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Oxford University Press

Lornlon Edinburgh Glasgow Copenhagen

New York Toronto Melbourne Cape Town

Bombay Calcutta Madras Shanghai

Humphrey Milford Publisher to the University


I AM afraid that this third and last volume of Caroline Poets
must reverse the famous apology of the second of the monarchs
from whom it derives its title. It has been an unconscionable
time in being born ; though I do not, to speak in character with
my authors, know what hostile divinity bribed Lucina. I cannot
blame any one else : and — though for the first ten years after the
appearance of Vol. II I was certainly very busy, professionally and
with other literary work — I do not think I omitted any opportunity
of getting on with the book. I think I may say that if the time
I have actually spent thereon at spare moments could be put
together it would represent a full year's solid labour, if not more.
I make neither complaint nor boast of this ; for it has always
been my opinion that a person who holds such a position as
I then held should, if he possibly can, do something, in unre-
munerative and unpopular ways, to make the treasure of English
literature more easily accessible. I have thoroughly enjoyed the
work ; and I owe the greatest thanks to the authorities of the
Clarendon Press for making it possible.

But no efforts of mine, unless I had been able to reside in Oxford
or London, would have much hastened the completion of the task :
for the materials were hard to select, and, when selected, harder to
find in copies that could be used for printing. Some of them
we could not get hold of in any reasonable time : and the Delegates
of the Press were good enough to have bromide rotographs of the
Bodleian copies made for me. I worked on these as long as I could :
but I found at last that the white print on black ground, crammed
and crowded together as it is in the little books of the time, was
not merely troublesome and painful, but was getting really danger-
ous, to my extremely weak eyesight.

This necessitated, or almost necessitated, some alterations in the
scheme. One concerned the modernization of spelling, which ac-
cordingly will be found disused in a few later pieces of the volume ;
another, and more important one, the revision of the text. This
latter was most kindly undertaken principally by Mr. Percy Simpson,
( iii )

Prefatory Note

who has had the benefit of Mr. G. Thorn-Drury's unrivalled know-
ledge of these minors. I could not think of cramping the hands
of scholars so well versed as these were in seventeenth-century
work : and they have accordingly bestowed rather more attention
than had originally formed part of my own plan on apparatus
criticus and comparison of MSS. The reader of course gains con-
siderably in yet other respects. I owe these gentlemen, who may
almost be called part-editors of this volume as far as text is con-
cerned, very sincere thanks ; and I have endeavoured as far as
possible to specify their contributions.

When the war came the fortunes of the book inevitably received
another check. The Clarendon Press conducted its operations in
many other places besides Walton Street, and with many other
instruments besides types and paper. Nor had its Home Department
much time for such mere belles lettres as these. Moreover the loss of
my own library, and the difficulties of compensating for that loss
in towns less rich in books than Edinburgh, put further drags
on the wheel. So I and my Carolines had to bide our time still :
and even now it has been thought best to jettison a part of the
promised cargo of the ship rather than keep it longer on the stocks.

The poets whom I had intended to include, and upon whom
I had bestowed more or less labour, but who now suffer exclusion,
were Heath, Flecknoe, Hawkins, Beedome, Prestwich, Lawrence,
Pick, Jenkyn, and a certain 'Philander'. Of these I chiefly
regret Heath — the pretty title of whose Clarastella is not ill-
supported by the text, and who would have ' taken out the taste '
of Whiting satisfactorily for some people — Hawkins, Lawrence,
and Jenkyn. Henry Hawkins in Partheneia Sacra has attained
a sort of mystical unction which puts him not so very far below
Crashaw, and perhaps entitles him to rank with that poet, Southwell,
and Chideock Tichborne earlier as the representative quartette of
Knglish Roman Catholic poetry in the major Elizabethan age.
Lawrence's Arnalte and Lucoida, not a brilliant thing in itself, has
real literary interest of the historical-comparative kind as repre-
senting a romance by Diego de San Pedro (best known
as the author of the Carcel dc Amor) and its P'rench translation
by Hcrbcray, the translator of Amadis. But such things remain
to be taken up by some general historian of the ' Heroic ' Romance.
As for ' Pathcrykc ' \sic\ Jenkyn he attracted me many years ago
by the agreeable hetcrography of his name (so far preferable to more
( iv )

Prefatory Note

recent sham-Celticizings thereof) and held me by less fantastic
merits. Flecknoe pleaded for a chance against the tyranny of
' glorious John '. But when it was a question between keeping
these and the others with further delay and letting them go, there
could not be much doubt in which way England expected this
man to do his infinitesimal duty.

