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assented to the abolition of the feudal right of knight-ser-
vice, etc., in lieu of an annual income to the crown. The
army numbering about 80,000 was disbanded. Crom-
well's army was, however, to retain a representation in the
permanent force established under Charles, which may be
regarded as the real beginning of the Regular Army. Two
detachments of the Protector's regiments and Monk's regi-
ment, raised in 1650, were consolidated into the Regiment of
Foot Guards later and now known as the Coldstream Guards.
Besides this regiment, there was formed, chiefly from the
loyal English and Irish who had followed Charles into
exile, that other household regiment of guards known as
the First, which in 1815 was designated the First or Grena-
dier Regiment of Foot Guards — the first on the roll of
British infantr3^ Two regiments of cavalry were now also
established as household troops, the First Life Guards and
the Second Life Guards, both composed of Cavaliers who
had shared the king's exile. In the following year, 1661,
the household cavalry regiment known as the Royal Horse
Guards (The Blues) was officially established; it had been a
regiment of the Commonwealth Army, and before it was
paid off under the disbandment order, the king took meas-
ures which resulted in its reorganization. The other



272 The Great War

permanent bodies were the Yeomen of the Guard and the
Sergeants-at-Arms, whose establishment has already been
noted. Insignificant in number, not over 3,000, this home
force was, however, viewed with no little mistrust by Par-
liament, and additional forces that became necessary were
granted to the king for special service and disbanded when
their duties ended.

With the acquisition of Tangier and Bombay as part of
the dower of Charles's queen, Catherine of Braganza, a
troop of dragoons, the Tangier Horse, now called the First
(Royal) Dragoons, and an infantry regiment, the Second
Foot, known then as the First Tangerines and now as the
Queen's (Royal West Surrey) Regiment, were raised. It
may be noted that seniority to this regiment is given to the
Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment) which had won fame on
the Continent long before it was brought to England in
1661. It was first stationed in Ireland and next served in
Tangier. From 1661 to 1662 dates the establishment of
another regiment of household troops, lately the Scots
Fusilier Guards, now the Scots Guards, but called then the
Third Guards, which for many years previously had served
in Scotland. The Third Foot Regiment, now called the
Buffs (East Kent Regiment), originated in a volunteer force
of 1572 from the London Trained Bands for service in
Holland. The survivors of the "Holland Regiment," as it
was called, returned to England in 1665 and were estab-
lished as a regiment of the British army. The foot regi-
ment called the Second Tangerines was established in 1680,
and on its return to England in 1684 was incorporated with
the first as the Queen's Regiment; in 1705 it acquired the
title of "The King's Own." Its old regiment number was
the Fourth and its present territorial designation is the
Royal Lancaster Regiment. The Northumberland Fusi-
liers originated in 1674 as a British auxiliary force to serve




British Tt-rrilnrials : the London Scdtlish at bayonet thargt- practice.




Kritish cavalrv : the Scots Circvs.



The Armies of the British Empire 273

in Holland; in 1683 the regiment returned to England and
was incorporated in the British army.

A standing army as it is known to-day was first estahlished
in France under Louis XIV. During the Middle Ages and
after, bodies of men who made war a profession, under
adventurous leaders without regard to nationality, were to
be had by belligerents who were willing to pay for their
services. In the revolt of the Netherlands, English troops
served against Spain in the wars under Alva in 1567 and
later, and during the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) several
thousand Scotchmen were employed in Germany. The
Rules of Neutrality permitted this practice, even as a result
of treaty stipulations made in time of peace. England
made use of such troops still later in her struggle with the
American colonies.

The Regular or Standing Army of Great Britain then at
the accession of James II comprised about 8,000 men of all
ranks, forming three troops of Life Guards, a regiment of
Dragoons, two regiments of Foot Guards, and five regi-
ments of Infantry of the Line. The numerical strength
was greatly added to by the persistent James II, who took
advantage of the Monmouth Rebellion to raise eight cav-
alry and twelve infantry regiments, but at the end of the
Revolution in 1688 these accessions were in a large measure
disbanded.

