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trying circumstances possible. One and all, they worked
night and day with scarcely any rest, and I cannot praise
too highly the cheerful zeal with which counsellor, naval
and military attaches, secretaries, and the two young attaches
buckled to their work and kept their nerve with often a
yelling mob outside and inside hundreds of British subjects
clamoring for advice and assistance. I was proud to have
such a staff to work with, and feel most grateful to them
all for the invaluable assistance and support, often exposing
them to considerable personal risk, which they so readil)''
and cheerfully gave to me.

I should also like to mention the great assistance ren-
dered to us all by my American colleague, Mr. Gerard,
and his staff. Undeterred by the hooting and hisses with
which he was often greeted by the mob on entering and
leaving the embassy, his Excellency came repeatedly to see



Appendix 467

me to ask how he could help us and to make arrangements
for the safety of stranded British subjects. He extricated
many of these from extremely difficult situations at some
personal risk to himself, and his calmness and savoir-faire
and his firmness in dealing with the Imperial authorities
gave full assurance that the protection of British subjects
and interests could not have been left in more efficient and
able hands.

I have etc.,

W. E. GOSCHEN.



APPENDIX

Official Text of the Treaties Guaranteeing the

Independence and Perpetual Neutrality

OF Belgium

Treaty between Austria, France, Grrat Britain, Prussia, and

Russia of the one part and Belgium of the other. Concluded

and signed at London, 19 April 1839.

In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinit)-^:

Article I. His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King
of Hungary and Bohemia, His Majesty the King of the
French, Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland, His Majesty the King of
Prussia and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias,
declare that the articles hereto annexed and forming the
tenor of the treaty concluded this day between His Majesty
the King of the Belgians and His Majesty the King of the
Netherlands, Grand-Duke of Luxemburg, are considered
as having the same force and value as if they were textu-
ally inserted in ihe present act, and that they are thus
placed under the guarantee of their said Majesties.

Article II. The Treaty of 15 November 1831, between
His Majesty the King of the Belgians and Their Majesties
the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia,
the King of the French, the Queen of the United King-
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, the King of Prussia and

■169



470 The Great War

the Emperor of all the Russias, is declared not to be
binding upon the high contracting parties.

Article III. The present treaty shall be ratified, and
the ratifications shall be exchanged at London in six
weeks, or sooner, if it can be done. This exchange shall
take place at the same time as the ratifications of the
treaty between Belgium and Holland.

In faith of which the respective plenipotentiaries have
signed the present treaty and set the seal of their arms.

Done at London, the nineteenth April, in the year of
grace one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine.

(Seal) Palmerston (Seal) Sylvain Van de Weyer

(Seal) Senfft

(Seal) Sebastiani

(Seal) BiJLOW

(Seal) Pozzo Di BoRGO

As will be seen, the above treaty confirms the provisions of (lie other treaty signed
rhe same day "as having the same force and value as if (hey were textually inserted
ill (he presen( act."

The foilovcing is a complete translation of (he other (reaty except that some of
the long, unimporta?it articles are condensed.



APPENDIX

Official Copy made at Brussels Conformable to

THE Collated Text, Word by Word, of the

Original Instrument Signed by the

Respective Plenipotentiaries

Treaty made and signed at London, 19 April 1839, between

Belgium and Holland, relative to the separation of

their respective territories.

In the name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity:

His Majesty the King of the Belgians and His Majesty
the King of the Netherlands, Grand-Duke of Luxemburg,
taking into consideration their treaties concluded with the
Courts of Austria, of France, of Great Britain, of Prussia
and of Russia, to wit: by His Majesty the King of the Bel-
gians, the 15 November 1831, and by His Majesty the King
of the Netherlands, Grand-Duke of Luxemburg, this day,
their said Majesties have named as their plenipotentiaries:
His Majesty the King of the Belgians, the Sieur Sylvain
Van de Weyer, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary to Her Britannic Majest}', Officer of the
Order of Leopold, Grarid-Cross of the Order of Ernest of
Saxony, of the Order of the Tower and the Sword, of
the Military and Religious Order of Saints Maurice and
Lazarus, Commander of the Royal Order of the Legion
of Honor, etc., etc.:

471



472 The Great War

And His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand-
Duke of Luxemburg, the Sieur Salomon Dedel, Com-
mander of the Order of the Lion of Netherlands,
Commander of the Order of the Polar Star of Sweden,
his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to
Her Britannic Majesty,

Who, after having communicated their full powders, found
in good and due form, have agreed on the following articles:
Article L The Belgian territories shall comprise the
southern provinces of Brabant,

Liege,

Namur,

Hainaut,

West Flanders,

East Flanders,

Antwerp, and

Limburg,
Such as they have formed part of the united kingdom of
the Netherlands, constituted in 1815, with the exception
of the districts in the province of Limburg set out in
Article IV.

