George Nelson Godwin.

The civil war in Hampshire (1642-45) and the story of Basing House; online

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Online LibraryGeorge Nelson GodwinThe civil war in Hampshire (1642-45) and the story of Basing House; → online text (page 1 of 52)
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In the stern struggle between Charles I. and his Parliament, Hampshire played no
unimportant part.

The capture, after an all too brief defence, of the strong fortress of Portsmouth
was no small gain to the Parliamentarian cause, whilst, on the other hand, the gallant
stand made by the Cavalier garrisons of Winchester Castle and Basing House was
eagerly watched and warmly appreciated at loyal Oxford.

The " Loyal Marquis " who so heroically defended " Basting House " was a worthy
ancestor of Major the Marquis of Winchester who fell in South Africa. " The
Marquis of Winchester was walking along the bullet-swept trench, encouraging his
men. * For God's sake, lie down, sir ! ' cried one of his men in an agony of fear —
fear for the life of the good soldier and good sportsman who commanded him. Not
till the bullet struck did Lord Winchester lie down, and then never to rise again."

The defeat of my Lords Forth and Hopton at Cheriton Fight " broke all the
measures, and altered the whole scheme of the King's counsels," nor did the fierce
contests at Alton, Christchurch, and Andover fail to influence the general result of the
Great Civil War as a whole.

To record in a brief yet complete form the part played by the county ot
Hampshire during that most eventful time was the avowed object of the first edition of
this work, which was most carefully compiled from original materials existing in our
great national and private libraries. But years have gone by, and the many standard
works bearing upon its subject-matter which have since appeared are proofs of the
great interest still felt by all Englishmen in the annals of that stormy time.

The work has therefore been carefully revised and practically re-written, so as to
include the very latest results of modern research.

In conclusion, the Author desires to thank right heartily the many friends who
have generously aided him, and to express a hope that his labour of love (as it has
truly been) will supply one more of those local histories which have become of ever
increasing interest of late years, and which are useful aids to recorders of the great
events of English history.

Weasenham St. Peter,
Norfolk, 1904.



I. Eve of the Civil War — Taking Sides — Parties in Hampshire i

II. Siege and Surrender of Portsmouth 9

III. Isle of Wight troubles — Carisbrooke Castle taken — Difficulties at Southampton . 24

IV. The Generals and their Forces . .31

V. Marlborough and Farnham Castle taken . 38

VI. The first Surrender of Winchester 4a

VII, Arundel and Chichester taken — Farnham Castle " slighted " .... 51

VIII. Sufferings of the Clergy — Waller at Winchester and Romsey .... 6a

IX. Sir William Waller and Prince Maurice at Salisbury — Havoc at Winchester . 75

X. The Ruined Fortress 80

XI. The Marquises of Winchester — First attack on Basing 88

XII. Southampton affairs — Fighting at Poole — Swanley's atrocities — Basingstoke

troubles 96

XIII. Waller's fierce assault of Basing — A soldier's wife 108

XIV. Lords Ogle and Hopton at Winchester — Operations round Farnham . . . 123

XV. The Isle of Wight — Capture of Arundel — Leather guns 134

XVI. Alton fight — Sieges of Arundel Castle — Corporation plate 140

XVI 1. Wardour Castle — Lymington — Warblington — Havant 153

XVIII. Captain Ball — Southampton troubles — Cavalier Generals 160

XIX. Mustering armies — Plunderers — Colonel Carne and Sir John Oglander . . 16S




XX. Cheriton Fight i73

XXI. After Cheriton Fight— Waller takes Christchurch— Waltham Palace destroyed—

Essex and Waller . . . 192

XXII. Dr. Thomas Fuller — Treachery at Basing — Kentish Horse — Night altack at

Odiham — First Siege of Basing House 205

XXIII. Basing Siege continues 225

XXIV. Waller's difficulties— Basing Siege— Relief by Colonel Gage 243

XXV. Death of Lt.-Colonel Johnson — Andover fight — Basing Siege raised . . . 261

XXVI. Dr. Lewis — Designs upon Reading — Salisbury Fights — Death of Colonel Gage —
Christchurch and Aldershot — Tobias Beasley — "Winchester Alarm" —
Colonel Jones 283

XXVII. Colonel Cromwell — Duchesse de Chevereux — Hursley skirmish — Religious strife

— New Model Army — Cavalry camp at Romsey — Clubmen .... 302

XXVIII. Road waggons in danger — Clubmen routed — Ways and means — Lord Ogle's
requisitions — Colonel Dalbier — Basing again besieged — Mining operations —
Hampshire Clubmen — Church parade — A shattered tower — A gallant
stratagem — Relief fails 316

