themselves for five years, the first two of which were devoted
to further study, especially in academic subjects, and
weekly lectures and discussions on the theory and practice
of teaching. The next three years were given to teaching in
the orphan asylum, Paedagogium and other schools con-
nected with the institution. By means of this training the
students became so much better equipped in their work as
teachers that on leaving the institution they spread its fame
throughout all Germany. This had the efifect of attracting
many strong students to the school at Halle, and of stimu-
lating others to found similar institutions elsewhere.
The work of the Seminarium Selectum was adapted es-
pecially to secondary education, while that of the Teachers*
Seminary was fitted more particularly for the work of ele-
mentary schools. Members of the latter had less theory but
It is worthy of note that Christoph Cellarius, an eminent
classical scholar and professor of eloquence and history in
the University of Halle, conducted the scientific exercises of
the Seminarium Selectum for a short time prior to his death
(1707) and gave daily lectures on the humanities to mem-
bers of the Teachers' Seminary.
Francke was not satisfied with the institution, and in 17 14
22 TRAINING OF SECONDARY TEACHERS r22
he prepared plans for a Seminarium Ministerii Ecclesiastici
and a Seminarium Elegantioris Litteraturse. In the former
were to be trained the future servants of the Church (Pro-
testant) and in the latter those who were to pursue by pro-
fession the humanities, and who desired to prepare them-
selves for the offices of the classical schools (Gelehrten
Schulen). Herein Francke had already shown himself to be
the forerunner of Wolf, who many years later accomplished
the complete separation of theological and philological
studies. It was thought in this way to spare the student
many subjects which were chiefly of value to the future
preacher and, on the other hand, to make philology and
kindred sciences the problem of more immediate concern.
The subjects designated for this purpose were Latin, Greek,
Hebrew, history, geography, pure and applied mathematics
and fluency in French speech. Besides, the members busied
themselves with the methodology of the humanities and di-
rectly qualified themselves for employment in the teacher's
profession. The guidance of these students was in the hands
of the inspectors of the Pedagogium and of the Latin School/
The work of Francke at Halle was of especial interest not
only because it furnished the foundation of the later devel-
oped Real Schools of Germany but also because we find here
the beginning of the systematic preparation of teachers
which led the way to the establishment of elementary normal
schools; and because in the work of the Seminarium Se-
lectum, and the classical instruction in the Pedagogium, we
find foreshadowed the Philological Seminaries which repre-
sented the first efforts toward the professional training of
In 1732 a preacher and disciple of Francke, by the name
^ Fries, Baumeister's Handbuch der Erziehungs- und Unterrichts-lehre fflr
hohere Schulen, Vol. II, part i, p. 49.
BEGINNING AND GROWTH
of Schienmeyer,' opened a teachers' seminary in connec-
tion with his orphan asylum at Stettin. This
movement received the expressed approval of
SCHOOLS ^^^ 1^'"&' Frederic William I,, and so interested
him that later, in 1736, he issued an order to
Abbot Steinmetz, of Kloster-Bergen, instructing him to
establish a normal school at that place.
As a result of the pietistic movement started by Francke
many other attempts were made to establish teachers' train-
ing classes in connection with church and city schools.
The most important private venture of this
HECKER AT Y\ViA was the Teachers' Seminary or Normal
School established by the Rev. John Julius
Hecker at Kurmark in Berlin in 1748.
Hecker had been brought under the influence of Francke
while a student at the University of Halle, and when called
to the pastorate of the Church of the Trinity, at Berlin, he
became instructor of the German schools of the parish.
These grew so under his guidance that in 1747 he added to
the curriculum drawing, geometry, architecture, agriculture,
and the natural sciences, and designated the enlarged insti-
tution the Real-schule. The following year he added the
Teachers' Seminary or Normal School.
This school at once attracted the attention of the king,
Frederic the Great, who like his father, Frederic William I.,
was greatly interested in bettering the educational conditions
of his kingdom.
By royal ordinance in 1753 the king enjoined that all the
vacancies of the country schools on certain sections of the
crown lands of the kingdom should be supplied by teachers
educated at the Kurmark Normal School, granting at the
same time an annual stipend for the support of twelve
alumni of this institution. Through an act of the king in
* Schmid, Encyc, Vol. X, p. 51.
24 TRAINING OF SECONDARY TEACHERS [24
the following year this private school of Hecker's was made
the royal primary school for the education of schoolmasters
and parish clerks.