The Belgian territory shall comprise, in addition, the part
of the grand-duchy of Luxemburg set out in Article IL

Article H. His Majesty the King of the Netherlands,
Grand-Duke of Luxemburg, agrees that, in the grand-
duchy of Luxemburg, the limits of the Belgian territory
shall be as described hereunder:

(Then follows (he description of (he line of frontier to be established bedveen Belgium
and the grand-duchy of Luxemburg.)

Article HL For the cessions made in the preceding
article, a territorial indemnity shall be assigned to the King
of the Netherlands, Grand-Duke of Luxemburg, in the
province of Limburg.



Appendix 473

Article IV. In the execution of the part of Article I
relative to the province of Limburg, and as a consequence
of the cessions made by His Majesty the King of the
Netherlands, Grand-Duke of Luxemburg, in Article II,
his said Majesty shall possess, either as Grand-Duke of
Luxemburg, or to be united with Holland the territories
whose limits are set forth hereunder:



(Tlieii follou' [/ ] (he lines of (lie territory on (lip ri^ht hank of the Metise, foj^iinj} (lie
part of Limburg to he ceded: and 12] (lie bouiidaries of (lie territory to the south of
Dii(rh Brabant on (lie Ief( bank of the Aleuse to be siiiiilurly ceded to Holland. The
former Dii(ch limi(s in (he proviiiee of Liiiii'iirg, on (lie Ief( banfe of (he Weuse shall
belong to Belgium, except the town of Maes(rich( and a strip of territory of 2400 yards.)



Article V. His Majesty the King of the Netherlands,
Grand-Duke of Luxemburg, shall come to an agreement
with the Germanic Confederation and the agnates of the
House of Nassau as to the appHcation of the stipulations
made in Articles III and IV, as well as to all the arrange-
ments that may be necessary in relation to said articles,
both with the above-named House of Nassau and the
Germanic Confederation.

Article VI. In virtue of the territorial arrangements
stipulated above, each of the two parties renounces recip-
rocally, in perpetuity, all claim upon the territories, towns,
places and spots situated in the limits of the possessions of
the other party, as described in Articles I, II, and IV.

(Provision is made for i/ie commissioners of the two countries to meet at Maestricht
to mark out the said limi(s.)

Article VII. Belgium, within the limits indicated in
Articles I, II, and IV, shall form an independent and
perpetually neutral State.

She shall be held to observe the same neutrality toward
all the other States.



474 The Great War

Article VIII. Provides for the regulation of the flow
of the waters of Flanders.

(Then follow details.)

Article IX. Provides for the free navigation of rivers
and navigable streams which separate or flow through the
adjacent territories of the two countries.

(Then follow details.)

Article X. The use of canals that cross both countries
shall continue to be free and common to their inhabitants.

It is understood that they will enjoy reciprocal advan-
tages on the same conditions; and that neither party shall
impose other than moderate dues for the navigation of
the canals.

Article XI. The commercial communications by the
town of Maestricht, and by that of Sittard, shall remain
wholly free and cannot be restricted under any pretence.

Further stipulation is made as to keeping the roads from
the above-named towns to the German frontier unob-
structed and in good condition, and that only moderate
tolls shall be levied.

Article XII. Provides that if Belgium shall open a
new road or canal which shall extend to the canton of
Sittard, Holland shall permit the continuation of such
road or canal at the expense of Belgium to the frontier
of Germany, and provides further for levying of dues
and tolls.

Article XIII. Provides that Belgium will assume the
charge of five million Dutch florins for annual interest and
the capital thereof of the public debt of the Netherlands;
for the validity of such debt; the payment of interest; its
finality of obligation in respect of the public debt of Hol-
land on the part of Belgium; and for the method of



Appendix 475

transfer of debt, and the delivery of archives, charts and
documents belonging to Belgium.

Article XIV. The port of Antwerp, in conformity
with the stipulations of Article XV of the Treaty of Paris
of 30 May 1814, will continue to be solely a port of
commerce.

Article XV. Works of public or private utility, such
as canals, roads, or others of similar character, constructed
in whole or in part at the cost of the Netherlands, shall
belong, together with the benefits and charges appertain-
ing thereto, to the country in which they are situated.