XXIX. Cromwell and his brigade — Colonels Hammond, Fleetwood, and Harrison —
Hugh Peters — Cromwell summons Winchester — The castle besieged — Bishop
Curie — Siege operations — Bombardment — Parley and surrender — Booty and
spoil — Hugh Peters at Westminster — Troubles at Winchester .... 337

XXX. Basing and Langford in danger — Severity recommended — Cromwell's arrival —
Terrible odds — A reconnaissance — Basing summoned — Sunday bombardment
— Colonel Hammond taken — The fall of Basing — Killed, wounded, and prisoners
— A good encouragement — Public thanksgiving 344

XXXI. Basing House demolished — Cromwell's departure — The captive Marquis — Lang-
ford House surrenders — Satirical pamphlets — Confiscated estates — Subse-
quent events — The King at Carisbrooke — Royalist risings — The Captive
Monarch — Archives of Winchester — Southampton and Portsmouth affairs —
The Restoration — Death of the " Loyal Marquis " 365


Appendix I. Basing House 389

„ II. Lord Hopton 392

Index 401


To face
View of Basing House Frontispiece

*Sir Henry Wallop 3

Sir William Waller 31

John Powlett, Marqtiis of Winchester 88

George Lord Goring 160

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex 203

Lieut.-Gen. Edmund Ludlow . . 277

Ralph Lord Hopton 309

* Now first engraved from a Private Portrait, by kind permission
of Lord Portsmouth.


Civil War in Hampshire
























It comes not within our province to discuss the causes of quarrel between Charles I.
and his Parliament. But before we speak of actual warfare we must briefly refer to
a few events in the history of our county. ^—

At Winchester there are frequent mentions in the Coffer Book of the walls and
gates between the years 1632 and 1637, evidences of the coming struggle, and a
notice of "xxs layd out by the Mair for the billeting of soldyers," — "a picturesque lot
of fellows no doubt these were, and destined to see service," as saith that genial
antiquary, Alderman Jacob. Amongst the writs for ship-money in 1635 ^ind 1636 we
find Southampton charged £igs towards the sum of ^6000 laid upon the whole shire
for providing a ship of 600 tons with 240 men. The quota for Winchester, which
caused much bickering between the Dean and Chapter and the Corporation, was
fixed at ;^I90, which fell to ;^ 170 in 1637. Basingstoke and Portsmouth each paid
£60, and Romsey £^0.

The Rev. J. S. Davies, M.A., F.S.A., in his admirable " History of Southampton,''
says of that famous seaport :

*' King Charles, who had ascended the throne March 27, was proclaimed in the
town on Thursday, March 31, 1625. A few months later he was in Southampton.
The plague was raging in the metropolis in the early summer, and the Parliament
had been adjourned to Oxford, where it sat a few days at the beginning of August.
From that city the King and his council came to Southampton, several orders in
council in August being dated from this town ; they were here also some portions of
September. No. 17, in the High Street, which contains a good specimen of wood
carving (a very beautiful fireplace), is said to have been the King's abode. During
this interval an alliance, defensive and offensive, the * Treaty of Southampton,'
dated September 7, 1625, was concluded with the ambassadors of the United
Provinces. The King was not only resident some little time in the town, but was
indebted to the Corporation, as also to that of Salisbury, for the loan between them
of ;^3000 for the wants of his household.


"At this time, as so often, the town was grievously oppressed by the billeting of
soldiers. In January 1626 the Mayor asks Secretary Conway what to do with the
soldiers — a part of Colonel Brace's regiment, now in town and fit for service — he
had built them a court of guard near the Market Place for practice. This detachment
eventually, at the Mayor's request on September 5, occupied the town. In June he
had written to Sir Benjamin Tichborne, Sir Richard Norton, and Sir Thomas
Jervoise, commissioners for soldiers billeted in the town, begging a pecuniary
supply to avoid mutiny, otherwise he must himself fly the town, as he could not
endure the strain. In July he had reported to the Council that they had done what
they could to repair the ordnance, but were unable to fortify the town without help,
recommending also that the castles in the neighbourhood should be put in repair. In
the following April, 1627, the captains of the town were reduced in pay, and the
troops were ready to break out. In May Colonel Conway's regiment was stationed
in the town and at Romsey."