One instance, not of subtraction but of addition to the original
contents, seems to require slight notice. The eye-weakness just
mentioned having always prevented me from making any regular
study of palaeography, I had originally proposed only to include work
already printed. I was tempted to break my rule in the case
of Godolphin : and made rather a mess of it. An errata list in the
present volume (p. 552) will, I believe, repair the blunder. The
single censurer of this (I further believe) single serious lapse of mine
was, I remember, troubled about it as a discredit to the University
of Oxford. I sincerely trust that he was mistaken. None of us
can possibly do credit to our University ; we can only derive
it from her. To throw any discredit on her is equally impossible :
though of course any member may achieve such discredit for
himself. Let me hope that the balance against me for indiscreet
dealing with perhaps one per cent, of my fifteen hundred or two
thousand pages is not too heavy.

Little need be said of the actual constituents of the volume, which
has however perhaps lost something of its intended ' composition ', in
the artistic sense, by losing its tail. A good English edition of Cleve-
land has long been wanted : and I think — the thought being stripped
of presumption by the number and valiancy of my helpers — that we
have at last given one. Stanley and King — truer poets than Cleveland,
if less interesting to the general public — also called for fresh presenta-
tion. If anybody demurs to Flatman and still more to Whiting he must
be left to his own opinion. I shall only note here that on Cleveland
I was guilty of injustice to the Library of the University of Edinburgh
(to which I owe much) by saying that it contained no edition of this
reviler of Caledonia. None was discoverable in my time, the process
of overhauling and re-cataloguing being then incomplete. But my
friend and successor, Professor Grierson, tells me that one has since
been found. As to King, I have recently seen doubts cast on his
authorship of ' Tell me no more '. But I have seen no valid reasons
alleged for them, and I do not know of any one else who has the
slightest claim to it.


Prefato7'y Note

Of the whole three volumes it is still less necessary to say much.
I have owed special thanks in succession to Mr. Doble, Mr. Milford,
and Mr. Chapman (now Secretary) of the Clarendon Press ; to
Professors Firth and Case (indeed, but for the former's generous
imparting of his treasures the whole thing could hardly have been
done) for loan of books as well as answering of questions ; and
to not a few others, among whom I may specially mention my
friend of many years, the Rev. William Hunt, D.Litt., Honorary
Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. I wish the work had done
greater credit to all this assistance and to the generous expenditure
of the University and its Press. But such as it is I can say
(speaking no doubt as a fool) that I should myself have been
exceedingly grateful if somebody had done it fifty years ago : and
that I shall be satisfied if only a few people are grateful for it between
now and fifty or five hundred years hence. For there is stuff in it,
though not mine, which will keep as long as the longest of these
periods and longer.^


I Royal Crescent, Bath.
Oak -Apple Day, 1921.

' The tolerably gentle reader will easily understand that, in a book written, and
even printed, at considerable intervals of time, Time itself will sometimes have
affected statements. There may be a few such cases here. But it seems
unnecessary to burden the thing with possible Corrigenda, as to the post-war price of
the Cross-bath (p. 360), &c.

( vi )




Introduction . 4

Contents 14

To the Discerning Reader, &c. 15

Poems 19


Introduction 97

Poems not printed after 1647 loi

Despair ............ loi

The Picture . . . . • loi

Opinion loi

Poems printed in 1647 and reprinted in 1656 but not in


The Dream

To Chariessa, beholding herself in a Glass .....

The Blush

The Cold Kiss

The Idolater .

The Magnet ...........

On a Violet in her Breast

Song : ' Foolish lover, go and seek ' .

The Parting


Expostulation with Love in Despair . . . .

Song : ' Faith, 'tis not worth thy pains and care ' . . . .

Expectation ...........

1651 Poems

The Dedication : To Love .....

The Glow-worm .......

The Breath ........

Desiring her to burn his Verses ....

The Night

Excuse for wishing her less Fair ....