(The»i follows an agreement as to what sliall be considered as charges on such works.)

Article XVI. Provides for the restoration of all prop-
erties sequestrated in Belgium during the troubles, for
political reasons.

Article XVII. Gives right to persons in territory trans-
ferred by the treaty to dispose of their property and remove
to the other country.

Further, expressly renounces on the part of both coun-
tries the right to tax as aliens the subjects of the other.

Article XVIII. The status of mixed subject, as relates
to property, shall be recognized and maintained.

Article XIX. Adopts the regulations of the treaty
between Austria and Russia of 3 May 1815, which are an
integral part of the Acts of the Congress of Vienna, relating
to mixed owners, their election of domicile, the rights which
they may exercise as subjects of one or the other State,
and to the conditions of neighborhood in respect of prop-
erties lying on each side of the frontier, for both owners
and properties in Belgium, Holland or the Grand-Duchy
of Luxemburg.

Mineral products are included in the products of the
soil mentioned in the treaty of 3 May 1815 referred to.



476 The Great War

Further, all alien taxes are agreed to be null and void in
Belgium, Holland and the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg
as among the three countries.

Article XX. No person in the countries of changed
dominion, shall be sought out or disturbed in any way for
any direct or indirect participation in political events.

Article XXI. Provides for payment of pensions and
salaries to all persons entitled thereto in conformity with
the law in force on 1 November 1830.

It is agreed that such pensions and salaries as are due to
persons born on Belgian territory shall be a charge on the
Belgian treasury and of those born on Netherlands terri-
tory shall be chargeable to that country.

Article XXII. Prescribes the regulations for adjusting
claims of Belgian subjects.

Article XXIII. Stipulates that all judgments rendered
in civil and commercial actions and the acts of public offi-
cials of Belgium shall be upheld in the parts of Limburg
and the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg that are to be
transferred.

Article XXIV. Provides for the evacuation of the terri-
tory by the military forces and the transfer by the civil
authorities, in fifteen days, or earlier, if possible.

Article XXV. In pursuance of the stipulations of this
treaty, there shall be peace and friendship between His
Majesty the King of the Belgians, on the one part, and
His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand-Duke
of Luxemburg, on the other part, their heirs and succes-
sors, their States and their respective subjects.

Article XXVI. The present treaty shall be ratified and
the ratifications shall be exchanged at London in six weeks,
or earlier, if possible. This exchange shall take place at
the same time as that of the ratification of the treaty made
this day between His Majesty the King of the Netherlands,



Appendix 477

Grand-Duke of Luxemburjj, and Their Majesties the Em-
peror of Austria, Kinjr of Hungary and of Bohemia, the
King of the French, the Queen of the United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland, the King of Prussia and the
Emperor of all the Russias.

In faith hereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have
signed the present treaty and set thereagainst the seal of
their arms.

Done at London, the nineteenth day of April in the year
of grace one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine.

(Seal) Sylvain Van de Weyer.
(Seal) Dedel.



