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jects of these states, who clearly saw that only with union
would freedom be possible, Italy became the " Italy of the
Italians," these volunteers were first disbanded; but after a
time some were made a part of the regular army.

Long centuries of slavery to foreign rulers, when their
country was the battle ground of powerful armies contend-
ing for its possession, when their countrymen were sacri-
ficed to the insatiable ambition of the stranger, had taught
the ItaUans the bitter need of self-defense; and it was not
likely that a people so schooled would neglect the strong
arm of government, the army. In fact the army, has had
loyal support in United Italy, but the poverty of the coun-
try, intensified by the great financial burdens inherited
from Austria and assumed towards the Holy See, has left
the government without funds for its proper development,
armament, and equipment. In spite of all difficulties,
however, the summer of 1914 found the Italian army

362 The Great War

following closely in numbers and training the greater
armies of Europe.

The armed forces of Italy were divided into the active
army, the mobile militia, and the territorial militia, forming,
respectively, the first, second, and third lines in war. Ser-
vice was compulsory and universal, beginning with the
twentieth year of age and lasting nineteen years. The
favored classes, at first very large, had, in recent years,
been greatly reduced. Men were excused from active
service mainly for family reasons, such as being the only
son of a widowed mother. Service was postponed for
educational reasons, and one-year volunteers were accepted
under stipulated conditions.

The first category furnished the recruits for the active
army and included all men who did not for family reasons
pass directly into one of the other categories. Until 1907
this class amounted to about 90,000, of whom about 75,000
were enrolled; but since that time, due to the more rigid
requirements, it has numbered about 135,000. Service for
the first and second categories was eight years in the stand-
ing army and four in the reserve. The soldier then passed
into the third category, where he remained for seven years.
Under certain conditions the service in the first and second
categories could be extended one or two years, in which
case service in the territorial militia was correspondingly
rl^sduced. The third category remained for the entire
pei'iod of nineteen years in the territorial militia.

j^'^ two-year color service for the first category was intro-
ducea ^" 1910 for the several arms of the line of the army;
the Cai rabinieri, or military police, served three years. The
second ^category, including that part of the annual contin-
gent not required with the colors, received six months'
training e ''^^er continuous or in several periods. In theory,
the third ca ^^^ory was subject to be called out for tliirty

The Armies oe Serbia, Belgium, and Italy 363

days every four years, but, in reality, their training seems
to have been entirely ne!:r|ected.

For recruiting purposes, the kingdom u^as divided into
94 districts corresponding to the 94 infantry regiments
of the line. In time of peace, however, the recruits were
not assigned to local garrisons, but were distributed among
several garrisons remote from their home districts. The
grenadiers, carabinieri, and cavalry were recruited at large;
the Bersaglieri and field artillery from corps regions; the
Alpine troops from the Alps districts. The mountain artil-
lery was recruited in the mountain districts, while the horse
artillery came from the valleys. The technical troops were
recruited at large except the pontoon troops, who came
from the Venetian coast. In war the system was different,
the complements being drawn locally from the territorial
districts. The peace strength was not maintained at the
numbers required by the army organization, but depended
on the annual budget. For the fiscal year 1913-1914 the
strength was 14,121 officers and 250,000 men, while the
strength according to organization was 15,105 officers
and 290,318 men. The total strength of the land forces
numbered somewhat more than 1,000,000 men, divided
into a standing army with its reserves of about 500,000, a
mobile militia of 250,000, and a territorial militia of 300,000.

The non-commissioned officers were drawn from the
ranks and were permitted to remain in active service thirty
or, conditionally, forty-seven years. After twelve years
they were eligible to appointments in the civil service, and
after twenty years they could be passed into the auxiliary
services with clerical or other like duties. The officers
were drawn from a number of military schools and from
the ranks. The military colleges in Rome and Naples,
with a capacity of 500 students, prepared boys for the mih-
tary schools and the military academy. The military school

