George W 1856-1940 Jacoby.

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The natural explanation lies close at hand. It is
contained in the previously noted law of ideational
dynamics, according to which, if the suggestive
receptivity of an individual be sufficiently pro-
nounced, suggested concepts will elicit sensations
and movements which heretofore have been missing,
and, on the other hand, will do away with sensa-
tions and movements which previously were present.
All personal influence which a physician exerts,
consciously or unconsciously, is more or less de-
pendent on this method. The confidence pro-
duced by his comportment, the assurance of his
demeanor, his solicitude for the patient's welfare,
his example, his verbal or written dictates, all act
suggestively, even when the suggestion is not in-
tended by him or recognized as such by the patient.



342 PSYCHOTHERAPY

If, then, unintentional suggestion emanating from
a physician can prove of service as a mere aid to
medicinal or other curative factors, how much
more potent must be the action of suggestion when
it is employed purposely by a psychotherapist trained
as a specialist?

We have seen that scientific psychotherapy is
based, on the one hand, on the laws of psychology,
and, on the other, on the pathogeny of neuroses.
What we call "mind" is nothing else than a vital
manifestation of the brain in accord with well-
defined laws.

To recapitulate briefly, the processes which take
place to produce such manifestation are: All our
concepts arise from sensory perceptions which im-
press themselves upon our consciousness in a man-
ner not yet completely understood. These sen-
sory perceptions become stored up as memory
images, which may be reawakened later, in certain
brain cells connected with one another through as-
sociation fibres. One person may have a good
memory, another a bad one, and that signifies the
brain cells of the 'One retain impressions received
longer and more firmly than do those of the other.
By means of association, sensory perceptions and



CONCLUSION 343

memory images become joined into ideas, which
are the more complex the greater the number of
sensory impressions which the adolescent being
takes up. In conformity with the law of psycho-
physical parallelism, ideas are accompanied by
physical expressions, such as muscular movements,
increase or decrease in the regularity of heart
action and of respiration. AYhat cannot be em-
phasized too strongly is that this reaction of ideas
upon bodily functions constitutes the natural basis
of suggestion and psychotherapy. Functional dis-
eases also, are manifestations of life under abnormal
conditions, but those abnormal conditions consist
in false ideas and not in organic changes. The
same idea which will so alter the quality of a sen-
sory perception that it will make a person drink
water, thinking it is wine, or eat a potato with
special relish under the impression that it is an
orange, will also cause an inhibition of function
or produce other physical disturbances. Func-
tional disorder will give way to a normal state as
soon as the condition under which it exists has again
become normal — that is, when the false ideas have
been removed by suggestion. Furthermore, we have
seen that psychotherapy has at its command not



344 PSYCHOTHERAPY

only treatment by suggestion, but also the psycho-
analytic method of Freud. True, this method still
requires corroboration, so a final judgment cannot
yet be pronounced on it. Perhaps, after all,
catharsis, that postponed discharge of the emotions
which primarily have produced the hysterical
symptoms and neurasthenic obsessions, may have
a certain measure of success alongside or apart
from suggestion. Before closing, we would direct
attention once more to the fact that the capable
psychotherapist need not, as a rule, employ hyp-
nosis to effect an increase of suggestibility. On
the other hand, neither in prophylaxis nor thera-
peutics can he dispense with those important aids,
mental relaxation and exercise, appropriate occu-
pation and training founded on psycho-physiologic
principles, which will tend to fortify the power of
nerve resistance.

The knowledge which has been gained of the
nature of suggestion and psychotherapy certainly
represents progress of no ordinary kind, for not
only has it materially widened our comprehension
of the human mind, but it also has taught us that
the therapeutic application of all psychic methods
should and must remain in the hands of the trained



CONCLUSION 345

physician. Even if such treatment be limited to
the cure of diseases of the "imagination," func-
tional disorders, and symptoms wanting in discov-
erable organic change, still it can never be acquired
through a study of books alone. No one can be-
come a capable psychotherapist except through
natural aptitude and tact, medical training, and
experience.



LITERATURE

1. Bechterew.— "Suggestion und ihre soziale Bedeutung."

Leipzig, 1899.