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

DATE PAGE

679. Bulgar kingdom founded 259

970. Russians invaded Bulgaria 315

1018. Bulgaria came under Byzantine rule 260

1 086. Bulgaria acquired independence of the Greek Empire . . 260

1330. Serbia conquered Bulgaria and won part of Macedonia . 345

1396. Bulgaria subjected to the Turks 260

1412. The Hohenzollerns established in Brandenburg .... 201

1457. Serbia annexed by Turkey 345

1806. German (Holy Roman) Empire dissolved 229

Austrian Empire established 229, 232

1 813. War of Liberation in Germany 205

1 815. Belgium united with Holland 353

Italian states reestablished 360

1817. Serbia gained independence of Turkey 346

1830. Belgium seceded from the Netherlands 66

1839. Treaty of peace between Belgium and Holland .... 354

April 19. Treaty signed guaranteeing the independence

and neutrality of Belgium . . . 76, 84, 88, 90, 469-470

1862. Turkish garrisons withdrawn from Serbia 346

1865. Leopold I, King of the Belgians, died 68

1866. Austria defeated by Prussia 233

1867. May II. Treaty guaranteeing perpetual neutrality of

Luxembu.g signed 77

Hungary acquired nationality 233

1876. Bulgaria revolted against Turkey 260

1 877-1 878. Russo-Turkish War 251

1885. Serbia at war with Bulgaria 347

Eastern Roumelia united with Bulgaria 261

1894. Retrocession to France of French-speaking communities
in Lorraine recommended by International Peace

Conference 100

479



480 The Great War

DATE PAGE

1899. Professor Hans Delbriick fined for criticism of Germany's

treatment of the Danes 140

1903. King Alexander and Queen Draga of Serbia assassi-

nated 346

1904. April 8. Entente consummated between Great Britain

and France 137

1905. M. Delcasse announced that Great Britain had engaged to

seize Kaiser Wilhelm Canal 59

Germany declared Belgian neutrality to be a dogma of

her government 70

1906. Antwerp defenses strengthened 73

The Dreadnought completed 371

1907. The Hague Neutrality Conference held 67, 89

Anglo-Russian agreement effected 137

1908. Great Britain's attitude towards Balkan problem explained

by Sir Edward Grey 158

Bosnia and Herzegovina annexed to Austria-Hungary . 234, 348

1910. Conference at Potsdam between the Kaiser and the

Tsar 23

Holland proposed to fortify Flushing 59

M. Aristide Briand, Prime Minister of France, militarized

railway service 104

19 1 1 . The German Chancellor withholds statement of Germany's

attitude towards Belgian neutrality .... 70, 71, 74
May. The Belgian sovereigns visited Potsdam .... 68
October. The Kaiser and the Kaiserin visited Brussels . 69
November 4. Treaty signed establishing French influ-
ence in Morocco 24

1912. '■'■If I were Kaiser" Yxyxi\2.nn monograph published. . . 28
The German Foreign Secretary declared ungrounded Bel-
gium's fear of German violation of her territory . . 71

Lord Haldane visited Berlin to discuss relations between

Germany and Great Britain 139

Germany suggested a general neutrality agreement with

Great Britain 142

January 10. "Great" or "National" Cabinet of M. Poin-

care formed 107

February 9. Mr. Winston Churchill declared Great

Britain's willingness to curtail naval construction . . 138
October 8— August 10, 1913. War in the Balkans . . 255
October 30-November 2. Conference on Anglo-German

relations in London 14+



Chronological Table 481

DATE PAGE

1912. November 22. Letters exchanged between Great Britain

and France explaining the "conversations" of their
military and naval experts .... 136, 158, 387, 443
December i6-February i, 191 3. First Balkan peace

conference held in London 134

19 1 3. Hcrr von Jagow accepted Foreign Secretaryship on the

Kaiser's insistence 60

January. M. Poincare elected President of French Re-
public 107

March. Alleged official secret German document issued

on the aims and duties of Germany 25, 409

March 26. Mr. Churchill suggested suspension of naval

construction by Great Britain and Germany . . . 144

April 7. The British Foreign Secretary disavowed to Bel-
gium any intention by Great Britain to violate Belgian
neutrality . 72

April 7. German Chancellor announced that Germany
awaited definite proposals from Great Britain as ty sus-
pension of naval construction 145

April 29. Ths German Foreign Secretary declared Ger-
many's determination to respect Belgian neutrality . 71

May 20-June g. Second Balkan peace conference held in

London 134

August. The Kaiser represented by special envoy at Liege

on celebration of King Albert's first visit .... 70

October 18. Mr. Churchill offered Germany definite pro-
posal for suspension of naval construction to which
Germany did not assent 145

1914. July 13. Senator Humbert denounced military unpre-

paredness of France 115

July 18. British naval review off Portsmouth . . . 387,447
July 20—23. The President and the Premier of France

visited Russia 183

July 22—24. Industrial strikes occurred in Russia. . . 185

July 23. Austrian note presented to Serbia 447

July 25. Austria-Hungary's ultimatum to Serbia expired . 11

July 25. Serbia mobilized her army 430

July 25. Austria- Hungary began preparations for hostili-
ties against Serbia 11,430

July 25. Berlin acclaimed Austro-Serbian rupture ... 32
July 25. Italy protested against Austria-Hungary's con-
travention of the terms of their alliance 126



482 The Great War

DATE PAGE

1914. July 26. Russia requested Austria to enter on an exchange

of views as to Serbian note 13

July 26. The Kaiser returned from his Norwegian

cruise 185

July 26, 30, and August I. Demonstrations of popular

excitement in St. Petersburg 187, 188

July 28. Austria refused to discuss with Russia the Serbian

demands 13, 34

July 28. Austria-Hungary declared war against Serbia . 34, 437

July 29. Great Britain proposed mediation of four powers

in Austro-Serbian crisis 19

July 29. Austria-Hungary declined to engage to respect

Serbian integrity 126

July 29. Russia ordered partial mobilization . 34, 119, 437

July 29. The German ambassador warned Russia of

German mobilization 34

July 29. The German Chancellor declined to commit

Germany as to respect of Belgian neutrality ... 74

July 29. Belgium placed her army on a strengthened

peace footing 75, 447

July 29. Sir Edward Grey informed French and German
ambassadors of Great Britain's objection to participate
in war on a Balkan question 150, 151