During the reign of William and Mary, the right of rais-
ing or maintaining a standing army was asserted in the Bill
of Rights of 1689 to be against the law unless consented to
by Parliament. Foreign and domestic conditions, however,
led Parliament to sanction such a standing army, the pay of
which was to be under its control. Under this new or con-
stitutional regulation the army was increased temporarily
by William to 65,000 for the French War in 1691, to be
reduced in 1698 after the Peace of Ryswick. Still later,



274 The Great War

during the War of the Spanish Succession, the British
army proper numbered about 70,000, to be again reduced
at the close of the war of 1713 to less than 20,000 serving
at home and abroad. This continued to be about the peace
strength till the close of the eighteenth century.

The great battles of that century were fought by an army
enlisted under the contract system of earlier centuries, the
soldiers being furnished to the crown by a distinguished
military leader or person of importance, who obtained en-
listment and furnished bounty money, one result of which,
in large measure, was the scandalous and depreciatory pur-
chase system of promotion. Enlistment was legal only
when a "beating order" was given to the colonel of a regi-
ment by the crown and the recruits raised by "beat of
drum." In the case of the voluntary enlistments the con-
tract was usually for life-service, though exceptionally it
called for a term of years or for the war. Under pressure
of war impressment of persons of "unsettled mode of life"
was still resorted to. The contract system was abolished in
1783. As the crisis in the relations with France developed,
intense interest in the condition of the army was created
and numerous and salutar}^ reforms were introduced; the
regimental roll was increased and especially was the strength
augmented by adding to the battalions. At the close of
the war with France the added regiments were continued
and the peace footing was reached by the reduction of
battalions. The permanent establishment was now about
80,000 as compared with the peace footing of 20,000 before
the War.

In 1847 the term of enlistment was changed from a life
service, which had usually prevailed, to a period of ten
years for the infantry and twelve years for the cavalry and
artillery, with right of re-engagement to complete twenty-
one and twenty-four years, respectively, and the further



The Armies of the British Empire 275

privilege was granted to the soldier of remaining in the
service subject to three months' notice on his part of his
desire to be discharged. The experiences of the Crimean
war led to great administrative reforms and improvements,
and the French'threat of 1859 still further stinmlated efforts,
while the Indian Mutiny in 1857 added an Indian army to
the forces of Great Britain.

Notwithstanding the Enlistment Act of 1847 as amended
in 1849, it was not till 1870, after the efficiency of the Ger-
man army had been demonstrated by its successes in 1866
and 1870, that commensurate reforms were introduced. In
that year an Enlistment Act provided for a term of service
with the colors and a certain period in the reserve, a pop-
ular measure that greatly stimulated recruiting and created
an efficient reserve force. The Army and Militia Reserves
date from this year. In 1871 the purchase of commis-
sions was abolished; the control of the Militia, hitherto
vested in the lords-lieutenant of counties, was transferred
to the crown, and the Auxiliary forces came under the
direction of the generals commanding districts. In 1881 a
further reform was made affecting the infantry of the line.
Hitherto, this branch had been known as regiments of foot,
numbered in consecutive order, and consisting of a single
battalion. Now a system of "linked-battalions" provided
for two or more battalions to the regiment, which hence-
forth bore a territorial name in place of the old number.
The aim of this system was to enable the garrisons abroad
to be kept at peace strength, one battalion being on foreign
service, and the other at home, the latter to act as a feeder
to the former and in turn to fall back on the reserve for its
complement in war. Before the South African War, in
order to create a reserve for the Regular Army, the term
of service had been fixed at twelve years, about half with
the colors and half in the reserve. In addition there was



276 The Great War

the Auxiliary Army (the Militia and the Volunteers) formed
only in the smaller units, poorly trained, without field artil-
lery, and the special service corps, to make an effective
force in war. But the demands in South Africa were too
great, the system failed, and the result was a long and
costly war.

