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Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

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http://www.archive.org/details/historyofyorkcouOOprow



HISTOR Y



OF



YORK COUNTY



PENNSYLVAISTIA



By GEORGE R. PROWELL

CURATOR AND LIBRARIAN OF HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF YORK COUNTY;

MBMBKR OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY; MEMBER

OP THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION



ILLUSTRATED



VOLUME I



CHICAGO

J. H. BEERS & CO.

1907



Contents.



Page Page

CHAPTER I. CHAPTER XV.

Organization of the County — Topography — Geol- Pennsylvania Line, Pulaski's Legion and Armand's

ogy — The Indians i Legion at York — Quartermaster's Posts in

York County 214

CHAPTER n.
Indian Conferences of 1721 and 1722— Keith's CHAPTER XVI.

Newberry Tract 17 British and Hessian Prisoners — Baron and Bar-
oness Riedesel at York 225

CHAPTER HI.

Springettsbury Manor— Blunston's Licenses 35 CHAPTER XVII.

Associators — Muster Rolls and Pensioners 242

CHAPTER IV. • '

Border Troubles— The Chester County Plot— CHAPTER XVIII.

Colonel Thomas Cresap 68 Continental Congress at York— First National

Thanksgiving — A r t i c 1 e s of Confederation

CHAPTER V. Adopted— Proceedings in 1778 288

The Boundary Line — Digges' Choice — Manor of f^uATDTrD vtv

Maske — The Temporary Line — Mason and

Dixon's Line 68 Alliance with France — Death of Philip Living-
ston — Baron Steuben at York — The Conway
CHAPTER VI. Cabal— Gates-Wilkinson Duel— Members of
Pioneers and Pioneer Life 98 Congress 313

CHAPTER VIL CHAPTER XX.
Early Highways— Roads, Ferries and Bridges 106 Whiskey Insurrection 340

CHAPTER VIIL CHAPTER XXI.

Friends or Quakers 106 War of 1812— Rendezvous at York 341

CHAPTER XXII.



Mexican War — York County Soldiers 349



CHAPTER IX.

The Scotch-Irish 128

CHAPTER XXIIL
' ' The Civil War— Camp Scott — Regimental Muster

The Germans-Mennonites-German Baptists- Rolls-Confederate Invasions of 1862 and 1863 353

Dutch and Huguenot Colony — Early Marriages

and Baptisms 128 CHAPTER XXIV.



CHAPTER XL



Emergency Troops — Confederates at York and



Wrightsville — United States Hospital at York.. 402

The French and Indian War 147

CHAPTER XXV.

CHAPTER XII. Battle of Hanover— The Monument 425

The Revolution — First York County Troops — Bat- „„ _„„ v^-irr

^1 J. T Tit CrlAr i r.K AA.V1.

tie 01 Long Island 157

The Spanish- American War 451

CHAPTER XIII. CHAPTER XXVII.

The Flying Camp — Battles of Fort Washington, m ^ j at r a7 1 ^

„ ■ . i, . '^ ' Noted Men of York County 454

I renton and Prmceton 177

CHAPTER XXVIII

CHAPTER XIV. „, „ , , ,, T,

The Bench and the Bar 477

Battles of Brandywine, Paoli, Germantown and

Monmouth— Major John Clark— G e n e r a 1 CHAPTER XXIX.

Henry Miller — Colonel Thomas Hartley 191 The Medical Profession 515

(v)



CONTENTS

Page _ Page

CHAPTER XXX. CHAPTER XLIV.
Educational 538 City of York— ^Military and Fire Department 780

CHAPTER XXXI. CHAPTER XLV.
The Printing Press 549 City of York— ^larkets, Inns Hotels 794

CHAPTER XXXII. CHAPTER XLVI.

Political — Post Offices — Census Reports S59 u 1 r xj o

^ ■'•'^ Borough of Hanover 807

CHAPTER XXXIII.

CHAPTER XLVII.
Slavery in York County — The Underground Rail-

"1 Cross Roads — Dallastown — D e It a — Dillsburg —

Dover — East Prospect — Fawn Grove — Felton —

CHAPTER XXXIV. Franklintown— Glen .Rock— Goldsboro— Jefifer-

Turnpikes— Canals— Railroads— Telegraph — Tele- son— Lewisberry— Loganville 855

phone 599

CHAPTER XLVIII.