2. Bernheim,H.-"De la Suggestion." Pans, 1888.

3. Braid, James.-" Neurypnology." London and Ldin-

burgh, 1843. „

4. Braid, James.— " Observations on Trance or Human

Hybernation." London, 1850.
5 Breuer, Joseph, and Freud, Sigmund.-"Studien ueber
Hysterie." Wien, 1909. „ u- u

6. Bumke.— "Koerperliche Begleitersheinungen Psychischer

Vorgaenge." Wiesbaden, 1909. ^^

7. Bunge.— "Lehrbuch der Physiologic des Menschen.

Leipzig, 1903. ,,. , „ xt

8. Clouston, T. S.-"The Hygiene of the Mmd. New

York, 1907. ^ , ,.

9. Dercum, F. X.— "An Analysis of Psychotherapeutic

Methods." Therapeutic Gazette, May 15, 1908.

10. Dercum, F. X.— "The R61e of Dreams in Etiology."

Journ. Amer. Med. Assn., May 13, 1911.

11. Dessoir, Max.— "Das Unterbewusstsein." Zeitschnjt

filr Psychotherapie, vol. 1, pt. 4, p. 193.

12. Dejerine and Gauckler. "Les Manifestations Fonc

tionelles des Psych oneuroses." Pans, 1911.

13. Donaldson, H. U.— Journal of Nervous and Mental

Diseases. New York, May, 1911. ^^

14. Dressier.— "Vorlesungen ueber Psychologic. Heidel-

berg, 1900.
15 Dubois, Paul.-"The Psychic Treatment of Nervous

Disorders." Translated from the French by b. t..

Jelliffe and W. A. White. New York, 1908.
16. Eddy, Mrs.— " Science and Health." Boston, 1907.

347



348 LITERATURE

17. Engelen. — " Suggestion undHypnose." Muenchen, 1905.

18. Flammarion.— "LTnconnu." Paris, 1899.

19. Forel. — "Der Hypnotismus und die Suggestive Psych o-

therapie." Stuttgart, 1902.

20. Freud.— "Psychoanalyse." Leipzig, 1910.

21. Flechsig. — "Gehirn und Seele." Leipzig, 1896.

22. Garbe.— " Ueber den Willkurlichen Scheintod indischer

Fakirs." Beitrdge zur indlschen Kulturgeschichte, p.
211. Berlin, 1903.

23. Gilles de la Tourette. — "Traite clinique et therapeutique

de I'Hysterie," etc. Paris, 1891-5.

24. Heller.— "Heilpaedadogik." Leipzig, 1904.

25. Herman. — "Lehrbuch der Physiologie." Berlin, 1902.

26. Hirsch, Max. — "Suggestion und Hypnose." Leipzig,

1906.

27. Hoffmann. — "Allegemeine Therapie." Leipzig, 1903.
27a. Hollender, B. — "Hypnotism and Suggestion." London,

1910.

28. Krafft-Ebing, R. von.— "Hypnotismus." Stuttgart, 1889.

29. Liebault, A. — "Der Kuenstliche Schlaf," etc. Leipzig,

1892.

30. Magnus. — "Aberglaube in der Medizin." Breslau, 1903.

31. Moebius. — " Physiologischer Schwachsinn des Weibes."

Halle, 1908.

32. Moll.— "Hypnotismus." Berlin, 1903.

33. Miinsterberg, Hugo. — "Psychotherapy." New York,

1909.

34. Obersteiner, H. — " Functionelle und Organische Nerven-

Krankheiten." Wiesbaden, 1900.

35. Oppenheim, H. — " Psychotherapeutische Briefe." Ber-

lin, 1906.

36. Parmele, Mary Piatt. "Christian Science. Is it Chris-

tian? Is it Science?" New York, 1904.

37. Paul, N. C— "Treatise on Yoga Philosophy." Third

edition. Cited by Bunge. Not obtainable in the origi-
nal. Bombay, 1888.

38. Preyer, W.— "Der Hypnotismus." Wien, 1890.



LITERATURE 349

39. Prince, Morton, and others. — "Psychotherapeutics."

A symposium. Boston, 1910.