Of the forces of Great Britain, the army in India com-
prises a large and important part. The origin of the Indian
Army may be traced to the small protective forces per-
mitted by native rulers to guard the British settlements
and factories, which were, at first, limited to about thirty
men. Very gradually the European forces were increased,
but not until near the close of the seventeenth century
were native soldiers enlisted. For a long period the mili-
tary companies remained independent, but, before the
tragedy of the Black Hole at Calcutta, the three great presi-
dencies, Bengal, Bombay, and Madras, had consolidated
their forces and had important armies in which the native
element largely predominated. It was for the defense of
Calcutta that the first British regiment to serve in India, the
Dorsetshire, formerly 39th, was sent in aid of the Bengal
army by the Madras government. It formed part of the
army under Clive that defeated Suraj-ud-Dowlah at Plassey
in 1757. At the close of the eighteenth century the armies
of the East India Company were made up of about 3,500
European and 24,000 natives in the presidency of Bengal;
about 2,500 Europeans and 24,000 natives in that of Bom-
bay, and 3,000 Europeans and 34,000 natives in that of
Madras,

In 1796 a general military reorganization was carried out,
and two years later the native infantry numbered 122 battal-
ions; in 1808 the army comprised about 25,000 European
and 155,000 native soldiers. The extension of the dominion
of the British in India and military requirements during




Suciancsr intantrv.







..^.-g.,- . C- ■-V.'fl^'




mIvIi intuiitrv ot ilic liuiiaii Armv.



The Armies of the British Empire 277

the first half of the nineteenth century brought a steady
augmentation in the army and the addition of horse artil-
lery and irregular cavalry. At the outbreak of the Mutiny
in 1857, the forces of the East India Company numbered
386,000 men, of whom 38,000 were British. These forces
were taken over by the British government in 1858, and
reorganization became indispensable. The native artillery,
except a few mountain batteries, was abolished. The army
thus taken over had been chiefly recruited within the presi-
dencies to which its territorial components belonged. The
native troops of Bombay and Madras had stood loyal for
the most part, but a considerable reduction in the native
army was made as a whole, while the British Government
troops were augmented. The superior command was given
to British officers, of whom seven were attached to each
native regiment and battalion, the immediate command be-
ing entrusted to native officers. This condition remained
until 1881 when the regimental strength of the native
forces was increased, and the number of the regiments re-
duced, leaving the number of troops unchanged, while the
strength of the royal artillery was reduced by eleven bat-
talions. Soon, however, trouble on the Afghan border,
due to Russian activity, led, in 1885, to the addition of a
squadron of British cavalry to each of the nine British regi-
ments; three battalions were added to the British infantry
and each battalion was increased by 100 men; a fourth
squadron was added to each regiment of native cavalry; and
of the four regiments disbanded four years earlier three
were again raised; the native infantry was increased and
nine new battalions of Gurkhas, Sikhs, and Punjabis were
enlisted. These changes effected an increase of over 10,000
British and 21,000 native troops, bringing the strength, in
1890, of the British to 73,000 and of the native troops to
147,500, including irregular forces. In 1891, the Indian



278 The Great War

Staff Corps was established, which replaced the three sepa-
rate Staff Corps of Bengal, Bombay, and Madras; the
unification of the three Army Departments of the Presi-
dential Armies was completed and placed directly under the
Supreme Government.

Many important changes were effected during the next
few years after 1885. For service in Burma, 1885-1887,
seven Madras infantry regiments were converted ; six Bengal
and Bombay regiments were converted into regiments of
Punjabis, Pathans, and Gurkhas; an increase of the moun-
tain batteries made the total nine. In 1900 garrison service
in Mauritius and other stations oversea was allotted to
Indian troops, for which five battalions of Sikhs, Punjabis,
Jats, and hillmen were raised. Later, 1903, the Indian
Staff Corps became known as "The Indian Army," and
finally, the further or new organization of the army placed
it under the control of the governor-general and the com-
mander-in-chief in India.