"The King came again to Southampton on June 18, 1627. He was received at
the Bargate by the Mayor, Mr. Francis Knowles, and the Aldermen, who presented
him with a covered cup — what was in it the observer could not say — and also with
the keys of the town, which latter he returned. His Majesty then passed down the
street through a file of soldiers to Sir John Mill's house, where he dined, after which
he reviewed the troops in the Saltmarsh, and then took * koch '-coach for Titchfield
where he remained the night."

" In April 1628 two companies lately from Ireland, and part of Lord Morton's
regiment, were billeted in the town ; and in May the Mayor begged for their removal
to Lymington, as the town had been oppressed beyond bearing, and the inhabitants
were ready to leave their homes ; added to which the companies which had been
with them since November had only received ten weeks' pay. By November 1630 a
long bill had been run up for billeting soldiers, and the town sent Nathaniel Mill to
treat on the matter. Five years later (December 1635) the heavy amount of ;^905
was owing to the Corporation on this account."

In 1634 an order was given for Southampton to furnish a ship of 700 tons,
armed and victualled, to aid in the suppression of the Turks and other sea-rovers.

"In 1640, on November 28, WiUiam Prynne, barrister of Lincoln's Inn, the
learned Puritan, and most voluminous writer, together with Henry Burton, clerk in
holy orders, a lecturer in London, and formerly a closet-keeper of the King, when
Prince of Wales, who had both some time previously been censured by the Star
Chamber for libellous productions, and then banished — the former to Jersey, the
latter to Guernsey — were brought back to England and landed at Southampton.
Here they were well received by an enthusiastic crowd, their expenses were paid,
and liberal presents made them. The like fortune attended their journey to the
capital, numbers meeting them in every town. At Charing Cross they were greeted
with a multitude of io,cxx> persons, flowers being thrown on their way to the city.




John Bastwick, a doctor of medicine, who had been banished to Scilly, returned
through Dover a few days after, meeting with the like reception in his progress
through Kent, and in London."

In 1 64 1 Charles I. granted to Southampton its last charter, which is still in
force. In 1642 the Marquis of Winchester declared for the King, but his kinsmen^
Sir Henry Wallop and Robert Wallop, who were members for the county, and for
Andover, were Parliamentarians. Two other kinsmen of the Marquis, Sir Richard
Jervoise, Kt., of Herriard Park, and Sir Thomas Jervoise, probably a son of Sir
Richard, represented the borough of Whitchurch in Parliament. Sir William
Waller, the general of the Parliament, was also a relative of the Marquis of
Winchester, and was in 1642 returned as member for Andover. Sir Henry Wallop
and Richard Whitehead, Esqrs., who were both Parliamentarians, represented the
county at Westminster. Richard Whitehead lived at Norman Court, and was the
son-in-law of Colonel Norton of Southwick. Sir Henry Rainsford and Henry
Vernon, Esqrs., were the original members for Andover, in the Long Parliament,
but by a petition, which bears date May 3, 1642, Mr. Vernon was unseated, and Sir
William Waller was declared duly elected, the return being amended on May 12, 1642.
Robert Wallop, Esq., a staunch friend to the Puritan cause, also represented Andover
in the Long Parliament.

Henry Percy, Esq., was one of the members for Portsmouth, but on his electing
to sit for Northumberland a new writ was issued, and in the Borough Records we
find : " March 15, 1641, Edward Dowse, Esq., in lieu of H. Percy, who sits for North-
umberland." The other member was the notorious Colonel Goring, who, deserting
the Puritan cause, openly declared for the King on August 2, 1642, and was, in
consequence, expelled from the House of Commons on the eighth of that month.

The members for Southampton were Alderman George GoUopp, Esq., the fifth son
of Thomas Gollopp, of Strode, Dorset, Esq., and Alderman Edward Exton, Esq., who
were adherents of the Parliament. The representatives of Stockbridge were William
Heveningham and William Jephson, Esqs., son of Sir John Jephson, of Froyle, an
active commander and Lieutenant-Governor of Portsmouth in 1644, who supported
the same cause. Clarendon speaks of Norton, Onslow, Jarvis, Whitehead, and
Morley, all colonels of regiments, and of two captains, Jervoise and Jephson, ** the
two eldest sons of the greatest rebels of that country, both heirs to good fortunes."
One of the members for Winchester was the celebrated John Lisle, Esq., of Moyle's
Court, near Ringwood. He played a very active part in the proceedings of the
Parliament, and was at last killed by some Royalists at the church door in Lausanne.
His wife was Dame Alicia Lisle, the aged victim of the brutal Judge Jeffreys. His
colleague, Sir William, afterwards Lord Ogle, the brother-in-law of Sir William
Waller, was a devoted Royalist, which caused him to be unseated on June 24, 1643.
Henry Hulse, Esq., of Hinton, in Christchurch, and John Kemp, Esq., of Haywood,
were the members for Christchurch. Sir Benjamin Tichborne, who had married one


