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gary in this showing but for an act by Great Britain which,
no doubt, had much to do with Turkey's later stand. She
had purchased from Brazil in December, 1913, a very
powerful ship of 27,500 tons, building at Elswick, which
was renamed the Birinji Osman. She had ordered at Barrow
in 1911 another of 23,000 tons, called the Reshadieh. The
former was 632 feet long, 90 feet beam, with 9-inch steel
armor, tapering to 6 and 4 inches at the ends, turrets and
barbettes 9-inch, a speed of 22 knots, and a battery of four-
teen 12-inch guns; the latter was 525 feet long, 91 feet
beam, with 12-inch armor amidships, tapering to 6 at the
ends, turrets and barbettes 12-inch, a speed of 21 knots and
a battery of ten 13.5-inch guns. They were ships of the
first class and had cost Turkey the immense sum of about
$30,000,000. On August 5th, the day the Turkish flag was
to be hoisted, they were seized by Great Britain.

The f oUowingis a tabulation of these "capital" ships, which,
as well as the earlier battleships in service, all carry from 2 to
5 underwater torpedo tubes, with a tendency to as many as 8:




German liattltiluii I liuringen, 22,500 tons, carrying .1 mam armaniiiH
of twelve 12-inch gvins.




iermaii l.,llu^^lll|• i\umuu, iS,6oo tons, carrynit;
of twelve 1 1 -inch guns.



,i iiiaM. .l: ii..l:i.^ 1.




German battlc-cniiM-r AloiiKe, 22,640 tons, carrying a main armament
of ten 1 1 -inch gvms.



The Naval Forces of the Belligerents 375



♦Great Britain, 33 Ships.



iDisplace-
ment.



Year of
launch.



Eleven ships with
10 13.5 in.
Iron Duke •
Marlborough
Ajax ....
Audacious .
t Erin . . .
Centurion .
King George V
Conqueror
Monarch .
Orion . .
Thunderer



al



Three ships with
8 13.5
jLion . . .
t Princess Roys
t Queen Mary

One ship with
14 12-in.
i.Agincourt . . .



Ten ships with
10 12-in
Bellerophon
Superb . ■ ■
Temeraire ■
Coilingwood
St. Vincent
Vanguard
Colossus ■
Hercules . .
Dreadnought
Neptune . ■



Six ships with
8 12-in.
J Indefatigable ■ ■
t Indomitable . • .
j Inflexible . . . .
j Invincible . ■ .
t New Zealand . .
II Australia ....



I



Two ships with

4 12-in., 10 9.2-in.

Agamemnon . . . '

Lord Nelson . . . j



25,000



23,000



22,500



26,350
27,000

27,500

18,600

19,250

20,000

17,900
19,900

18,750
17,250

18,800



1 1 1908

I 1909

} 1910

1906
I 1911



1909
1907

1911



16,500 i I 1906



1912



GERMANY, 17 Ships.



1913 l|



Four ships with
12 /2-in.
Helgoland .
Ostfriesland
Thiiriugen.
Oldenburg .



Displace-
ment.



1911

1910
1911



1910
1911
1912



1913



1907



Five ships with
10 12-in.
Fried rich derGrosse

Kaiser

Kaiserin

Konig Albert . . .

Prinz-Regent Luit-

pold



22,500



Four ships with
12 11 -in.

Nassau

Posen

Rheinland ....
Westfalen ....



Three ships with
10 11-
JGoeben
tMoltke.
tSeydlitz



X -III.



One ship with
8 11 -in.
J Von der Tann



24,310



18,600



22,640



18,700



Year of
launch.



1909
1910

1911
1912

1908



1911
1910
1912



1909



t Renamed from Turkish Reshadieh.

t Battle-cruisers.

((Formerly the Birinji Osman.

II Belonging to Australia.



[*/« t/tg classification given in I 'olume I, page izj, alt ivar vessels of 17,900 tons and up^jjards {and
only these) are reckoned as ^'Dreadnoughts" including several which -were to be completed in Jgt4.\



376



The Great War



FRANCE, 8 Ships.


JAPAN, 7 Ships.




Displace-
ment.


Year of
launch.