CHAPTER XXXV. :Manchester— New Freedom— Railroad— Red Lion

Storms and Floods — Weather Observations 621 — Seven Valley — Shrewsbury — Spring Grove —

nTj wTTu Y\-\-\'T — Stewartstown — Wellsville — Windsorville —

Winterstown — Wrightsville — Yoe — York Ha-
Distilling and Tobacco Culture 628 ven— York New Salem 896



CHAPTER XXXVn.
City of Y'ork — Early History 633



CHAPTER XLIX.
Township History — Carroll — Chanceford — Codorus

CHAPTER XXXVIII. —Conewago— Dover 939

City of York — Before and After iSoo 646 CHAPTER T

CHAPTER XXXIX. Fairview— Fawn— Franklin— Heidelberg— Hellam—
City of York— Religious History 676 Hopewell— Jackson— Lower Chanceford 966



CHAPTER XL. CHAPTER LI.

City of York— Schools, Societies, Libraries 724 Lower Windsor— Manchester and East ^lanchester

CHAPTER NTT — !Manheim — Monaghan — Newberry — North

Codorus — Paradise — Peach Bottom 1008

City of York — Visits of Famous Men 738

CHAPTER XLII. CHAPTER LII.

City of York— Banks and Manufacuring 749 Penn— Shrewsbury— Springfield — Springgettsbury

— Spring Garden — Warrington — Washington —

CHAPTER XLIII. West Manchester— West Manheim— Windsor
City of York — Public Enterprises 770 York 1058



Illustrations,



List of Portraits in Volume I.

Page

Atlee, William Augustus 486

Bailey, Daniel D 868

Barnitz, Charles A 566

Barnitz, George Augustus 806

Black, Chauncey F 458

Black, Jeremiah S 454

Custer, General George A 430

Cochran, Thomas E 506

Durkee, Daniel 486

Eichelberger, Captain A. W 850

Farnsworth, General Elon J 430

Fisher, Robert J 488

Franklin. Walter 486

Franklin, General William B 388

Gibson, John 4qo

Glatfelter, Philip H 912

Grumbine, William 854

Hampton, General Wade 438

Hancock, John 290

Hartley, Colonel Thomas 212

Helb, Frederick poo

Henry, John Joseph 486

Kilpatrick, General Hugh Judson 430

King, George 762

Krall, John 1092

Kurtz, William H 768

Lafean, Charles 766

Landes, John 1078

Latimer, James W 492

Laurens, Henry 296

Lee, General Fitzhugh . . •. 438

Lichtenberger, Samuel 1020

Livingston, Philip 322

Mayer, John L 504

Mayer, Rev. Lewis 466

McLean, James 804

Miller, General Henry 204

Niles, Rev. Henry E 704

Quay, Matthew S 470

Rebman, Dr. George A , 930

Ross, James 472

Small, George 664

Small, Philip A 654

Small, Samuel 674

Small, Samuel, Sr 660

Small. W. Latimer 670

Smith, James 338

Smith, S. Morgan 758

Stuart, General J. E. B 438

Weiser, Erastus H 508

Wells, Abraham 920

Wiest, Peter 802

Wilhelm, Artemas 1064

Young. Hiram 556

Young, John S 834



List of Views in Volume I.

