army 225

believe that the German army had a large reserve supply
of machine-guns, and it is certain that they were ready to
sacrifice these gun sections freely whenever the sacrifice
was justified. Communication troops, though not a part of
the permanent force, were also attached to the army corps
as occasion demanded. The peace corps was a simple but
effective working organization, not encumbered with any
unit that was not absolutely necessary to make it a well-
balanced fighting force. The staff included no superfluous
officers. The commanding general had a chief of staff with
two or three assistants, who were general staff officers; 2 ad-
jutants ; a proper complement of supply and sanitary officers ;
3 judge advocates; a chaplain and a veterinarian, for the ad-
ministration of his corps in peace. In war the corps head-
quarters was more numerously furnished, since the corps
was a small army complete in itself, including pay and field
supply officers, corps bakeries, pioneer commander, train
commander, gendarmerie, and field post. The headquarters
numbered about 330 men, 260 horses, and 30 wagons for
impedimenta. The war equipment included also a corps
bridge-train with a personnel of 8 officers, 200 men, 250
horses, and 38 wagons carrying material for a bridge 140
yards long; a telegraph section carrying 80 miles of wire
and capable of establishing some fifty telegraph and tele-
phone stations; 2 ammunition columns; 12 field hospitals,
each with a receiving capacity of 200 men ; supply columns ;
reserve park; and two horse depots. The total strength of
the corps is 25 battalions of infantry, 8 squadrons of cavalry^
24 batteries of field artillery, and 3 pioneer companies, or
44,000 men, 16,000 horses, and 2,700 wagons. The fighting
strength is 30,000 rifles, 1,200 sabers, 126 field guns, and
18 field howitzers. The Infantry Division, composed of
2 brigades of infantry, 4 squadrons of cavalry, 2 regi-
ments of field artillery, 2 pioneer companies with a division

226 The Great War

bridge-train, 2 sanitary companies — a total of 12 battalions,
4 squadrons, and 12 batteries — had a ration strength of 17,600
men, 3,900 horses, and 500 wagons; and a fighting strength
of 12,250 rifles, 24 machine-guns, 600 sabers, and 72 field
pieces. The war strength of the 25 army corps, 25 reserve
divisions, the mobile Landwehr, and Special Troops is
reckoned at 2,300,000 men, 775,000 horses, 6,000 light field
guns, 1,500 heavy field guns, and 2,200 machine-guns. This
was an army of trained men, fully equipped, capable of
rapid mobilization, and fit for first line service.

The reserve strength that the empire could develop in a
long war is difficult to estimate. The peace establishment
was never large enough to absorb more than fifty or sixty
per cent of the available annual contingent of recruits; so
that, at the outbreak of war, there must have been some
3,000,000 untrained or only slightly trained men in Ger-
many, most of whom would find their way to the front if
the struggle became such as to test the ultimate strength of
the nation. The training of these men under the German
system would require about one year, since only half of the
men in the ranks, except in the cavalry and horse artillery,
were at any time of more than one year's service.

The annual draft of recruits reported to their regiments
on the first of October in each year. To see these men as-
sembling at the regimental barracks in any of the garrison
towns was a sight to delight the heart of a soldier. Here
was raw material for the making of soldiers unsurpassed —
and it may be stated without fear of contradiction — without
equal in the world; a fine, strong, hardy, self-respecting,
uniform body of men, ripe for the intensive training they
were about to receive. Professional armies receive indi-
viduals who are the equal of the best of these German re-
cruits, but the location of the recruiting offices in the large
cities of Great Britain and the United States is indicative of

The German Army 227

the character of a lar^e proportion of the recruits they re-
ceive. Durinji; periods of prosperit)' recruits are difficult to
obtain, while in time of financial depression applications
are numerous, when with few exceptions the most unfit are
the first to apply. Rigid examination excludes the phys-
ically unfit, attempts to reject moral degenerates, but accepts
after all only the best of the great army of unemployed,
who must suffer a weeding-out process for two or three
years before the wheat is separated from the tares. Of the
national armies of Europe, few possess the high physical,
and none the educational standards of the German recruit.
Unsympathetic observers have failed utterly to understand
the character of the man they like to describe as the Ger-
man conscript. They have no conception of the quiet
strength and simple dignity of the man who wears the uni-
form of a country where BlUcher's words: "It must be a
disgrace for a man not to have served," have been so nearly
realized. These frugal sons of soldiers, trained from child-
hood in habits of industry, economy, temperance, and self
control, have only to put on the imiform to present a
soldierly bearing. They do not chafe under the rules of
barrack life, with which they have been familiar from child-
hood. The long hours of drill and instruction come as no
hardship to men who have never been idle. The ration is
simple but nourishing and in accord with the national
standard of living. Discipline and obedience to the consti-
tuted authorities are national characteristics. It is rarely
necessary to inflict punishment, and penalties imposed by
the military code are mild. Confinement in the guard
house is seldom necessary, and desertion is unknown.