Displace-
ment.


Year of
launch.


Two ships with
12 12-in.

Courbet "1

Jean Bart /


23,100
18,028


1911

■ 1909
1910


One ship with

8 14-in.

*Kongo


27,400

20,800

19,800
19,350

16,400
15,950


1913


Two ships with
12 12-in.

Kawachi "1

Settsu J

Two ships with
4 12-in.. 12 10-in.

Akl

Satsuma




Six ships with

4 12-in., 12 9.4-in.

Condorcet . . . . '

Danton

Diderot

Mirabeau

Voltaire

Vergniaud .....


1910
1911

1907
1906




Two ships with
4 12-in., 4 10-in.

Kashima

Katori


1 1905



Austria-Hungary, 5 Ships.


ITALY, 3 Ships.




Displace-
ment.


Year of
launch.




Displace-
ment.


Year of
launch.


Two ships wih

12 12-in.

Tegethoff . . . . \

Veribus Unitis . . i

Three ships with

4 12-in„ 8 9.4-in.

Erzherzog Franz ]

Ferdinand ...

Radetzky [

2rynyi


20,060
14,226


1912
1911

1908
1909
1910


Three ships with

12 12-in.

Dante Alighieri . .

Giulio Cesare ■ . 1

Leonardo da Vinci /


19,400
22,340


1910
1911



RUSSIA— None.



Turkey— None.



* Battle-cruiser.

In addition to the list of first-class battleships here enu-
merated, there were in construction in Great Britain 10:
the Barhani, Malaya, Queen Elizabeth, Ramillies, Resolution,
Revenge, Royal Oak, Royal Sovereign, Valiant, and Warspite
of from 25,000 to 27,750 tons, carrying each eight 15-inch,



The Naval Forces of the Belligerents 377

and 2, the Emperor of India and Benboiv with ten 13.5-inch
guns. In Germany there were 3 of 26,575 tons and twelve
12-inch guns, the Grosser Kurfurst, Kotiig, and Kronprinz,
3 battle-cruisers of 28,000 tons, eight 12-inch guns, and
100,000 horse power, the Derffl'mger, Liitzow, and 1 un-
named ; and 2 battleships unnamed of 29,000 tons, carrying
eight 15-inch guns. In France, 5 of 24,830 tons and twelve
13.4-inch guns, the Beam, Flandre, Gascog?2e, Languedoc,
and Normandie; 3 of 23,177 tons and ten 13.4-inch guns, the
Bretagne, Lorraine, and Provence; and 2 of 23,100 tons and
twelve 12-inch guns, the France and Paris. In Japan, the
Fuso of 31,000 tons and twelve 14-inch guns and 3, the
Haruna, Hiyei, and Kirishima, of 27,500 tons and eight
14-inch guns. In Italy, 3, the Andrea Doria, Caio Diiilio,
and Co}ite di Cavour, of 23,025 tons and thirteen 12-inch
guns each. In Austria-Hungary, 2, the Prinz Eugen and
Szent Istvan, of 20,000 tons and twelve 12-inch guns. In
Russia, 4 battle-cruisers, the Borodino, Ismail, Navarin, and
Kinbum, of 32,000 tons and twelve 14-inch guns; 4 bat-
tleships, the Gangut, Petropavlovsk, Poltava, and Sevastopol,
of 23,000 tons and twelve 12-inch guns ; and in the Black Sea
3, the Alexander III, Ekaterina II, and Imperatritsa Maria,
of 22,500 tons and twelve 12-inch guns.

It takes but a very cursory examination of this table to
appreciate Great Britain's superiority on the sea. Its abso-
lutism is only modified by the submarine, and this only
sporadically. Taken in a large sense her control may be
said to be complete. Nor is this great disparity of power
lessened as one examines further. For while the result of
naval battles will depend mainly upon these "capital " ships,
the battleships of the earlier period, that antedating 1906,
carrying usually 4 12-inch guns mounted in two turrets (the
German 11 and 9.4-inch), supplemented by heavy second-
ary batteries of 6-inch, 7.5-inch, and sometimes 8-inch, are