Page

Action at Wrightsville. June, 1863 416

Adjournment of Continental Congress at York 302

Almshouse cS^

Battle I\Ionument at Hanover 448

Bird's-eye view of York 7^0

Centre Church, Fawn Township 974

Centre Square in 1820 630

Christ Lutheran Church in 1800 686

Continental note printed at York 308

Cookes house 216

Court House =76

Court of Honor in Centre Square in 1899 790

Eichelberger High School 826

Eighty-seventh Regiment at the Battle of Win-
chester 364

Emmanuel Reformed Church, Hanover 826

Figure of Justice in Colonial Court House 648

First Presbyterian Church in 1790 700

First Stone House in York County 1072

Fi/rst York County Jail 644

Flax Brake 92

Geological Map 4

George Street north and south from Centre Square, 778

Globe Inn 648

Hartley, Colonel Thomas and wife 740

Headquarters of General Wayne 216

House built in 1745 at Hanover by Colonel Richard

McAllister 812

i\Lap of York County 2

JNIarket Street east and west from Centre Square. . . 774

Monuments, Smith, Livingston and Soldiers 330

Moravian parsonage 740

Newberry Friends' Meeting House 110

Residence and law office of James Smith 312

Residence of Baltzer Spangler 1072

Residence of INIajor Clark 308

Seal of the Borough of York 644

South from rear of St. John's Episcopal Church... 652

Spinning wheels 92

Springettsbury Manor 26

St. John's Episcopal Church 700

Tearing up the Weldon Railroad 382

U. S. Treasury Building 312

Warrington Friends' Meeting House no

West Market Street from Centre Square in 1820... 638

Western entrance to York in 1844 652

View of York in 1850 714

York Collegiate Institute 730

York County Academy 728

York Friends' Meeting House 1 14

York High School 7-^6

Zion Reformed Church 686




M^ip of

York Coumty

PENNSYLVANIA.



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HISTORY



OF



YORK COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Organization of York County — Adams
County Formed — Topography — Geology
— The Indians — Aboriginal Occupation —
Indian Traders.

Chester, Bucks and Philadelphia were
the three original counties established at
the first settlement of the Province of
Pennsylvania, under the direction of its
founder, William Penn. These counties
were organized within two months after
the arrival of Penn in America, under the
charter granted him by Charles II, King of
England, March 4, 1681.

By the treaty of 1718 with the Indians,
the western boundary of Chester County
was not definitely established until the erec-
tion of Lancaster County from Chester, by
act of May 10, 1729. There were then no
authorized settlements west of the Susque-
hanna, within the present limits of York
County. As far as the treaties with the
Indians were instrumental in establishing
county boundary lines, the Susquehanna
was the western limit of Chester County
before 1729.

At the conclusion of the Indian treaty in
1736, the limits of Lancaster County were
extended indefinitely westward. It in-
cluded all of the present counties of York,
Cumberland, Franklin, Adams, and Dauphin
and a large portion of Berks and North-
umberland. The Indians, then being peace-
ful, the fertile lands west of the Susque-
hanna were soon occupied by immigrants
and in a short time hundreds of industrious
farmers were clearing the lands and plant-



ing their crops. In a few yeav^ a number
of petitions were presented to the Pro-
vincial Council, signed by influential citizens
of " Lancaster County, west of the Susque-
hanna," asking for the erection of a new
county. The causes of these early petitions
for the formation of a new county were ow-
ing to the rapid increase of the population
west of the river, troubles and difficulties
that arose among settlers, and the long dis-
tance to the Lancaster court, where a re-
dress of grievances might be obtained.

The first petition was presented

York in 1747, but it was unheard. In

County 1748, a strong and urgent request

Formed, was made, whereupon favorable

action was taken and on August
19, 1749, the act obtained the official sanc-
tion of James Hamilton, deputy governor
of the Province, and York County, the first
west of the Susquehanna River, and in
order of date the fifth in the Province of
Pennsylvania, was formed. The county
from which it was detached had the historic
name of Lancaster, after a shire on the west
coast of North England. East of Lanca-
shire is the grand old district of Yorkshire,
rendered memorable by the War of the
Roses, its magnificent cathedrals and castles
of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries,
and for its ancient manufacturing city of
York, where the first English Parliament
assembled in 1160. It has been for a long
time and is today the largest county of
England. By the unanimous consent of the
petitioners for a division of Lancaster
County in Pennsylvania, and the commis-
sioners who formed the division, making
low water mark on the west side of the Sus-



HISTORY OF YORK COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA



quehanna the boundary line, York County
was named after Yorkshire, in England.
The town of York was laid out and named
eight years before this event.