364 The Great War

in Modena, for graduates of the military colleges and civil
aspirants, with a capacity of 880 students, prepared young
men to be sub-lieutenants of cavalry or infantry. There
was also a special course for non-commissioned officers
who were prepared to be sub-lieutenants or for clerical
positions. The military academy in Turin trained aspirants
for appointment as lieutenants in the artillery and engineers.
One-fourth of the annual vacancies were held for non-
commissioned officers who were appointed after a special
course of instruction. Older non-commissioned officers
were appointed without special training. To complete
the corps of officers it was necessary to appoint also reserve
officers as subalterns after six months' training at Parma
and subject to examination. Promotion for officers was
by selection from lieutenant-colonel up, there being a special
test for promotion to colonelcy. Retirement from active
service for age was graded, beginning with forty-eight years
for subalterns ; captains were retired at fifty, majors at fifty-
three, colonels at fifty-eight, lieutenant-generals at sixty-
five, and corps commanders at sixty-eight. The officers
of the territorial militia were former professional officers, or
were appointed from non-commissioned officers with not
less than eight years' service who had passed out of the
mobile militia. The deficiencies were made up by appoint-
ments from the territorial militia subject to examination
and a short period of active service.

The schools for the higher education of officers followed
in general the plan of the greater armies of Europe. The
School of Application in Parma provided an eight months'
"school of fire and pioneer service" for newly appointed
lieutenants of infantry, a five weeks' course for line and
pioneer officers, a course in explosives for officers of bicy-
cle companies, and a course for officers of the machine-gun
service. The Central Field Artillery School near Rome

Italian cavalry in traini



Italian Aljiinc Chasseurs.

The Armies of Serbia, Beigium, and Italy 365

held one-month courses in the "school of fire" for artillery
officers. The Italian riding school is famous. It trained
officers of the cavalry, of the militia, police, field artillery,
and pioneers, as well as non-commissioned officers of the
mounted service. The horseshoers for the cavalry and
artillery were trained at the same school. The School of
War in Turin trained officers for the General Staff and
was modelled closely after the Kriegs-Akademie in Berlin.
There are schools for officers and men of the sanitary
service, of the telegraph and telephone services, of the
railroad service, of the automobile service; and men of
the cavalry and bicycle corps receive training in carrier
pigeon service at the carrier pigeon stations.

The several classes of troops that go to make up the army
and the proportions in which they are grouped are such as
are found in any well-balanced modern army. The special
designations applied to certain corps are retained more
for historical reasons than because of actual differences in
function or training. Cavalry, artillery, and infantry with
the technical and auxiliary services make up the army,
with slight variations in uniform and equipment to con-
form to differences in climate and terrain.

The Carabinieri forms an integral part of the army. It
is composed of eleven legions with a total peace strength
of about 650 officers and 26,000 men, 4,000 of whom are
mounted. They perform police duties in peace but form
field troops in war. The first-line infantry is composed of
2 grenadier and 94 line regiments of 3 battalions of 4 com-
panies. Each regiment has 2 machine-guns and 24 regi-
ments have an extra battalion for oversea service. The
second line is made up of the mobile militia with a total of
40 to 50 three-battalion regiments. Some 200 battalions
of territorial infantry form the third line. The Bersaglieri,
or Corps of Sharpshooters, forms in war a first line of 12

366 The Great War

regiments organized as infantry, with an additional bicycle
battalion to each regiment. There is also a second line of
20 mobile militia battalions. They are armed and equipped
as infantry except that the bicycle battalions carry the
carbine instead of the rifle. The Alpine troops form a
first line of 8 regiments of 26 battalions, and a second line
of 38 mobile militia companies to be attached in war to the
first-line battalion. There are in addition 26 territorial bat-
talions. They are armed as infantry and equipped with a
short great coat, woollen cap, neck cloth, and alpine stock.
The first-line cavalry was composed of 29 regiments with a
total of 150 squadrons; the second line was formed of 28
squadrons of mobile militia. The 28 field artillery regiments
of 8 batteries each, were, in 1914, in process of reorganiza-
tion into 12 corps artillery regiments and 24 divisional artil-
lery regiments. The regiments were divided into two groups
of 3 batteries each, and all were to be four-gun batteries.
There was 1 regiment of horse artillery divided into four
groups of 2 batteries each. Twenty batteries of heavy
artillery and 24 batteries of mountain guns completed the
artillery of the field armies in Italy. There were, in addi-
tion, a large number of batteries of the several classes of
artillery in the colonies. There were 10 regiments of for-
tress artillery, one of which was designated as a siege regi-
ment. This class of artillery is, however, from the nature
of its use, not a subject of general information. The
special services necessary to complete the first-line army
were organized in peace.