378 The Great War

by no means to be ignored. Of these. Great Britain had 20
launched in 1894-1899, and 16 launched in 1900-1905, after
which the big-gun ship occupies the battleship field. These
36 ships carry 144 12-inch guns and undoubtedly form a
powerful accessory to the newer battle fleet. Germany had
20, 10 of which carried four 11-inch and 10 four 9.4-inch as
against the British 12's. France had 12, Japan 12, of which
4 were taken from the Russians in the late war, besides 4
carrying each four 10-inch guns. Italy had 8 of mixed
batteries, but still powerful ships. Austria-Hungary had 9,
carrying, however, only 9.4-inch guns. Russia had 5, 3 of
which are in the Black Sea, carrying 12-inch guns. Turkey
had 2 bought from Germany, the Kheyr-ed Din Barbarossa
and Turgut Reis, which had been the Kurfiirst Friedrich
Wilhelm and Weissenburg, the former completed in 1894,
the latter in 1893 ; they had compound armor belts (iron,
steel faced) of 15-)^ inches, with turrets of 11^ inches.
Their batteries were six 11-inch and eight 4.1-inch.

In view of the foregoing, any anxiety on the part of
Great Britain as to Germany's supposed rivalry is inexplic-
able on any other supposition than that she must always
have a " scare." This in later years has come from France,
Russia, and Germany in turn. Effective rivalry on the part
of Germany was impossible in 1914 and was to be even
less possible so far as the naval progress of the several
powers had been fixed. To show the completeness of the
truth of this statement in so far as 1914 was concerned, it is
enough to say that the British had in service in that year
in the "capital" ships 134 13.5-inch and 170 12-inch
guns, with a muzzle energy of 16,728,430 foot-tons, against
98 12-inch and 86 11-inch guns of the Germans, with
a muzzle energy of 8,639,200 foot-tons. In other words,
the German power in capital ships was but 50 per cent of
that of the British. The muzzle energy of Great Britain's











^■Ji^^^r ^^


g^ _ 1


5Ni




m^mmfmilimf



Kniuli hattitsliip Pari.iy ;",,ooo tons, carrvlng a main arnianu-nt
ot twflve 1 2-inch guns.



^^nr




French baliu



:iriiiaiiu'nl oi i\m> 12-inch



and two 10.8-inch guns.







K












r


J

i r


s




^^^^^^^^^


<■'■


'


^gyli






.

f




^~^J!*^


J




skTi^TSI



haiiaii baulL>i.ij' /J<w.*r .i.it^/.iev i, i y, + oo toua, Larrviut; .1 inaiii ariiiaiiicnt
of twelve 12-inch guns.



The Naval Forces of the Belligerents 379

144 12-inch guns in the older ships was 5,326,800 foot-tons;
Germany's 80 11 's and 9.4's, 2,274,800. The summation
of the whole subject is in the totals of the muzzle energies,
in foot-tons, of the heavy guns of the two battle fleets :
British, 22,055,230, German, 10,914,000; thus showing that
the German naval power was under half the British. The
addition of the French and Japanese navies (those of Italy
and Austria-Hungary about offsetting one another, and that
of Turkey being practically negligible), placed the sea-
power of the Central Powers in a hopeless inferiority so
far as battleships were concerned. There remained the
numerous force of armored and protected cruisers, de-
stroyers, torpedo boats, and, finally, though far from least,
the submarines. These but accentuated the difference in
power. They best appear in tabulation:





GREAT

Britain.


Germany.


France.


Japan.


Armored cruisers


38


9


9


13




9,800 to 14,600


8,858 to 15,550


7,578 to 13,780


7,627 to 14,620




tons; 20 '/2 to


tons; 19 to 23


tons; 21 to 23


tons; 20 to 21




23 knots.


knots.


knots.


knots.


Cruisers ....


73


39


12


12




2,200 to 7,700


2,603 to 5,955


2,285 to 8,151


2,800 to 6,731




tons; 19to25"/2


tons; 21 to 27


tons; 18 to 23


tons; 20 to 23




knots (5 belong


knots.


knots.


knots.




to Australia).










16, 3,800 tons;


6, 5,000 tons;








29 knots, build-


IVA knots,








ing.


building.