of the Comptons, of Prior's Dean, and who represented Petersfield, was obliged to
retire after the Battle of Cheriton to the old family mansion at West Tisted. This is
now a farmhouse ; and near it an old hollow oak is still shown, in which the knight
contrived to secrete himself from the pursuit of the troopers who were sent to
apprehend him. Sir Richard Tichborne was probably in the Battle of Cheriton, and
is said to have been concealed in a cottage chimney, as were also his brother, Sir
Benjamin, and his son, Sir Henry. These members of the Tichborne family were
unhappily arrayed against a kinsman in the army of the Parliament. This was
Robert Tichborne, a zealous adherent of Cromwell, afterwards Lord Mayor of
London, and called by the Protector to his Upper House in 1657. He sat as one
of the King's Judges, and signed the fatal warrant, " Alderman Tichborn, then Sir
Robert, knight of the new stamp, now Lord Tichborn." At the Restoration he was
arraigned, but was never brought to trial. Sir Henry Tichborne, the son of Sir
Richard, is represented in Tillbourg's picture of the Tichborne Dole. For his
attachment to the Royal cause his estate was sequestered, but it was given back at
the Restoration.

Colonel Norton, the friend of Cromwell, lived at the Manor House of Old
Alresford and at Southwick Park. Dr. Peter Heylyn, the rector of Old Alresford,
who wrote a history of the Reformation, was hated by the Puritans for having
arranged his church according to the injunctions issued by Archbishop Laud. The
principal inhabitants of Alresford favoured the cause of the Parliament.

Winstanley (" Worthies of England ") says that Heylyn spent large sums upon
his parsonage at Alresford, and that he kept great hospitality for the poor, and a
bountiful house among his rich neighbours. Nor was his care less for the service
of God to be constantly performed, by reading the Common Prayers in the church
every morning, which gave great satisfaction to the parish, being a populous market
town. In spite of all this his house was plundered by Colonel Norton ; and he
himself was declared a delinquent by a Parliamentary Committee sitting at
Portsmouth, to which town his library and household goods were brought by order,
and sold for a very small fraction of their value. Heylyn himself took refuge
during the war at Winchester, where he met with his full share of troubles.
Winchester Castle was a place of considerable strength. James I. had granted it in
fee farm to the Tichborne family for ever. Sir William Waller claimed the office
of governor, but his sister. Lady Ogle, also asserted her rights as owner. In 1644
Sir Richard Tichborne aided in bringing it under the authority of the King.
Bishop Curie, of Winchester, and the Rev. W. Lewis, Master of St. Cross, were
staunch loyalists and churchmen; and when, on December 21, 1645, King Charles
was brought as a prisoner to Winchester under a guard of horse en route from Hurst
Castle to Windsor, " at his entrance therein the Mayor and Alderman of the city
did, notwithstanding the times, receive the King with dutiful respect, and the clergy
did the like. During his short stay of one night the gentry and others of inferior


rank flocked thither in great numbers to welcome his Majesty." The majority of the
townsmen of Southampton seem to have favoured the Royal cause ; while Clarendon
says of the noble owner of Titchfield House, " The Earl of Southampton was indeed
a great man in all respects, and brought very much reputation to the Royal cause."
He watched the King's body during the night after the execution, and saw the
entrance of a mufQed figure in a cloak, whom he believed to have been Cromwell,
and who said " Stern necessity." Lord Southampton was present at the King's
funeral at Windsor on February 8, 1649, The father of Lady Rachel Russell of
Stratton, he died on May 16, 1667, and was buried at Titchfield. A large portion
of the parish of Abbot's Worthy belonged to Arthur, Lord Capel, who desired that
his heart, after his execution in March 1649, might be enclosed in a silver vase, and
be presented to Charles II. at the Restoration, which was accordingly done. Of him
the old rhyme ran :

Our lion-like Capel undaunted stood,
Beset with crosses in a sea of blood.