As in some of the other states of Europe, the Customs
Guards had a military organization and formed an impor-
tant element of the land forces. They numbered in peace
about 400 officers and 18,000 men. This force, organized
in legions which were divided into companies and platoons
and distribvited over the forty or more customs districts of

The Armies of Serbia, Belgium, and Italy 367

the kiny;dom, formed, in war, regiments and battalions,
and had been used as a field force in the Libyan campaign
with satisfactory results.

The infantry of the line and the mobile militia were
both armed with the Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, model of
1891, caliber .256 of an inch, with bayonet. It is a six-shot,
clip-loaded rifle, weighing, without bayonet, eight pounds,
six and a half ounces. Although it fires a round-nosed
bullet and has a muzzle velocity inferior to the latest high-
power rifles, the trajectory, due to the small caliber, is very
flat; sighted for 750 yards, the path of the bullet does not
at any point rise above the head of a dismounted man. The
territorial militia was armed with the old model Vitterli-
Vitali four-shot, magazine rifle, caliber .407 of an inch,
which weighs nine and a half pounds and is provided with
a bayonet more than two feet long. The cavalry carbine,
carried also by cyclist organizations, is simply a short, light
production of the infantry rifle, taking the same ammuni-
tion. It is only three feet long and is equipped with a
short bayonet. It is sighted to 1640 yards, a range 600
yards less than that of the rifle.

The rearmament of the field and horse artillery with the
Krupp quick-fire, 75-millimeter field piece, which was
undertaken in 1909, had not been completed when the new
French (Deport) rifle of the same caliber was adopted. It
is probable that the old guns had been replaced by the
Deport rifle before Italy entered the war, but that about
100 batteries still used the Krupp quick-firer. The Krupp
is a satisfactory modern field piece, but the Deport rifle is
considered the best field gun developed up to the outbreak
of war. The old 70-millimeter gun of the mountain artil-
lery was also being replaced by the new 65-millimeter,
quick-fire rifle. The artillery was not well equipped with
heavy guns for use with the field armies. The armament

368 The Great War

consisted of 9, 12 and 15-centimeter rifles and 15, 21 and 30-
centimeter howitzers. In view of the great importance of
this class of artillery in modern warfare, there was a defi-
ciency not only in the number but in the power of the guns.

The organization of the Italian army is similar to that of
the other armies of Europe. The king is commander-in-
chief but may delegate the command to a generalissimo.
The war ministry is charged with the administration of the
army and the General Staff has immediate control of peace
training and war operations. The formation of not less
than 4 field armies, of from 2 to 4 corps and 1 cavalry divi-
sion each, was contemplated in case of war; but the largest
peace organization was the corps made up of 2 or 3 divi-
sions of infantry, 1 Bersaglieri regiment, 1 cavalry regiment;
1 corps artillery regiment, 3 heavy howitzer batteries, 1
telegraph company with park, artillery and engineer parks,
ammunition columns, commissary and sanitary sections,
field hospitals, field bakeries, and a transport park in which
motor traction was an important element. The total fight-
ing strength was 27 to 39 battalions, 5 squadrons, and 18 to
23 batteries ; or 25,000 to 37,000 rifles, 650 sabers, 100 to 135
guns, and 18 to 26 machine-guns. The division was com-
posed of 2 brigades of 2 three-battalion regiments of in-
fantry, 1 regiment of artillery, 1 sapper company, a bridge
section, and telephone park, without divisional cavalry.
The cavalry division was made up of 2 brigades of 2 five-
squadron regiments, 2 four-gun batteries of horse artillery,
and a bicycle battalion. The total war strength of the
kingdom is estimated at 750,000 men in the standing army
and its reserves, 300,000 men in the mobile militia, and
3,300,000 in the territorial militia. Of the territorials about
2,000,000 are without military training.

The peace strength of the Italian infantry company was
small compared to the war strength of 250 men. We have

Italian ariiuircii aiitoTiiubilc.

Belgian armored automobile.