Destroyers . . .


218


142


83


60




20 building.


10 building.


4 building.




Torpedo Boats •


''O


47


153


16


(Excluding ear-










lier t>'pes.)










Submarines . • •


76


27


70


13




20 building.


12 building.


23 building.




Airships ....


15


20


22


?


(Data incom-


50 to 720 H. P.,


360 to 1,080 H.


160 to 2,000?




plete.)


about 240 aero-


P., about 500


H.P., about






planes and sea-


aeroplanesand


500 aeroplanes






planes.


seaplanes.


and seaplanes.





380



The Great War





AUSTRIA-
HUNGARY.


ITALY.


Russia.


Turkey.


Armored cruisers


1


9


6


2




7,185 tons; 22


6,396 to 9,956


7,900 to 15,170


10,000 tons; 16




knots.


tons; 20 to 22 '/z


tons; 20 to 22


knots. 2,400






knots.


knots.


tons; 12 knots.


Cruisers ....


9


11


8


2




2,264 to 6,151


2,245 to 3,400


3,106 to 6,675


3,432 and 3,830




tons; 19 to 27


tons; 18 to 29


tons; 19 to 23


tons ; 22 knots.




knots.


knots.


knots.

8, 4,300 to 7,600
tons ; 27 '/j
knots, build-
ing.




Destroyers . . .


19


36
10 building.


105
36 building.


10


Torpedo Boats .


58


70


20


10


(Excluding ear-


27 building.


5 building.






lier types.)










Submarines . . .


10


18


25







4 building.


2 building.


18 building.




Airships ....


?


2


10


?


(Data incom-




About 150 aero-


About 500 aero-




plete.)




planes and sea-
planes.


planes and sea-
planes.





Great Britain also bore on her Navy List the two great
passenger ships Mauretania and Lusitayiia of 26.6 knots as
auxiUary cruisers. They were fitted to carry a moderate
battery and were allowed to fly the blue ensign. An
annual subvention was paid to the Cunard company for
these ships, the company holding in addition all their ves-
sels at the disposal of the government for hire or purchase.
Germany had four such auxiliaries of 23 and 23^ knots,
the Kronprinzessin Caecilie, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Kronprinz
Wilhelm, and Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. France had sev-
eral of less speed, and La France of 23.5 knots. Italy and
Japan had a number of more moderate speed, and two
of 23 knots. Russia had seven of comparatively moderate
speed. All the Powers were well provided with coal and
oil transports, mine-layers and mine-sweepers, repair ships,
etc., too numerous to be detailed.




Shipping a torpedo on board the French i^ubinanne Xiphia.




fc




Submarine lunning svibmtrgcd, with periscope exposed.



The Naval Forces of the Belligerents 381

The great aid of wireless telegraphy had come, too, to
extend that vital thing — information, which could now be
conveyed a thousand miles in a few minutes instead of
being slowly conveyed by a cruiser. This and the aero-
plane have revolutionized scouting.

There must be considered, along with the actual floating
material of a navy, the <]uestions of dockyards and coaling
and oil stations; for the modern warship is usually both a
coal and oil burner. In Great Britain there are fourteen
docks that will take the largest of British battleships and
six are building. Abroad there is one such at Gibraltar,
one at Malta, one at Singapore, and one building at Bom-
bay. There are scores of large British docks under 600
feet in length and under 94 feet in breadth, so that there
is ample provision for looking after injured ships. In Ger-
many there are eight of the great docks with four more
building, none of which have a width at entrance of less
than 94 feet. France has four, one proposed, and one at
Dakar on the west coast of Africa. Japan possesses two,
with three more capable of taking the next to the greatest
ships. Austria-Hungary has one, with several of smaller
size. Italy has three and one is building, with others capa-
ble of taking ships of 550 feet, besides a number of more
moderate capacity. Russia has one building and one capa-
ble of docking a ship 580 feet long and 83 feet beam.
Turkey possesses two docks, the larger of which can take
a ship with a length of 500 feet and a beam of 62.