The first general school regulations for
PROVISION FOR Prussia (1763) drawn up by Hecker and issued
TEACHERS' , , , â€¢ â€¢ ,
EXAMINATIONS ^Y ^0X^1 authonty, required, among other pro-
visions, that teachers pass an examination prior
to appointment, and that for the royal schools in the dis-
trict, towns and villages, only such teachers be employed
as have been, at least for some time, pupils of the royal
sacristans' and school-masters' normal school at Kurmark in
Berlin, and who have acquired the practical knowledge of
silk industry and of the methods of school-keeping as prac-
ticed in the German schools of Trinity Church.'
These regulations required that all children
^ Â°^ be sent to school regularly from 5 to 13 or 14
STUDY o / J ^ -r
years of age and be " Christianly taught in
reading, prayings chanting, writing and arithmetic, cate-
chism and Biblical history."
Two years later, Frederic the Great issued
ESTABLISHMENT similar regulations for his Catholic subjects in
OF TEACHERS giiggja jj^ which hc required that all teachers
SEMINARIES IN , / , ^
SILESIA i^ cities and villages be examined before ap-
pointment. In order that the young might
have the best instruction and that adults might be taught
how to teach and manage youth, he selected several schools
that were to serve as seminaries for future teachers. These
schools were to have a well-informed director and skillful
teachers. " The director should aim to have everything in
his school taught thoroughly and in reference to the needs
of common life."' His object should be, not to load the
* Barnard's National Education in the German States, p. 344.
*From the Law as quoted by Barnard in National Education in the German
States, p. 869.
2 el BEGINNING AND GROWTH 25
memory, but to train the mind and develop the understand-
ing. The best methods were demanded for these schools,
and the students preparing for teaching were required, along
with their academic studies, to observe the instruction of
children as given by the regular teaching and then to con-
duct themselves under the guidance and criticism of the
teacher. Many of the provisions of this law have continued
in force even to the present time.
From this time forth normal schools spread
SPREAD quite rapidly throughout Germany. But it was
OF NORMAL ... 111
SCHOOLS "o^ wviXA the present century that they began
to assume definite form and to become perman-
ently fixed as an essential part of the educational system.
The school law of 1819 required every departmental dis-
trict to support at least one normal school ; and to have in
connection therewith a primary school to furnish the stu-
dents opportunity for observation and practice teaching.
In order that these schools might be kept as close to the
people as possible, and that the pupil teachers be preserved
from dissipation and the temptations of city life, the number
of students was limited to 70, and the normal schools were
to be established, whenever possible, in small towns. The
confessional character of the schools was then established as
it still remains. In communities where the number of
Catholics and Protestants were nearly equal, a normal school
for each denomination was to be created. In other com-
munities the school was to take on the confessional form
representing the stronger sect, those of the minority attend-
ing a school in an adjoining district.
The above law fixed the age of admission to the normal
school as from 16 to 18 years, and in the matter of scholar-
ship required that the candidate should have passed through
a course of instruction in an elementary school.
At present the age limit is 17 years, and the candidate
26 TRAINING OF SECONDARY TEACHERS [26
must have completed a common school (volkschule) course
of eight years and also the three years' course
preparatory to the normal school. He must
CONDITION i^ ^ J ^
furnish a physician's certificate of sound health;
a certificate from the pastor showing that his char-
acter has been moral and blameless, and certificates from
at least two of his former teachers showing previous in-
dustry and moral habits, and indicating that he has suffi-
cient ability for the teacher's profession.
Furnished with these credentials the candidate is admftted
to the entrance examination, which includes Biblical history,
history of Christianity, catechism, reading, writing, grammar,
arithmetic, geography, German history, natural history and
vocal and instrumental music.
If successful his name is placed on the eligible list of ap-
plicants according to rank, from which the highest are
selected to fill the first vacancies occurring in the normal
school of the district.
Since graduation from the normal schools
INFLUENCE OF , , , , , , , .
-râ€žT. x,^â€žâ€ž., has become almost the only means of obtain-
THE NORMAL â€¢'
ing a position as teacher in the elementary
schools of Germany, the influence of these institutions in
molding the ideas of the people can hardly be overesti-
The course extending over three years varies but little-
throughout the different states and is as follows:
27] BEGLXNLXG AND GROWTH 2/
COURSE OF STUDY OF THREE YEARS IN NORMAL SCHOOLS OF PRUSSIA.
1st Year. 2nd Year. 3rd Year.
Required Subjects. hrs. per wk. hrs. per wk. hrs. per wk.
Pedagogy 2 3 3
Religion 4 4 2
German 5 5 2
History 2 2 2
Arithmetic 3 3 "1
Geometry 2 2 /
Nat. Science 4 4 2
Geography 2 2 I
Drawing 2 2 I
Writing 2 I O
Gymnastics 2 2 2
Music 5 5 3
Total 35 35 20
Besides the above required work the student may elect
Latin, French or EngHsh offered in courses of 3 hrs., 3 hrs.,
2 hrs. per week.