July 29. France declared intention to act with Russia in

Austro-Serbian crisis 152, 153

July 29. President Poincare and Prime Minister Viviani

returned to Paris from Russia 153, 185

July 29—30. The German Chancellor notified the British
ambassador that " a general neutrality agreement be-
tween England and Germany" had been his aim . . 54

July 29— August I . London newspapers, except Times,
opposed to British interference in Austro-Serbian
conflict 146, 149

July 30. Germany probably urged Austria to exchange

views with Russia on Serbian note 14, 15

July 30. Count Berchtold refused to submit Serbian note

to mediatory examination 19

July 30. The German ambassador notified Austrian For-
eign Office of British mediation proposal .... 19

July 30. Austria instructed her ambassador at St. Peters-
burg to continue conversations wi'h Russian min-
ister i5> 18, 153



Chronological Table 483

DATE I'AGE

1914. July 30. The Russian Foreign Minister proposed a plan

to Germany to halt military preparations . . . 38, 441
July 30. The Kaiser telegraphed the Tsar warning of the

peril of Russia's mobilization 38

July 30. (Jermany suggested her respect of neutrality of
Holland and territorial integrity of France at home in

return for Great Britain's neutrality 39

July 30. France urged Great Britain to state her position

in case Germany attacked France 1 54

July 30. Austria-Hungary mobilized her army in Ga-

licia 433>434

July 30. The Lokal Anzeiger in a special edition an-
nounced general mobilization in Germany .... 444
July 3 1 . Austria-Hungary conditionally assented to media-
tion proposal of Great Britain 16, 20

July 31. Germany presented peremptory demand on Russia 40
July 31. The Kaiser and the Chancellor addressed the

people at Berlin 4^1 4'

July 31. Belgium declared her determination to defend

her neutrality 7®

July 31. The German Foreign Secretary evaded British

inquiry as to respect of Belgian neutrality . . . 70, 74
July 31. The German ambassador at Brussels confirmed
Belgium's reliance on Germany's respect of her neu-
trality 75

July 31. Germany alleged hostile acts by Belgium . 75, 92
July 31. Great Britain requested assurance of Germany

and France of their respect of Belgian neutrality . . 78

July 31. Jaures assassinated in Paris 116

July 31. Germany notified France of the declaration of a

state of "danger of war" [Kriegsgefahr) in the Empire . 118
July 31. Germany proclaimed martial law .... 119,445
July 31. France again asked Great Britain if she would

help France in case of an attack by Germany . . . 155
July 31. Great Britain declined to give France any pledge
of her action on the ground that " treaties or obliga-
tions" were not involved thus tar 1545 '55

July 31. Russia ordered general mobilization .... 440
July 31. Stock Exchange in London closed .... 399
August I. M. Sazonoff expressed to Austrian ambassador
satisfaction at Austria's consent to discuss her note to
Serbia >8



484 The Great War

DATE PAGE

1914. August I. The Kaiser addressed the people from the

palace balcony 41

August 1. General mobilization ordered in Belgium . 76, 447
August I. Belgium notified the powers of her mobiliza-
tion and intention to fulfil her international obligation. 76
August I. France formally notified Belgium of her inten-
tion to respect Belgian neutrality 76

August I. France ordered general mobilization . . 120,447
August I. German ambassador at London inquired if
British neutrality could be had on Germany's pledge
not to violate Belgian neutrality and suggested integrity

of France and her colonies 168, 174, 175

August I. Sir Edward Grey refused to agree to British

neutrality on the basis of Germany's offer . . . . 168
August 1. The German ambassador at St. Petersburg pre-
sented Germany's declaration of war 188

August I. The British ambassador at St. Petersburg ten-
dered King George's offer of mediation between Russia

and Germany 189

August I. Bankof England rate of discount raised to 10 ^ 399
August I. Austria-Hungary announced general mobiliza-
tion 434

August I. Germany ordered general mobilization . . . 445

August I. Bavaria mobilized her army 446

August 2. Germany violated neutrality of Luxemburg . 76
August 2, The German ambassador advised the Belgian



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