In ships, in build'ng, repairing, and docking capacity, the
Entente Powers were thus immensely superior to the
German-Austro-Hungarian and Turkish alliance. They
had 51 "capital" ships against the latter's 22; 107 of earlier
type against the latter's 29; 75 armored cruisers against 11;
202 submarines against 37. Their command of the sea was
thus complete, except against raiders and against that yet



382 The Great War

unknown quantity, the submarine. The Entente Powers,
it is evident, had practical command of the coal, coaling
stations, and oil supplies of the world.

There were, according to available data, in the British
navy 150,609 officers and men, including marines; German,
79,197; French, 63,846; Japanese, 55,736; Austro-Hunga-
rian, 19,531; Italian, 39,913 ; Russian, 52,463; Turkey, 4,000.
This gives the Entente Powers a total of 362,567 against that
of the Teuton-Turkish alliance of 102,728. Large reserves
of trained men were available in each country except Tur-
key, where the navy was moribund. It is among the
ironies of life, that while Great Britain confiscated, in July,
1914, the only real force which, with the exception of the
two ex-German ships mentioned, constituted the effective
power of Turkey's navy, a contract had been signed on
April 29, 1914, between the Turkish Minister of Marine
and a British syndicate, composed of the powerful firms of
Vickers, Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., and John Brown,
the chief constructors of ships and ordnance in Britain, by
which all the Turkish dockyards were to be reorganized.
The administrative control was to remain in British hands
through a majority of British directors. No foreigners but
British were to be engaged. A naval base was to be
created on the island of Ismid, and the British Admiralty
approved the lending to the Turkish government of cer-
tain persons on the British retired list. At the same time a
British officer was acting as admiral of the Turkish fleet.

Such, in as full detail as space allows, were the several
forces which, so far as the strategy of the circumstances
would permit, were to be engaged on the sea. Little has
been said of torpedo boats and destroyers, as their day, in
the writer's opinion, may, in a large degree, be said to be
past. The larger torpedo boat came to displace the early
small and insignificant craft in which millions of money



The Naval Forces of the Belligerents 383

were sunk with small result; the destroyer replaced the
torpedo boat, but it now serves chieHy as a scout and as a
protection against submarines. It is still building, in some
degree. Great Britain having had 20 under construction in
1914 and Germany 10, though it is difficult for some to
understand their special value in these days of wireless
telegraphy and airship scouting, unless against submarines.
But the submarine, with its coming high speed and ability
to disappear, is a much more effective torpedo boat than
either of its predecessors. The destroyer is thus not much
more now than a very fast, lightly-armed gunboat, having
risen to a displacement of 1,000 tons, and a speed of 35
knots, burning oil and developing at will immense clouds
of smoke which have the effect of the densest fog. The
development of the submarine has been one of the chief of
the many marvels of naval offense, and the end is still far
off. Even in 1914 a German subniarine of 214 feet length,
20 feet beam, with a submerged displacement of 900 tons,
was nearing completion. It was to have a surface speed of
20 knots and an underwater speed of 10. But develop-
ment far beyond this is coming, if not already here, and we
shall have submarines of 2,000 tons submerged displace-
ment, of high speed, and not less than five torpedo tribes.
All are surface driven by interior combustion oil engines,
which operate also to charge the electric storage batteries
by which the submarine is driven when under water. For
the submarine is, when submerged, a marine electric motor
car, all efforts at direct driving being yet tentative, though
encouraging. The question of the heat developed by con-
tinuous use of the engines when submerged is a chief
element in the difficulties to be overcome. Nearly all the
larger types carry a 14-pounder gun, which can be lowered
flush with the deck when submerging and which can be
in readiness for action within a minute after emerging, and



384 The Great War

also a one-pounder, which is a fixture without any hinged
fitting. Both are fitted for high-angle fire against airships.
The larger submarines are expected to carry four 4-inch
guns.