40. Putnam, J. J. — American Journal of the Medical Sciences,

January, 1908.

41. Rosenbach, O.— "Grundlage, Aufgabe, und Grenze der

Therapie." Wien, 1891.

42. Schmidt, Richard. — "Fakire und Fakirtum im alten und

modernen Indien." Berlin, 1908.

43. Stoddart, W. H. B.— "Mind and Its Disorders." Phila-

delphia, 1909.

44. Wundt. — "Grundzuege der Physiolgischen Psychologic."

Leipzig, 1899.

45. Wundt. — ^**Vorlesungen ueber die INIenschen und Thier-

seele." Leipzig, 1901.

46. Zander. — " Nervensystem." Leipzig, 1906.



INDEX



After Sensations, 45.

Altruism and medicine, 217.

Appetite, loss of, 321.

Aristotle, 60, 284.

Articulate speech, 72.

Association centres, 36.

Association fibres, 32.

Association of ideas, 51-53.

Association of ideas, laws of,
59, 60.

Association of ideas and emo-
tional tones, 63.

Attention, 66.

Attention and brain, 67.

Automatic writing, 175.

Auto-suggestion, 180.

Auto-suggestion and sense
deceptions, 181.

Axone, 26.

Balassa, 196.

Baynard, 160.

Bechterew, 120, 131, 144,

202.
Beethoven, 82, 115.
Berger, 58.

Bernheim, 137, 138, 154, 200.
BiUroth, 337.
Boettiger, 184.
Braid, 160-162, 199.
Brain centres, localization of,

33, 34.
Brain, convolutions of, 30.
Brain, cortex of, 32.
Brain, development of, 34, 35.
Brain gymnastics, 303. See

Mental Exercise.
Brain, stiucture of, 28.



Brain vibration, 58.
Breuer, 161, 285-288, 291,

327.
Broca, 32, 33.
Bumke, 54, 58.
Bunge, 158, 161.

Catharsis, 283.

Charcot, 201, 279.

Charlatanism. See Dilettan-
teism, medical.

Cheyne, 160.

Child mind, 92.

Children's crusades, 187.

Christian Science, 203, 223.
231, 238, 252.

Church sleep, 238.

Civihzation and nature, 215.

Clairvoyance, 173.

"Clever Hans," history of,
40.

Co-consciousness, 172.

Cognition, Hmits of, 12.

Concepts. See Perception.

Connecting tracts, automat-
ical function of, 51.

Consciousness, dissociation
of, 179.

Convulsions, psychic, 334.

Co-ordination of movements,
94.

Cortex, regions of, 32.

Criminals, brain of, 32.

Dance-madness, 189.
Darwin, 212, 216.
Deductive methods, 109.
Dejerine, 319.



351



352



INDEX



De la Tourette, Gilles, 155,
156.

Delboeuf, 266.

Dercum, 15, 292, 295.

Dessoir, 202.

Development, law of, 212.

Diagnosis, errors in, 230.

Dilettanteism, medical, 4.

Dilettanteism, medical, dan-
gers of, 4, 5.

Dilettanteism, medical, vic-
tims of, 5.

Donaldson, 28, 37.

Double consciousness, 138.

Double personality, 136, 137,
173.

Dowie, John Alexander, 258.

Dream, 84-92.

Dream analysis, 88.

Dressier, 87.

Dualism of body and soul,
17, 18.

Dubois, 148

Du Bois-Reymond, 47, 94,
325, 331.

Dukhobortsi, 205.

Du Prel, 76, 176-178.

Dyspnoea, psychic, 328.

Eddyism, 253.

Edmonds, Laura, 174.

Eglinton, 176-178.

Ego. See Selfhood.

Ehrenberg, 25.

Emmanuel Movement, 260.

Emotional tones and associa-
tion of ideas, 63.

Engelen, 134. 136.

Eulenburg, 202.

Excitation threshold, 43.

Expressional movements, 40,
54.

Fakirs, 158-162.
Fakirs, cataleptic state* of,
162.