The enthusiasm and pride with which officers and non-
commissioned officers train every year a new class of such
recruits is easy to understand. It is their life work and
they go about it with a zeal which could not be more

228 The Great War

intense if war were imminent. The instruction is systematic
and uniform throughout the army. The recruits are as-
signed to companies and divided into groups under selected
officers and non-commissioned officers for individual train-
ing. At the end of this period of training these instructors
must present their recruits for inspection. The require-
ments are definite and the test is thorough. The reputation
of the instructor is determined by the results he obtains.
The responsibility is on him, and if his work is well done
he receives generous praise from his superiors. After this
inspection the recruits are first incorporated into the com-
panies. After the company training the battalion training
begins. The regiment, the brigade, and the division all
have their definite training periods, each followed by an
inspection before passing to the next higher unit. For the
final test the troops are assembled by corps for autumn
maneuvers. Generally two or more corps are united for
the Kaiser maneuvers, which take place under the personal
supervision of the Kaiser. The maneuvers are over by the
end of September. The year's work is then complete. The
class that has finished its color service passes into the reserve.
The soldier goes to his home with a highly developed
sense of national duty and a training which renders him not
only a useful member of the body politic but an efficient
unit of the army of the national defense, fully trained,
armed, and equipped.


The Army of Austria-Hungary

Decadency of the Holy Roman Empire. Mercenaries and feudal service.
A permanent force. Momentary glory under Charles V. The Thirty
Years' War. Passing of the imperial power. The Seven Years' War.
Dissolution of the empire. Austria becomes a separate empire ; its many
nationalities and languages. The Kingdom of Hungary. Austro-Prussian
War, 1866. Universal military service; a triple-headed army. Slow reor-
ganization after 1870. Military force under law of 1889. The problem of
nationalities. The Landwehr and the Landsturm. Exempted classes and
period of militar>' service. The Ersatz Reserve. Training. Military
strength under law of 1912. Instruction of non-commissioned officers.
Officers of the Active Army and the Reserve. Forces constituting the first
and third line armies of 1914. The cavalry force and its equipment. The
artillery and equipment. The high commands. Organization of the land
forces on a war footing. Supplementary forces. Popularity of the army.

When in August, 1806, Francis II, by Napoleon's com-
mand, declared the dissolution of the German Empire and
gave up its crown to assume the title of Emperor of Aus-
tria, the ghost of the Holy Roman Empire was finally laid
to rest. The tie which had bound the various states of the
old Empire had long been a loose one, the emperor at its
head had little real power, while the confederation had
become "neither Holy, Roman, nor Empire."

The glamor of the title of Roman Emperor, for cen-
turies so great that kings of France vied with German
princes for its possession, had passed from men's minds.
It was now an empty honor dependent upon the personal
resources of the emperor and held together by dissensions
and jealousies among the vassal princes and by dangers
from without. The power once so real under its founder
Charlemagne, and for a time revived under Charles the


230 The Great War

Fifth, had vanished. The time when the emperor could
demand troops, when disobedience brought prompt pun-
ishment, when the ban of the Empire had real meaning,
had passed.

As early as the beginning of the thirteenth century,
when the Hohenstaufen emperors held the scepter, "the
dignity rather than the authority was unimpaired." No
longer could the emperor call to his standard the ducal
and princely vassals who held their estates directly from
him ; nor could he undertake any war involving the inter-
est of the whole empire without the consent of all the
states, and often the expenses of a war were borne by
the emperor from his own private resources. Love of
adventure incited many to rally around the imperial stand-
ard, while the desire of booty led others to its support;
but a homogeneous, well-ordered, imperial army was

By the fourteenth century the love of money had out-
rini t"he love of adventure and mercenary armies came into
existence, gradually supplanting the old imperial forces.
Money and personal estates became indispensable to an
emperor and each prince and noble strove to increase the
importance of his own house at the expense of the Empire,
while each bent all his energies towards self-aggrandize-
ment. Feudal service fell into disuse, troops became dis-
organized masses lacking training or discipline. During
the reign of Maximilian I, — 1493-1519, — an attempt was
made to establish a military constitution by which a perma-
nent force should be maintained on the basis of a general
assessment, and in 1507, at the Diet of Constance, it was
agreed that troops and money should be contributed to
the emperor as a permanent supply; "all the electors
together, including the Bohemian, had to place in the field
760 horsemen, 557 infantry, and to pay 16,230 gulden; the

The Army of Austria-Hungary 231

cities had to provide 632 horsemen, 1,335 infantry, and to
pay 39,942 gulden."

In 1520, when Charles of Spain, the grandson of the
Emperor Maximilian, was elected as Charles V of the Holy
Roman Empire, the Spaniards opposed his acceptance of the
imperial crown, for "what else was the Empire become,"
they said, "but the mere shadow of an immensely over-
grown tree." But Charles V brought the wealth of Spain
and her rich possessions to the support of the imperial dig-
nity, and during his reign much was accomplished towards
strengthening the emperor's position and increasing his
power. In this reign the Empire attained an imposing
dignity and influence unequalled since the time of Charle-
magne. It was not destined long to enjoy this high posi-
tion, however, for religious and social unrest were at work;
and the Reformation, gathering momentum with the pass-
ing years, culminated finally in the next century in the
Thirty Years' War, which shook Europe to its foundation.
The Peace of Westphalia, which ended this period of
devastation, struck the death-blow to the Holy Roman
Empire. Reduced in extent, it yet held the remaining
estates in a semblance of its old form, but "the supremacy
of the emperor and with it the unity of the body of the
state sank to a mere shadow."

In the period following, wars with France robbed it of
many valuable possessions and the support of many of its
princes, which further weakened the Empire. The eigh-
teenth century saw it divided into three hundred sover-
eignties, ecclesiastical states, and free cities, with many
more imperial knights who exercised undisputed jurisdic-
tion over their subjects. The emperor's leadership was
almost nominal, "a loose thread for preserving the political

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