The commissioners named in the act to
carry out its provisions and lay off the new
county were Thomas Cox, of Warrington
Township; Nathan Hussey, of Newberry;
John Wright, Jr., of Wright's Ferry; George
Swope, of York, and Michael Tanner of the
vicinity of Hanover. The first three were
English Quakers. The others were Ger-
mans. They all became court justices.
Tanner was the first leader of the German
Baptists in York County.

The boundaries of York County, as then
formed, which included the present county
of Adams, according to the Act of Assembly,
embraced " all and singular the lands lying
within the Province of Pennsylvania, to the
westward of the river Susquehanna, and
southward and eastward of the South
Mountain to the Maryland line, and from
thence eastward to the Susquehanna." The
northern boundary line was not definitely
established until after the erection of Cum-
berland County, which was also formed
from Lancaster, by act of March 27, 1750,
and named after a maritime county of
northern England.

York County, when first formed included
Adams County and contained 1,469 square
miles, or about 950,000 acres. In 1749, the
year of its formation, it had 1,466 taxable
inhabitants, with an entire population of
about 6,000. In 1750, there were 1,798 tax-
ables, and in 175 1 there were 2,043 taxables
and an entire population of over 8,000. This
will illustrate how rapidly immigration into
the county took place, as the increase of
population in two years was 33 1-3 per
cent. Immediately after the close of the
Revolution, in 1783, by an action of the
county court, the township assessors were
required to take an enumeration of the peo-
ple in their respective districts. According
to their reports, the county in that year
contained a population of 27,007; of this
number 17,007 lived within the present
limits of York County. There were in ad-
dition to this, 657 colored slaves.

By an act of Legislature passed
Adams January 22, 1800, Adams County
County was formed out of York, with an
Formed, area of 548 square miles. It



was named in honor of John Adams, who
was' then President of the United States.
This reduced York County to its pres-
ent area of 921 square miles. York
County is in the shape of an irregular
quadrangle, with Mason and Dixon's line
for the base, a distance of forty miles, and
is the fourth in line westward of the south-
ern tier of counties, with Lancaster and
Dauphin on the east and southeast, the state
of Maryland on the south, Adams County
on the west, and Cumberland- and Dauphin
on the north. The Susquehanna River
washes the eastern boundary from the
mouth of the Yellow Breeches to the Mary-
land line, a distance of fifty-five miles. The
western boundary line from the southern
line north eight and a half miles is an exact
meridian; from thence Beaver Creek and a
public road form a winding line northwest-
ward -to a point on the South Mountains,
where York, Cumberland and Adams meet.
From here the boundary is a due northeast
line along a ridge of the South Mountains
to the Yellow Breeches Creek, continuing in
nearly the same direction along the many
bends of this stream to its mouth at the
Susquehanna, two miles below the city of
Harrisburg.

TOPOGRAPHY.

The topographical features of York
County consist principally of easy-rolling
hill and valley surface. The county be-
longs to the open country of the great At-
lantic plain, with an average elevation of
about 500 feet above high tide at Philadel-
phia. A ridge of the South Mountains en-
ters the northwestern corner of the county
and terminates above Dillsburg. A spur of
these mountains extends across Fairview
Township and down along the Susque-
hanna. Enclosed within the different
smaller ridges are the fertile Redland and
Fishing Creek Valleys, composed of the new
red sandstone and red shale formations.
Round Top 1,110 feet above sea level, and
its quiet neighbor. Knell's Hill, are isolated
peaks of basalt or trap formation, in War-
rington Township. The Conewago Hills,
isolated ridges of South Mountain, termi-
nates at York Haven. Above Wrights-
ville, to the mouth of the Codorus Creek,
extending westward to near the Harrisburg
Pike, is a woodland ridge of white sand-



INTRODUCTION 3

stone, known as Hellam Hills. Between from altitudes measured by practical geolo-

this elevation and Conewago Hills there is gists of the two different state surveys, and

a wide extent of red sandstone. still others from the profiles of railroads.