The Armies of Serbia, Belgium, and Italy 369

seen that the field artillery of all classes was in a state of
rearmament in 1914. A large garrison had been main-
tained in Libya since the war with Turkey; but the lapse
of almost a year after the beginning of hostilities before
Italy joined the allies should have enabled her to repair all
deficiencies and to develop her greatest military strength
within a few weeks after the declaration of war.


The Naval Forces of the Belligerents

Place of the navy in international affairs. The modern war vessel and
her armament. The Dreadnought. Maximum tonnage of constructions
in 1914. Turrets and their armament. Typical heavy guns. Defensive
armor. The submarine foe. Relative strength of the warring powers in
completed "capital" ships. Battleships in construction in 1914. Great
Britain's preponderance in battleships. Other naval constructions of the
Entente and the Teutonic allies. Auxiliary cruisers. Wireless telegraphy
and aeroplane service. Dockyards. Personnel. Torpedo boats and de-
stroyers. Submarine development. Mines. The automobile torpedo. Air-
ships and their equipment. Naval, expenditures of Great Britain, Germany,
France, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia. Naval forces in the North Sea,
the English Channel, and the Mediterranean. Review of British fleet off
Portsmouth, July 18, 1914. Ships in Eastern waters. German raiders.

Men, after many generations have come to know that
command of the sea is a very great, if not the greatest,
element of power and control in international affairs. The
ability to cut off an enemy's commerce and supplies, to drive
his ships to the refuge of their own ports, or to overcome
them at sea, means as much as, and often more than, the
operations of armies on land. The old French phrase
"armee de mer," conveys this meaning more forcefully than
the one simple word, " Navy."

It was a navy, the French navy, which, by enabling the
operations of Washington and Rochambeau at Yorktown,
decided in our favor the War of the Revolution and our
independence of Great Britain. Had de Grasse failed to
come to our coast at the time he did; had he not been
superior in force to the British fleet at this crucial moment,
the United States (then, be it said, but a weak confederation
bound by articles which scarcely constituted a government
at all) would, beyond any reasonable doubt, have succumbed.


The Naval Forces of the Belligerents 371

While naval operations in this war have not such supreme
iuHuence, due in part to new developments in war, above
and under water, and in the air, and to the vast extent of
the operations on land, they are yet of very great conse-
(]uence and of very vital import; how vital, we must yet
wait to see. The study which follows is hut that of the
relative powers on the sea of the combatants. The ques-
tions of the strategy and operations must be dealt with later.

The battleship of 30,000 or more tons and of 22 or 23
knots speed and the battle-cruiser of the same size and
armament but of higher speed and lighter armor, 600 and
more feet in length, 90 and even 100 feet beam, with a
draft of about 29 feet, an armament of 8, 10, and even 14
heavy guns of uniform caliber, besides a number of smaller
guns, is, and, so far as we can see, will be for a long time
the decisive factor in establishing and holding the com-
mand of the sea. This type, the outcome of the Russo-
Japanese war, which forecast the long ranges at which
future naval battles would be fought, began as an all-big-
gun ship. The naval world, however, has gradually come
back to the secondary battery of 6-inch guns (5.5-inch in
France), numbering even as high as 16, on the theory that
if the battle approach the range of the lighter guns, the
immense rapidity of fire of these may be decisive of the
action. Hence, the new battleship is not the carrying out
of the original idea, a ship with a number of heavy guns
and a number of light ones for torpedo defense, but the
old ship with the s?me secondary battery, enlarged to carry
8, 10, or even 14 heavy guns, instead of the former 4.

The British Dreadnought, launched and completed in
1906, of 17,900 tons displacement, with a battery of 10
twelve-inch and 24 twelve-pounders, was the first example
of the new departure which has so developed as men-
tioned. The start upon this road to bigness was, however.

372 The Great War

first proposed in a design by an Italian naval architect.
The advance was strongly urged upon our Navy Depart-
ment in 1903 by our Naval War College; had the advice
been taken, the United States would have been among the
first in the field and would have saved much money ex-
pended on what was soon to become an obsolete design.

Up to 1914 Great Britain had laid down no battleship
exceeding 27,500 tons, the largest now building there ; Ger-
many none exceeding 28,000; France none beyond 25,000.
Japan has followed the example of the United States and
has laid down at least one ship of 31,000 tons: our own
largest being the three of the California class of 32,000 tons.