False conceptions, correction

of, 112.
False concepts, causes of, 108,

109.
False concepts and mental

disorder, 111.
False concepts and organic

changes, 111.
False concepts, diagnosis of,

112.
Faria, 197-199.
Fechner, 300.
Fichte, 70.
Flagellants, 185.
Flammarion, 77.
Flechsig, 34, 36, 92.
Flying, hallucinations of, 86.
Forel, 133, 152, 153, 202.
Freud, 88, 285, 288-295.
Frontal lobe, third convolu-
tion of, 33.
Functional disorder, 122, 282.
Functional disorder, psychic

origin of, 123.
Functional disorder, psychic

cure of, 123.

Gall, 30, 32.

Gambetta, brain of, 30.

Garbe, 162.

Gauckler, 319.

Geniuses, 80-84.

Goethe's hallucination, 115.

Gruber, 103.

Hack-Tuke, 202.
Half-consciousness, 85.
Hallucination, 114.
Heinroth, 106.
Hellenbach, 176, 177.
Heller, 304.
Hermann, 23.
Hirsch, 326, 327.
Hoffmann, 299.
Hollander, 196.
Hypnosis, 135, 164, 198, 199.



INDEX



353



Hypnosis, production of, 168.

Hypnosis and sensory decep-
tion, 140.

Hypnosis and rapport, 167.

Hypnosis and sleep, 166.

Hypnotic experiments, dan-
gers of, 234.

Hypochondriasis, 108, 330.

Hysteria and sexual sphere,
289.

Ideler, 106.

Illusion, 115.

"Imaginary" diseases, 140.

Imagination, power of, 148.

Imperception, 113.

Impressions, similarity of, 60.

Impressions, simultaneity of,
60.

Inductive methods, 109.

Instincts, 62.

Institutions for psychic treat-
ment, 305.

James, 79, 80.

Kant, 14, 149, 181.
Keller, Helen, 119.
Kircher, 196.
Kohlschuetter's curve of

sleep intensity, 300.
Krafift-Ebing, 136, 152, 153.

Liebault, 154, 155, 199, 200,

278
Lloyd-Tuckey, 202.
Lombroso, 32, 146.
Lycanthropy, 184.

Magnetism, animal, 197.
Magnus, 239, 255.
Man, characteristics of, 98.
Maternal impressions, 154.
Mayer, J. R. von, 110.
Medusa, excitation of, 23.
Memory pictures, 21.



Memory pictures, cells of, 48,
49.

Memory pictures in child-
hood, 93.

Mental activity, organs of,
20.

Mental activity, objective,
69.

Mental activity, subjective,
69.

Mental exercise, 296.

Mental rest, 296.

Mesmer, 195.

"Miracles" and natural sci-
ence, 12.

"Miracles," natural causes
of, 13.

Moebius, 101, 102, 225.

Moll, 180, 202, 271, 327.

Mouchart, 87.

Munsterberg, 201.

Nancy School, 154.

Natural selection, means of,
212, 213.

Nerve cells, 25-28.

Nerve fibres, 25-28.

Nerve process, injury of, 27.

Nerve structure, formation of,
25, 26.

Nerves as conductive organs,
37.

Nervous elements, differenti-
ation of, 22.

Neurasthenia, 308.

Neurasthenia and luxury,
312.

Neurasthenia, sexual, 335.

Neurasthenic sleep curve, 300.

Neuron, 27.

Neuroses, 122.

Nietzsche, 212.

Nightmare, 86.

Obersteiner, 123, 124, 271.
Occipital lobe, 33.



354



INDEX



Paracelsus, 195.

Parietal region, 35.

Parmele, Mary Piatt, 256.

Pasteur, 1.

Patient, requirements of, 271.

Paul, N. C, 158, 161.

Perception, disorders of, 113.

Perception, intensity of, 41.

Perception, production of, 59.

Perceptions, association of,
59, 60.

Perceptions and emotional
tones, 62.

Perimetry, 67, 302.

Personality, dissociation of,
141.

Physician, personality of, 262.

Popularization of medicine
by laymen, 4, 5.

Popularization of medicine
by physicians, 6.