Pidgeon Hills in the western part of the The following is a table of elevations of

county, are of elliptical formation. The various points in the county above mean

southeastern portion of the county contains tide at Philadelphia:

slate ridges and hills, and extensive quar- p^^t

ries are worked in Peach Bottom Township, Round Top i,i lo

yielding roofing slate of the very best qual- ^^^,<; o| Round Top '605

ity. The Martic Ridge crosses Lancaster Mount Roya.\ ..... .. .....'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. 547

County. Its western extension passes Conewago Hills, highest point 800

from the Susquehanna to the vicinity of Wei^J^.jiiy '^^

Jefferson. The southern and southwest- FrankUntown .......'...'.'..'.. .'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 580

ern sections of York County are undulat- Emig's Mills 550

ing, containing here and there woodland Lewisbefrv 60?

hills. York (Centre' Square) ......'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.['. 385

Conewago Creek and its branches. Little Webb's Hill 880

Conewago, Bermudian Creek and Stony imie^sviu" ..!!!.!!'. './! 680

Run, drain the northern and western por- Loganville ....]..... 734

tions of the county. Codorus Creek with Jefferson 600

•. , , , i, ^, , ^, ^ , Hanover (Centre Square) 601

Its two branches, flows through the central Mar.vland line south of Hanover 820

part, past York. Muddy Creek with its Dallastown 656

two large branches drain the southeastern S'"*"""^^ Soo

=" r awn Grove 810

section. Castle Fin 190

York Countv has the shape of an irregu- ^'e^ Park 812

lar quadrangle. It borders on Maryland ^■■>a"^^''"e 210

and lies on the parallel of latitude, 39 de- XORTHERX CENTRAL R.\ILROAD

grees, 43 mmutes, 26.3 seconds (Mason and Baltimore 000

Dixon's line), and extends northward nearly Parkton ^20

to Harrisburg, or about 15 minutes above New Freedom 827

the fortieth parallel, which passes through G\en Rock ...... ..'.'.'.'..'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'. - i

Emigsville, three miles north of York. The Hanover Junction 422

county is crossed by the meridian of Wash- Qi"t|eitej.'s ^^

ington, and with reference to that line, its Tunnel^'i^.. ....................'...'.....'..'. .....'. 299

extreme eastern and western points are in York. Junction with FredericK Division of P. R. R. 366

longitude 45 minutes east and 10 minutes MoTru Wolf'.':::.;.'.':.'.'.'.'.':;;: :;:';:'.';;.': ' ■'::' lit

west. York County extends along the Summit No. 2.. ........ .......................... 466

Maryland line about forty miles, bordering Conewago Bridge 289

on the counties of Harford, Baltimore and y^dsb^r".[[[[\y.\\\\\\V.[\y.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 30I

Carroll. It adjoins on the north and west Aliddletown Ferry 307

the counties of Cumberland and Adams, the ^.^''^''^'i, R"" v ' ■ ' ^09

1 , . r 1 • 1 r 1 , r iV 1 New Cumberland •!I2

latter of which was formerly a part of York

County. It contains an area of 921 square PENNSYLVANL\ RAILROAD, FREDERICK

miles. The Susquehanna Jliver flows for DIVISION.

nearly fiftj^-five miles along the eastern Wrightsville 257

boundary, and the extreme eastern point of ^p'''^" • 348

^,- , , . , ^r -1 Hiestands 427

Its southern boundary is about fifteen miles York (depot) 366

north of Havre de Grace, at the head of Codorus Creek 357

Chesapeake Bay. Ws'"'' '' 1^^

The accompanying tables and Spring Forge ::;::;;;;;: JS5

Elevations, specifications of ahitudes above Menges' I\Iill 455

, , 111- • . Iron Ridge 406

the ocean level Ot many points Railroad Crossing, Hanover Junction and Gettys-

in \ ork County were gathered from dif- burg R. R. crosses at grade 607

ferent sources, many from observations with Hanover 599

. -^ , - , , Littlestown 619

transit or barometer, some were gathered State Line 540



4 HISTORY OF YORK COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

The levels on the line of the Frederick The geology of York County is extremely

Division Pennsylvania Railroad were copied complex. It contains some of the earliest

from a profile in the office at Philadelphia, formations and some of the latest, so faulted

The datum is mean tide at Baltimore. and folded, so much eroded and fractured, as

to obscure the geological succession. The

HANOVER AND BALTIMORE RAILROAD. problem is not yet fully solved. However,

^!.""^ since the publication of the State Geologi-

VaUevTunction 74i ^^^ Reports, closer study of local and related

Black Rock 79° deposits and the discovery of fossils in the

Glenville /oi limestone formation have resulted in exten-

Porte?" ...................■.■..■■■■..■■■■■■■■ 510 sive changes in the geological map of York

Hanover (depot) 600 County. Strata that were erroneously, or

Abbottstown 4d7 provisionally, placed have been definitely

located, mamly m the Cambrian.