At present the native army is formed into "class" corps
and companies, in order that the prejudices of caste may
not cause conflict among the members, drawn from many
races of different religions and languages. The strength
of the native troops is about 160,000, and that of the British
force serving in India about 75,000, of all ranks. The
brigades are proportioned in one British to three native
battalions of infantry and one British to two native regi-
ments of cavalry. Among the native troops there is no
native artillery. The loyalty of these troops does not
seem, for a long time, to have been questioned by the
officers who knew them best, but they have not been
entrusted with artillery service since the Mutiny, except
the small mountain gun which they have handled with
excellent results. Indian troops have served in Egypt,
China, the Soudan, and in some of the islands of the



The Armies of the British Empire 279

Pacific; they have foujiht a;^ainst European troops, but in
the war in South Africa, which was called a "white man's
war," they were used only in the capacity of non-com-
batants. It remained to be seen whether the color Une
would prevent their employment in a European war.

Great Britain during the period subsequent to the Treat}'
of Paris maintained troops in Canada until a few years ago,
when the last garrison was withdrawn. The Dominion
possesses a military force whose origin was the parochial
militia, which was established as early as 1665, mainly, of
course, for the protection of the settlers from Indian
attacks. Later, this force fought against the British troops
and those of the North American colonies. At the siege
of Quebec in 1759 the militia shared in the defense. After
the Treaty of Paris in 1763 when Canada was surrendered
by France to Great Britain the old militia was not abol-
ished, and is found again at Quebec in the defensive forces
in 1775 at the 'ime of Montgomery's attack. This militia
was embodied on a permanent footing in 1787 and was
further organized in succeeding years. It was this force
that maintained largely the frontier defense in the war of
1812 between the United States and Great Britain. During
the unsuccessful rebellion of 1837-1838 the militia was
again in active service. With the growth of the western
country the organization and the strength of the active
militia were extended and increased, so that the available
force was 25,000 by 1863. During the Fenian disturb-
ances of the next two years the Canadian forces were
again embodied and by the terms of a Militia Act in
1868, following the unification of Canada, the entire force
was fully organized and raised to 40,000 men vmder con-
trol of a Department of Militia and Defense. In the Red
River Rebellion in 1869 and 1870 the expedition of Lord
Wolseley included a contingent of the militia and 6,000 of



280 The Great War

this body took part in the military operations against the
Indians in 1870.

The organization of cavalry and artillery was effected in
1871, when two troops were formed together with a regi-
ment of infantry. In 1873 was formed the Northwest
Mounted Police. In 1876 the need of instruction and
training was recognized by the establishment of the Royal
Military College at Kingston. The importance and effi-
ciency of the Canadian militia were tested in 1885 in the
operations necessitated by the second Riel rebellion, dur-
ing which the forces operated successfully without the
aid of regular troops. The Canadians participated in the
Nile expedition under Lord Wolseley in 1885, and again
from 1899 to 1902 in the South African War, when the
Dominion supplied contingents of all arms and a special
corps of 1,000 mounted troops, "Strathcona's Horse," re-
recruited almost entirely from the active militia and the
Northwest Mounted Police, an unexcelled constabulary of
riflemen, one of the finest fighting units in the world.

The experiences in South Africa led to the reorganiza-
tion of the Canadian military system, and in 1904 the Militia
Act created a Militia Council patterned after the British
Army Council. Under this measure and the reforms that
attended it the Canadian militia was brought up to a
strength of 70,000 of all arms, comprising (a) the perma-
nent militia, with a three-year enlistment period; these
troops, about 3,000 officers and men, are kept in training
and have target practice annually; (<^) the active militia,
nominally a force of about 50,000 officers and men (the
actual strength is much below these figures); they were
supposed to be called out annually for training for twelve
to sixteen days. In addition the reserve militia consisted
of all the adult males between the ages of eighteen and
sixty who are not serving in the active militia. There were



The Armies of the British Empire 281

two schools of artillery, one of cavalry, and rive of infantry,
and at Kingston was the military college.