Mines, too, had reached a high development, and
specially-fitted ships were used for their swift laying. This
could be done with great rapidity through an opening in
the stern to which the mine is brought by truck on a rail-
way which bends downward through a passage-way in the
stern, inclining at about 45 degrees. On the truck reach-
ing the end of this inclined railway, the mine, now but a
few feet from the water, is dropped and submerges to its
prearranged depth by an automatic control. One of the
most extraordinary developments in mining is the mine
known as the Leon, a cylinder with a height of 5 feet 3
inches and a diameter of 21 inches, which, thrown over-
board or ejected from a torpedo tube, can be set to oscil-
late at any depth desired. The duration of its flotation can
also be fixed. One can readily see how quickly a coast
can be strewn by mines as was done first on the British
coast, a procedure quickly followed on the German. Any-
one who examines the subject can only be amazed by the
immense ingenuity and complexity given to the subject of
underwater attack and defense in all countries having
navies.

As previously mentioned, the automobile torpedo (all the
newer ones being of the superheated, gyroscopically con-
trolled type of 21 inches diameter and carrying about 300
pounds of guncotton) has become one of the most formid-
able of weapons, being now a serious competitor of the
gun. All the more modern ships are fitted with under-
water tubes, some of which are guaranteed to discharge
torpedoes safely with the ship going at a speed of 28 knots;
an amazing performance. Though the torpedo does not




Dcstn>vir iVii.'///, the tastt'st xessel in the British \.i\\ j ',9 knots.




Rritisli Miinf-laver Iplngenui




British battle -cruiser l.ion in a 32,01 r* ion iin;ninL; urs <h



The Naval Forces of the Belligerents 385

travel so fast as the shot, taking about four minutes to go
6,500 yards, a space covered by a shot from a 12-inch gun
in nine seconds, its effect, if it strikes, is most deadly. Its
increasing value is recognized in its larger application, the
two largest ships built anci building for the Japanese navy
being fitted with eight underwater torpedo tubes each.

In no field was there greater activity preceding the war
than in airships. The greatest attention has been given to
motor engines which are now being produced with a
weight of but ten pounds per horse power. The follow-
ing particulars of a typical German design of the rigid type,
given by Mr. Alexander Richardson in Brassey's Naval
Annual iox 1914, are interesting:

Displacement 60 tons

Cubic Capacity 1,900,000 cubic feet

Length 700 feet

Diameter 70 feet

Crew 24

Rifle caliber guns 6

Rounds of ammunition 6,000

37-millimeter guns 8

Rounds of ammunition 800

Weight of bombs carried 1 ton 8 cwt.

Total weight of armament 5 tons

*B. H. P. of engines 2,200

Speed (miles per hour) 60

* Brake Horse Power.'

This type is built on a rigid frame of aluminum, covered
with cloth, and with many gas compartments. The non-
rigid type being of lighter construction can carry rela-
tively greater weights. Each country was giving great
attention to this subject; sheds and stations were building



386 The Great War

everywhere. That war was in the air was soon to be more
than a mere phrase.

Even this short resume of naval practice is enough to
show that the machinery of death had reached a develop-
ment not anticipated even a few years ago. It would seem
that a specially satanic ingenuity has been evolved in the
many very able minds applied to the vast and complex sub-
jects involved in naval progress, and to devising the means
of destroying men, which would appear to be a passion
almost equal in intensity to the great instinct of renewal of
our kind. It is a great mystery. And what is the cost of this
vast effort ? In 1905 the total naval estimates by the war-
ring states (excepting Japan and Turkey) was, in millions
of dollars, as follows: Great Britain, 165; Germany, 56;
France, 65; Austria-Hungary, 19; Italy, 25; Russia, 61. In

1914 this had risen to: Great Britain, 257; Germany, 117;
France, 99; Austria-Hungary, 19; Italy, 52; Russia, 133.
A vast total of $677,000,000 in one year. The British
budget carried for the fiscal year 1914-1915 an appropria-
tion of ^53,573,261. In this are included /149,400 paid
by India, a contribution of ^^29,950 by Australia for re-
tired pay and pensions of officers and men lent Australia
for her navy of now 1 18,000-ton armored cruiser of eight
12-inch guns and 5 cruisers, 4 of which are from 5,400
to 5,880 tons, with main batteries of 6-inch guns. The
British vote for new construction for the fiscal year 1914-

1915 was the great sum of /15,171,106 or about $75,000,000,
to be expended in one year. Germany was to spend in



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