Chang'd, yet Constant

The Self-deceiver {Montalvan) ....

The Cure

Celia Singing

A la Mesme

The Return ........

Song : * When I lie burning in thine eye '

The Sick Lover {Guarini)

Song : * Celinda, by what potent art '

Song : ' Fool, take up thy shaft again ' . . .


Commanded by his Mistress to woo for her {Marina)
( vii )











The Repulse

The Tomb .....

The Enjoyment {Sf.-Ainajit)
To Celia Pleading Want of Merit
The Bracelet ( Tristan)

The Kiss

Apollo and Daphne {Garcilasso Mariiio)
Speaking and Kissing

The Snow-ball

The Deposition ....

To his Mistress in Absence (Tasso)

Love's Heretic .....

La Belle Confidente

La Belle Ennemie ....

The Dream (Lope de Vega\

To the Lady D. . " .

Love Deposed .....

The Divorce

Time Recovered (Casone) .

The Bracelet .....

The Farewell

Claim to Love {Gnarini) .

To his Mistress, who dreamed he was woimded {Giiarijti

The Exchange

Unaltered by Sickness

On his Mistress's Death {Petrarch) .

The Exequies .....

The Silkworm

A Lady Weeping {Montakum) .


Song : 'When, dearest beauty, thou shalt pay

The Revenge

Song : ' I will not trust thy tempting graces'
Song : ' No, I will sooner trust the wind'
To a Blind Man in Love {Marino) .


Song : ' I prithee let my heart alone '
The Loss .......

The Self-Cruel

.Song {/>y .1/. JF. .J/. ) : ' Wert thou yet fairer than thou art '

Answer ...... . .

The Relapse

To the Countess of S. with the Holy Court

Song (/>e I'oifure): ' 1 languish in a silent flame'

Drawn for \'alentine by the L. D. S.

The Modest Wish (/.'///-(.An') ....

E C atalcctis Velerum I'oetarum

On the Edition of Mr. P'letcher's Works .

To Mr. W. Hammond .....

On Mr. Shirley's I'ocms .....

On Mr. .Shcrburn's Translation of Seneca's Medea,

of the ,\uthor

On Mr. Hall's Essays

On .Sir John Suckling hi.s Picture and Poems .
The Union {i'v Mr. ll'illiiun Fdirf'.ix')

The Answer .......

Pythagoras his Moral Rules ....

( viii )

and \




Poems appearing only in the Edition of 1656 . . .159

' On this swelling bank, once proud ' 1 59

' Dear, fold me once more in thine arms ! ' . . . . . 160

' The lazy hours move slow ' 160


Introduction 163

Table of Contents 167

The Publishers to the Author 168

Poems, Elegies, Paradoxes, and Sonnets .... 169


Introduction 277

Dedication 283

To the Reader 284

Commendatory Poems 285

The Contents 294

Poems and Songs 296


Introduction 424

Commendatory Poems 428

The Pleasing History of Albino and Bellama . . . 439
To those worthy Heroes of our Age, whose noble Breasts are wet

and water'd with the dev of Helicon 539

II Insonio Insonnadado 540

( ix)



J. C.

With Additions, ne-
ver before Printed.

Printed in the Yea re



J. Cleaveland Revived :




And other of his Genuine

Incomparable Pieces^ never

before publiflit.


Some other Exquifite Remains of

the moft eminent Wits of both the

Univerfities that were his


Non norunt hd^c monumenta mcri.


Printed for Nathar?ie/ Brool^^ at the
Angel in Corn-hill. i^y^.

Clievelandi J^tndicice\



Genuine Poems^
OrationS;, Epiftles, <&c.

Purged from the many

Falfe & Spurious Ones

which hadufurpedhis Name^and
from innumerable Errours and
Corruptions in the True.

To which are added many never
Printed before.

Publiflied according to the Author's own Copies.


Printed for Nat i^. Brooke, at the ^ngel mCorne-
//;// near the ^pyal Exchange ^ 1677.