Colonel Sandys, of Mottisfont House, Colonel Phillips, of Stoke Charity,
Captain Peregrine Tasbury, with many others, and Sir William (afterwards Lord)
Ogle took up arms for the King. The Fleming family, who were relatives of Oliver
Cromwell, and who had settled at North Stoneham in the reign of Queen Elizabeth,
were staunch adherents of the Parliament. A Captain Fleming was wounded at
Cheriton fight, and received a grant of ;^30 from the Parliament. Colonel Fleming
was appointed governor of Pembroke Castle in 1647 ; and Sir Oliver Fleming
was, on November 2, 1643, appointed by the Parliament as their Master of the
Ceremonies. Captain Francis St. Barbe, of Broadlands, a Parliamentarian, was
mortally wounded at the first Battle of Newbury, and was buried at Romsey in
September 1643. The family had another seat at Ashlington, in Somerset. In the
Isle of Wight the Oglander family were staunch Royalists, as was also the Earl of
Portland, who was governor of the island, and of whom we shall speak presently.

On June 21, 1642, the Deputy-Lieutenants, Colonels, and Captains of the
county declared for the Parliament, with the cheerful assent of the county trained
bands, who were about 5000 in number, and who were speedily joined by numerous
volunteers who offered to serve in person.

Hampshire had its share in the local troubles and disturbances which preceded
the actual outbreak of hostilities on a large scale. On August 10, 1642, seven
straggling Cavaliers robbed two Wiltshire gentlemen on the highway, about three
miles from Winchester, of about £80 in gold and ;^io in silver, shooting their horses
dead and riding off. They were pursued by two gentlemen of the county and their
servants, and at length entered an inn at Romsey. Armed assistance having been
obtained, they were promptly secured, and imprisoned at Winchester to await their
trial. Next day there was a fight at Hosdown (Houndsdown, in Eling parish ?),


which was a mile out of Southampton, according to a news-letter of the period.
The High Sheriff of Hampshire, escorted by some eighty men, endeavoured to raise
the county miUtia for the Parliament, but was attacked by between sixty and seventy
Cavaliers and about lOO persons who disliked his proceedings. The fight lasted
about an hour. Fifteen of the King's party were killed and nine mortally wounded,
with a loss of five killed and none wounded on the other side. The country people
came in great numbers to assist the Sheriff, as did also numerous well-armed
volunteers from Southampton. At length many of the Cavaliers were captured and
placed in safe keeping. The Mayor of Southampton addressed the crowd, urging
them to act only in a strictly legal manner, but, at the same time, took good care not
to say anything which might afterwards be construed to his hurt by either the King
or the Parliament, " and so taking his leave of the Sheriff, he returned home."
Mr. Parker, of Upper Wallop, wrote an account of these proceedings, with great
satisfaction, to a friend in London. On August 13 the Sheriff received the thanks
of Parliament for " his good service and ready affections to the House," and Mr.
Button was ordered with his regiment to be assistant to the Lord Gorges (late of
Langford House, near Salisbury) in the defence of Hurst Castle for the Parliament.
This fortress had a captain, who received is. 8d. per diem, an under captain at lod.,
ten soldiers at 6d. each, a chief gunner at 8d., one porter at 8d., and six gunners
at 6d. each per diem. The total yearly cost was £264 13s. 4d. The fort at St.
Andrew's Point, near Hamble, of which some faint traces may still be seen, cost
;^85 3s. 4d. per annum. Calshot Castle had a chief captain in receipt of is. 8^. per
diem, an under captain at lod., four soldiers at 8d. each, one porter at 8d., and eight
gunners at 6d. each per diem. The whole annual expenditure was £ioy ys. 6d.
The cost of maintenance of Netley Castle is not stated.

On Friday, August 26, 1642, information was given to both Houses of
Parliament about a ship coming from St. Domingo, in the West Indies, with a cargo
valued at ;^6c)0,000. Her name was variously given as " the ship Cleare of
London," and as the Sanda Clara, and she was laden with silver, cochineal,
ginger, hides, &c., &c. The fleet of the Earl of Warwick was then blockading
Portsmouth in the interest of the Parliament, and, in consequence, the Sancta
Clara was carried into Southampton by her captain, Benedict Strafford. Her cargo
was seized by order of the Parliament, and sent up to London, the silver alone
requiring three waggons and a cart to convey it to the Guildhall, under the escort of
Major Burrell and a troop of horse. Don Alongo de Cardenes, the Spanish
ambassador, remonstrated, and on January 2, 1643, the King issued a proclamation
warning all his subjects against any illegal handling of the silver, &c., in question.

Online LibraryGeorge Nelson GodwinThe civil war in Hampshire (1642-45) and the story of Basing House; → online text (page 1 of 52)