Popularization of science, 1.

Post-hypnotic amnesia, 169.

Preyer, 181, 202.

Priests as physicians, 238.

Prince, 142, 172, 201.

Psychasthenia. See Neuras-
thenia.

Psychic centres, 36.

Psychic contact, 267.

Psychic infections, 122, 132.

Psychical research. Society
for, 201.

Psycho-analysis, 283.

Psychology, empirical (ex-
act), 18-20.

Psychology, experimental, 19,
20.

Psychology, speculative, 9, 18.

Psycho-physical parallehsm,
53.

Psycho-prophylactic treat-
ment, 307.

Psychoses and central ner-
vous system, 105, 106.



Psychotherapist, require-
ments of, 264.

Psychotherapy, incompetent
employment of, 230.

Psychotherapy, objections to,
221.

Psychotherapy and organic
diseases, 336.

Psychotherapy and psychia-
try, 209.

Putnam, 201, 275.

Rabies, spurious, 183.
Ramon y Cajal, 27.
Raphael, 82.
Rapport in hypnotic state,

167.
Raskolniks, 205.
Reaction, production of, 22.
Reflex, process of, 23.
Rochas, 120.
Romanes, 76.

Saints as physicians, 242-
250:

Salpetriere School, 156.

Scepticism of patients, 271.

Schmidt, 161.

Schools for feeble-minded,
311.

Schrenck-Notzing, 8.

Schubert, 90.

Seasickness, psychic, 320.

Secondary sensory impres-
sions, 45.

Selfhood in children, 70, 71.

Selfhood, conflicts of, 72.

Selfhood, feeling of, 69, 70.

Sense deceptions, morbid na-
ture of, 46.

Sense deceptions, power of,
120.

Sensory apparatus, 24.

Sensory centres, 35.

Sensory impressions, trans-
mission of, 37, 38.



INDEX



355



Sensory perceptions, 39.

Sensory perceptions in ani-
mals, 39.

Sex, equal value of, 100.

Sidis, 201.

Sleep, 84.

Sleeplessness, cause of, 300.

Sleep-walkers, 52.

Soul-blindness, 49, 50.

Specific sensory energy, law
of, 25, 45, 46.

Speech, articulate, organs of,
33.

Speech, development of, 95.

Spiritistic mediums, 178.

Spiritistic phenomena, expla-
nation of, 175.

Starvation in order to lose
weight, 324.

Stimulation, intensity of, 41.

Stimulation, reception of, 24.

Stoddart, 113.

Subconscious mind, 171.

Suggestibility, 134.

SuggestibiUty, increase of,
163.

Suggestion and action of med-
icine, 151.

Suggestion, adoption of, 133.

Suggestion and bodily func-
tions, 150.

Suggestion and crime, 144.

Suggestion, definition of, 131.

Suggestion and hysteria, 141.

Suggestion and individual na-
ture, 155.

Suggestion, hmits of, 149.

Suggestion and organic
changes, 149.

Suggestion and pedagogy,
149.



Suggestion, properties of, 143.

Suggestive influences, 225.

Suggestive influences of ad-
vertisements, 227.

Suggestive influences of medi-
cines, 227.

Suggestive power of surround-
ings, 146.

Survival of the fittest, 211.

Szandor, lima, 136, 179.

Telepathy, 75.
Temple sleep, 193, 237.
Temporal lobe, 33.
Thinking, disordered, 64.
Thought transference. See

Telepathy.
Townsend, 160.
Trance, 173.
Traumatic neuroses, 330.

Verworm, 196.
Virchow, 8.
VitaUa, Nun, 206.

Waking suggestion, 163.

Waldeyer, 27, 32.

Wetterstrand, 202.

Will, 65.

Will, freedom of, 71.

Wilson, 196.

Witches and hysteria, 185.

Woman, characteristics of,

98.
Worcester, Dr., 260.
Wundt, 19, 84.

Yogis. See Fakirs.

Zander, 95, 183.
Zoellner, 76, 177.



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Online LibraryGeorge W 1856-1940 JacobySuggestion and psychotherapy → online text (page 18 of 18)