B 2


Almost everybody — an everybody not including many bodies — who
has dealt with Cleveland since the revival of interest in seventeenth-
century writers has of necessity dwelt more or less on the moral that he
points, and the tale that he illustrates, if he does not exactly adorn it.
Moral and tale have been also generally summarized by referring to the
undoubted fact that Cleveland had twenty editions while Milton's Minor
Poems had two. I do not propose myself to dwell long on this part of
the matter. The moral diatribe is not my trade : and while almost any one
who wants such a thing can deduce it from the facts which will be given,
those who are unable to effect the deduction may as well go without it.
What I wish to provide is what it is not easy for any one to provide, and
impossible for any one to provide 'out of his own head' — that is to say
an edition, sufficient for reading and for all literary purposes, of the most
probably authentic of the heterogeneous poems which have clustered round
Cleveland's name. Such an edition did not exist when this collection of
Caroline poets was planned, nor when it was announced : nor has it been
supplied since in this country. One did appear very shortly afterwards in
America,' and it has been of use to me : but it certainly does not make
Cleveland's appearance here superfluous. Had not Professor Case of
Liverpool, who had long made Cleveland a special study, insisted
on my giving him in this collection, and most kindly provided me with
stores of his own material, I should not have attempted the task : and
I still hope that Mr. Case will execute a more extensive edition with the
|)rose, with the doubtful or even certainly spurious poems duly annotated,
and with apparatus which would be out of place here. It cannot, however,
be out of place to include — in what is almost a corpus of ' metaphysical '
poetry of the less easily accessible class — one who has been regarded from
different, but not very distant, points of view as at once the metaphysical
' furthest' and as the metaphysical reduciio ad absurdum.

Cleveland (the name was also very commonly spelt in his own day
'Cleiveland" and ' Cleaveland ', as well as otherwise still) was born at

' Potms of John Clevtland, by John M. Berdan, New York, 1903.

* It has been said that we ouglit to adopt this spelling because of its connexion with
a district of Yorkshire, which, before it was ransacked for iron ore, was both wild and
beautiful. But as everybody now spells this ' Cleveland ', and as the title derived from
It has always been so spelt, the argument seems an odd one.



Loughborough, and christened on June 20, 16 13. His father, Thomas,
was curate of the parish and assistant master at the Grammar School.
Eight years later the father was made vicar of Hinckley, also provided
with a grammar school, at which John appears to have been educated till
in 1627 he went to Christ's College, Cambridge — where, of course, the
everlasting comparison with his elder contemporary Milton comes in again
for those who like it. He remained at Christ's for seven years as usual,
performing divers college exercises on public occasions, occasionally of
some importance ; took his bachelor's degree (also as usual) in 1631 ; and
in 1634 was elected to a fellowship at St. John's, proceeding to his M.A.
next year. At the end of his probationary period he did not take orders,
but was admitted as legista — perhaps also, though the statement is un-
corroborated ofificially, to the third learned faculty of Physic. There is
also doubt about his incorporation at Oxford. He served as Tutor and as
Rhetoric Praelector : nor are we destitute of Orations and Epistles of an
official character from his pen. Like the majority of university men at the
time — and indeed like the majority of men of letters and education — he
was a strong Royalist : and was unlikely to stay in Cambridge when the
Roundhead mob of the town was assisted by a Parliamentary garrison in
rabbling the University. It was natural that he should ^ retire to Oxon.',
and it is probable that Oxford was his head-quarters from 1642 to 1645.
But he does not seem to have been actually deprived of his fellowship at
St. John's till the last-named year, when the Earl of Manchester, whom
(especially as Lord Kimbolton) Cleveland had bitterly satirized, had his
opportunity of revenge and took it.

For Cleveland had already been active with his pen in the Royalist cause,
and was now appointed to a post of some importance as ' Judge Advocate '
of Newark. The Governor was Sir Richard Willis, for whom Cleveland
replied to Leven's summons to surrender. They held the town for
the King from November to May, when it was given up on Charles's own
order. Then comes the anecdote — more than a hundred years after date —
of Leven's dismissing him with contemptuous lenity. ' Let the poor fellow
go about his business and sell his ballads.' This, though accepted by
Carlyle, and a smart enough invention, has no contemporary authority,
and is made extremely suspicious by its own addition that Cleveland was
so vexed that he took to strong liquors which hastened his death. Now
Newark fell in 1646 and Cleveland lived till 1658. It would make an
interesting examination question, ' How much must a man drink in a day
in order to hasten his death thereby twelve years afterwards ? ' And it
must be admitted, if true, to be a strong argument on the side of the good
fellow who pleaded that alcohol was a very slow poison.