YORK AND PEACH BOTTOM RAILROAD. Some reference, however brief, should be

Susquehanna River 85 made to the dominant mineral constituents

Peach Bottom grade -. 118 ^j^^^^ ^^ j^^^j^^ ^^^ various Strata be-

Bangor summit S'l , °, . . ^ , , , ,.

Delta 435 fore the formations themselves are dis-

Bryansville 241 cussed. Now whilst there are a number

woodbuie :; •;:;::■;;;:;:::;:::::::::;::::: : 304 of different minerals found in York county,

Bruce •• 33i the great geological formations are essen-

Muddy Creek Forks 366 tially composed of Only five elemental sub-
Laurel °'^' 411 stances. These have furnished the ma-

Fenmore 434 terials, in one form or other, from which

Brogueville 47° ^}^g varied rock beds and the soil have been

Felton 530 , . ,

Windsor 598 derived.

Springyale 734 Silica is the most abundant mineral.

Red Lion 900 gjiica. It results from a union of oxygen

Dallastown 0^7 , •,• , ,

Ore Valley 570 and Silicon, two elements that go

Enterprise .^31 to make Up about seventy-five per cent, of

iSig'Garden'::::;:::::::'.::::'.'.'.'.'.::'.:;;: :'.;:: 43? the entire earth's crust, (ciarke, science,

York" 372 Jan. 5, 1906, p. 16. ) Sandstone, sand, flint,

„^,„_. ,_„,,.,. . ^,xTAT quartz and quartzite are but some of the

SLbQLEHA.NAA CAISJAL. ^ ^ , ,.,.,.

, , common names under which it is every-

The elevations here given are estimated above mean , , t jj-*.- ^ -^

jjjg gj " where known, in addition to its preva-

Havre de Grace ooo lence under these simple forms, it is often a

State Line 68 q}^[q[ constituent in a variety of very impor-

Peach Bottom (on canal) 'o^ ^ ^ i ^ "

Muddy Creek 121 tant compounds.

Slate Tavern 130 Silica combined with aluminum

iVicCalls Ferry 117 Alumina, forms alumina, or clay. Alu-

York rurnace 141 . , -i- • ' ,

Shenk's Ferry 152 mmum, after Silicon, is the next

Lockport 163 most important element. It contributes

SS^Scanai):::::: :::::::::::::;::;::; S ^^out eight per cent, to the buik of the

earth s crust. Slate, argillite and shale are
By a comparison of all the above tables some of the common and widely dissemi-
it will be observed that the elevation of nated rocks of which it is an essential con-
nearly all points in the southern part of the stituent.
county is higher than in the northern part. Though less abundant than either

_ ., Iron, silica or alumina, iron in some of its

GEOLOGY OF YORK COUNTY. compounds is universally repre-

Prof. A. Wanner, superintendent of sented. It is nature's pigment. In some

schools of the City of York, has made a form or other it is widely disseminated

diligent and careful study of the geology of throughout this section. The characteristic

York County. The following article was red color of the upper end of York County

prepared by him specially for this work: is due to the presence of iron; so is the less



liii^yiii




INTRODUCTION



prevalent green of the chlorites, shales and
schists of the lower half.

Carbon, oxygen and calcium
Limestone, unite to form limestone. The

determining constituent is cal-
cium. Magnesia is another mineral often
combined with it. The presence of car-
bonate of magnesia, in varying quantities,
gives to the local formation the name of
dolomitic limestone. About three and
one-half per cent, of the earth's bulk is cal-
cium.

It is unnecessary to add to the previous
list of minerals because the geological for-
mations under discussion are almost wholly



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