Australia and New Zealand have had no British army
garrison for almost a half century. Both colonies, before
the war, had adopted the principle of universal service, but
too recently to have provided an army. Military instruc-
tion was to begin for all boys at twelve years of age. This
included gymnastics, marching and target practice for one
hundred and twenty hours a }ear in Australia and fifty-two
hours per year in New Zealand. These were the Junior
Cadets. From fourteen to sixteen they were Senior Cadets
and received preparatory military training; in Australia
twelve-and-a-half days and twenty-four night exercises;
in New Zealand six whole days, twelve half-days, and
twenty-four night exercises per year. The Australian be-
longs to the citizen force from sixteen to twenty years of
age; he undergoes annually, for seven years, twenty-five
days' training, seventeen of which must be continuous
in camp. From twenty to twenty-six the citizen belongs
to the reserve, and has to appear for one muster. The
strength of the Australian Defense Force (Army) at the
beginning of the war of 1914 was 252,000, including 48,000
riflemen and 157,000 cadets. In New Zealand young men
remain for three years (eighteen to twenty-one) in the
General Training Section ; from twenty-one to thirty sub-
ject to muster, and from thirty to thirty-five in the Militia,
without liability to service in peace. This system was only
introduced in 1911, so that it has not yet produced any
mature soldiers. It was estimated that after eight years
there would be for Australia 206,000 and for New Zealand
40,000 partially trained men. The citizen army of New
Zealand at the opening of the war was 30,000. In adopt-
ing the principle of enforced training of the citizen for the
defense of his country the greatest, and only insurmountable.



282 The Great War

obstacle to national preparedness had been overcome, but
the training required was not yet sufficient to produce an
efficient force.

The South African Union, which by an Act of Parlia-
ment, in 1909, received an autonomous government, passed,
in 1912, a national defense law which also recognized the
principle of universal service. All men between sixteen and
twenty-one were to register by districts for training for
four years from the ages of twenty-one to twenty-five.
Such numbers as were required were chosen by volunteer-
ing or, if necessary, by draft. Those who did not volun-
teer were to pay a tax of five dollars, and, in addition, were
subject to be drafted. It was not likely that South African
troops would be used in Europe in case of war in the im-
mediate future. There still remained in South Africa a
force of 6,000 regulars, but the Union undertook at the
outbreak of hostilities to provide for its own defense.
Great Britain maintained in Gibraltar, Malta, Egypt and
Cyprus, Ceylon, Straits Settlements, and China Stations
about 30,000 regular troops.

After the South African War the War Office constantly
urged the introduction of needed reforms, which resulted,
under the administration of Viscount Haldane, in the
organization of an Expeditionary Force, complete in all its
parts, with provision for maintaining this force in the field
at an effective war strength. But it remained a force of
volunteers. The efforts of such patriots as Lord Roberts
had many supporters, but the British were not ready
to adopt the principle that the individual owes it to his
country to make of himself in time of peace an efficient
unit of a national army ready to defend the home in case of
war. That only such an army can meet the requirements
of great emergencies is beyond question; but the wars of
the British have long been fought by their professional



The Armies of the British Empire 283

army. If, when that army proved unecjual to the task, it
became necessary to call into service untrained men, the
conflict was too far from home to disturb the peaceful pur-
suits and pleasures of the j^reat mass of people, who pre-
ferred to i(jnore the cost of unpreparedness and pay the
price, rather than undergo the training necessary to fit them
for the responsibilities that must fall on then-i in case of war
with a great modern power.

The British armies up to 1910 consisted of the Regular
Army, the Militia, the Yeomanry, and Volunteers. Under
Secretary Haldane the Regular Army at home was organ-
ized into six Infantry Divisions and one Cavalry Division;
the Militia became a Special Reserve for the regular estab-
ment; and the Yeomanry and Volunteers became the
Territorial Army.

Service in the Regular Army was for twelve years; in the
cavalry and infantry of the line, seven years with the colors
and live with the reserve. The infantry of the Guard served
three years with the colors and nine in the reserve; while
the cavalry of the Guard served eight years with the colors
and four in the reserve. The field artillery served six years
with the colors and six in the reserve, and the garrison artil-
lery eight years with the colors and four in the reserve.
Technical troops served two or three years with the colors
and ten or nine in the reserve. The service with the colors
could be extended to twenty-one years provided a man was
not more than forty-two years old at his last enlistment.
The majority of the rien were, however, transferred to the
Regular Army. reserve after the completion of their origi-
nal enlistments. For the purposes of recruiting, the regi-
ments were localized and Great Britain was divided into
sixty-seven recruiting districts, each of which furnished the



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