He escaped somehow, however : and we hear nothing of his life for

yohn Cleveland

another decade. Then he is again in trouble, being informed against, to the
Council of State, by some Norwich Roundheads who have, however,
nothing to urge against him but his antecedents, his forgathering with
'papists and delinquents', his '^genteelgarb' with 'small and scant means', and
(which is important) his * great abilitie whence he is able to do the greater
disservice', this last a handsome testimonial to Cleveland, and a remarkable
premium upon imbecility. He was imprisoned at Yarmouth and wrote a very
creditable letter to Cromwell, maintaining his principles, but asking for
release, which seems to have been granted. Cromwell — to do him justice
and to alter a line of his greatest panegyrist save one in verse on another
person —

Never perseaited but for gain,

and he probably did not agree with the officious persons at Norwich that
there was much to be gained by incarcerating a poor Royalist poet. But
Cleveland had been at least three months in prison, and it is alleged, with
something more like vera causa in the allegation, that he there contracted
'such a weakness and disorder as soon after brought him to the grave'.
A seventeenth-century prison was much more likely to kill a man in two
years than ' strong waters ' which had already been vigorously applied and
successfully resisted for ten. He died in Gray's Inn, of an intermittent
fever, on April 29, 1658.

Something will be said presently of the almost hopeless tangle of the
so-called editions of Cleveland's Poems. It seems at least probable that no
single one of the twenty — or whatever the number is — can be justly called
authoritative. That he was an extremely popular poet or rather journalist in
verse as well as prose, is absolutely beyond dispute — the very tangle just
referred to proves it — and, though it may be excessive to call him the most
popular poet of his time, he may fairly be bracketed with Cowley as joint holder
of that position. Nor did his popularity cease as quickly as Cowley's did —
the Restoration indeed was likely to increase rather than diminish it ; and
the editions went on till close upon the Revolution itself, while there were
at least two after it, one just on the eve of the eighteenth century in 1699
and one near its middle in 1742.' Considerably before this, however,
the critics had turned against him. ' Grave men ', to quote Edward Phillips
and the Theatrmn Poetarum^ 'affirmed him the best of English poets', but
not for long. Fuller, who actually admired him, admitted that 'Cleveland-
izing' was dangerous; and Dryden, who must have admired him at one
time, and shows constant traces of his influence, talks in the Essay of
Dramatic Poesy of a ' Catachresis or Clevelandism '. In the eighteenth

• I am not certain that I have seen a copy of this, and its existence has been
denied : but I have certainly seen it catalogued somewhere. It should perhaps be
added that t6^^ is only i6&-] with a fresh title.



century he passed almost out of sight till Johnson brought him up for ' awful
exampling ' in the famous Life of Cowley : and he has had few advocates
since. Let us, without borrowing from these advocates or attempting
tediously to confute his enemies, deal with the facts, so far as they are
known, of his life, and with the characteristics of the carefully sifted, but in
no sense ' selected ', poetry which will follow.

As for his character as a man, the evidence is entirely in his favour. He
was an honest and consistent politician on his own side, and if some people
think it the wrong side, others are equally positive that it was the right.
If (rather unfairly) we dismiss the encomia on his character as partisan,
there remains the important fact that no one on the other side says any-
thing definite against it. If he was abusive, it certainly does not lie with
anybody who admires Milton to reproach him with that. But the fact is,
once more, that except in so far as there is a vague idea that a cavalier,
and especially a cavalier poet, must have been a ' deboshed ' person,
there is absolutely no evidence against Cleveland and much in his favour.
Also, this is not our business, which is with him as a poet.

As such he has been subjected to very little really critical examination.'
The result of such as I myself have been able to give him was arrived at
somewhat slowly : or rather it flashed upon me, after reading the poems
several times over in different arrangements, that which gives the serious
and satiric pieces higgledy-piggledy as in the older editions, and that which
separates them, as in 1677 and in Mr. Berdan's American reprint. This
result is that I entertain a very serious doubt whether Cleveland ever
wrote ' serious ' poetry, in one sense — he was of course serious enough in

Online LibraryGeorge SaintsburyMinor poets of the Caroline period .. (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 51)