In general practice two of the turrets are raised so that
the pair of guns in each may fire over the lower. The dis-
position of these turrets and the number are very variable,
however, the latest class of the French, five in number,
represented by the Flandre, to be finished probably in 1916,
carrying twelve 13.4-inch, in three turrets, or 4 guns in
each. A discussion of these variations is, however, outside
the scope of the present treatment.

The term "heavy gun" herein used will include, besides
the 11-inch and heavier type of the German, the 10-inch
of the Japanese and the Italians, the 9.4-inch of the French,
and the 9.2-inch of the British, where such are combined
with a main armament of heavier guns. All such more
moderate guns, in fact all less than 13.5-inch, have been
discarded in the newer constructions. It seems likely that
the new battleship will in general carry nothing less, as a
main battery, than eight or ten 15-inch guns; certainly
nothing less than the 13.4-inch of the French. It may be
said, in passing, that our newer ships carry 14-inch, though
16-inch are under discussion for new constructions. The
15-inch is now the established new battery of the British
and the Germans; the French have not gone beyond the

British liattlcsliip l)ri{iJn'jug/i!, tlic tirit ut tin- UrcaJiiought class ti> bi; built, 17,900 tons,
carryins; a main arnianif nt of ten i i-inch guns.

British l>;ittk'slii)i ho/i Diikf, 25,000 tons, carrying a main armanu-nt
often 13.5-inch guns.

Britisli hattlcsliip Agmcourt (ex Biri/iji Oirnan), 27,500 tons, carrying a main armament

of fourteen 12-inch guns.

The Naval Forces of the Belligerents 373

13.4-inch, tlie Italians not as yet in actual construction
beyond 12-inch; the latest Japanese ships completed and
those building are armed with 14-inch.

Taking the 13.5-inch and the 15-inch as typical guns, the
former is 52 feet long, weighs 76 tons, fires a shell of 1,250
pounds every two minutes with a muzzle velocity of 2,700
feet (or half a mile in one second), with a muzzle energy
of 63,000 foot-tons and a penetration at 3,000 yards of about
23 inches of hard steel; the latter (the 15-inch) is 54 feet
long, weighs 96 tons, fires a shell of 1,720 pounds as fre-
quently as the other, with 2,500 feet muzzle velocity, a
muzzle energy of 84,500 foot-tons and a penetration at
3,000 yards of 25 inches of hard steel. The gun, for a while
at least, is victor against any thickness of steel carried by
ships. This thickness is now being increased from the
more usual 12-inch to 13.5-inches, or in the newest Ger-
man constructions to 13.8-inches. In all cases it tapers to
a thickness of from 4 to 6 inches at the ends. The turrets
are usually of the same thickness as the heaviest part of the
belt. Notwithstanding this powerful protection any of it
is easily penetrable by even the 12-inch at 10,000 yards
(five nautical miles), the 12-inch of 50 calibers (length)
having a penetration at that distance of 14 ^^ inches of hard
steel; the 15-inch of 45 calibers a penetration of 18.8 inches.

But the battleship which can stand a good many of these
ferocious blows, equal in muzzle-energy to lifting a battle-
ship of 30,000 tons two-and-a-half feet in one second, has
an insidious foe in the submarine which now can cruise
almost any distance, and which is armed with a much more
fatal weapon, the automobile torpedo, which has a range
of 12,000 yards (six nautical miles) at an average speed of
25 knots. This torpedo, carrying in its head 300 pounds
of guncotton, will, if it strike fair, sink the largest ship.
But even with such a risk, the number, the offensive power,

374 The Great War

the speed, and the great radius of action of battleships will,
so far as we can now judge, control the sea.

The present warring powers, on the outbreak of the war
in August, 1914, as regards the completed battleships of
later types, — known technically as "capital" ships, as ex-
perts have agreed to call them, — stood in the following
order of precedence, the numbers showing the ships of
each of this later type: Great Britain 33; Germany 17;
France 8; Japan 7; Italy 3; Austria-Hungary 5; Russia 0;
Turkey 0. These figures do not show any real relation as
to strength; they are merely the numbers of modern battle-
ships of very varying power belonging to these several
nations. Many elements, as speed, thickness and character
of armor, etc, come in, but, above all, the weight of gun-fire.

Turkey would have stood in the place of Austria-Hun-

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