With the exception of pedagogy, the subjects presented
in the Normal Schools are the same as those presented in
the preparatory schools and in the main similar to the sub-
jects that the student will be called upon to teach in the ele-
Ail normal schools are under governmental control, tui-
tion is free, and at least half of the living expenses of the
students is borne by the State.
All candidates contract to engage in teaching in whatever
places they are assigned for at least three years, and are
sure of permanent employment.
GENERALIZATIONS ^ ^^^^ prcscuted hcre only a few of the
TOUCHING THE salicut fcaturcs. The normal schools of Ger-
oRiGiN OF many have been the result of a slow growth,
PROFESSIONAL jJ^^-gJ.J^J^| gj^^ cxtcmal, which is still going on.
TRAINING '^ Â°
They are the product of the reform movement
in education which tended toward realism and away from
28 TRAINING OF SECONDARY TEACHERS [28
classicism â€” an effort which had for its object the practical
education of the masses, the fitting of youth for citizenship
and the practical duties of life. Or, according to Rein, " If
one seeks the pedagogical motives out of which these estab-
lishments grew he finds them resulting partly through
pietistic and partly through philanthropic influences which
dominated there, the former rather pastorally inclined
through the needs of the youth, the latter arising more
especially from the idea of a general school reform." '
Dr. Russell in speaking of this reform movement says,
" Two dominant motives determined all action in this direc-
tion: (i) The perfection of the individual, and (2) the
mastery over environment These two ideas also entered
into the educational ideas of the time, and directed the de-
velopment of the school system. The one was essentially
humanistic as pertaining to the perfection of the human sub-
ject; the other was essentially realistic as pertaining to the
control of things in the objective world." And again, "The
real school, therefore, is the direct response to the individual
ideal that lays special emphasis on the mastery of environ-
Normal schools were the result of this real-
istic movement which called attention to the
MOVEMENT objccts of thc environment and created a demand
for new subjects of study as well as a more
rationalistic method of teaching the old ones.
In order to advance the new education it was necessary to
have teachers educated not only in the new subjects but also
in the spirit of the new thought; hence the importance of
At first the new subjects contained but little content and
were not to be compared to the humanities in educative
' Volks$chullehrer bildung, Rein's Encyc, 7 : 1044.
' German Higher Schools, p. 64.
29] BEGINNING AND GROWTH 29
value. Two ideas became prominent, the one, to extend the
number of new subjects, the other, to shorten the time given
to the classics by means of better methods, and to add to
this curriculum some of the real studies. Neither of these
views wholly prevailed; the latter exerted much influence in
modifying the classical schools, while the former, somewhat
changed, became the ideal of the elementary and normal
The thing that was most desired at first was
not culture, but knowledge and the power of
INDUSTRIAL ' Â° ^
imparting that knowledge to others. This gave
the normals a practical and industrial, though somewhat
narrow turn, which they still retain. Agriculture, mechanic
arts, manual training, silk industry, weaving, cooking, etc.,
were subjects quite frequently introduced into the curriculum.
Among the principal forces that have been at work in
shaping the development of these institutions may be men-
tioned the pietists under Francke, the philanthropists under
Basedow, educational reformers like Pestalozzi, Felbiger and
Diesterweg, the clergy, long the guardian of all education,
jealous of its power and unwilling to give up its authority,
and the central government, always aggressive in extending
its power and influence.'
The normal schools have taken on a distinctly German
character. They represent the interests of the common peo-
ple. They promulgate class distinction by ofTering a course
unsuited to advancement in the higher institutions. Thor-
ough academic instruction over a limited field by methods
which are intended as a guide for the pupil teacher, observa-
tion and criticism of school work and practice teaching ac-
cording to model, are the principal features for which they
' Compare Barnard's National Education in the German States ; Volks-
schullehrer bildung. Rein's Encyc, 7 : 1040, and Volkischullehrer seminar,
Schmid's Encyc, 10: 51.
30 TRAINING OF SECONDARY TEACHERS [30
Part II. â€” Secondary Schools.
Turning our attention to the professional training of teach-
ers for secondary education, we find the first efforts in this
direction being made through the theological and philolog-
ical seminaries of the universities, especially in the latter.
Prior to the i8th century no special arrangements had
been made at the universities or elsewhere for the profes-
sional training of secondary teachers.
Many theologians having noticed how frequently their stu-
dents were called as tutors and school officers felt the need
of giving them a more suitable training, and Buddeus, pro-
fessor of theology at Jena, even went so far as to advocate
for this purpose the establishment of a pedagogical semi-
nary, but nothing further resulted from this source.
Leaving out of account the efforts of Cellarius
SEMINARIES ^^ ^^ Univcrslty of Halle and that of Francke
in his Paedagogium, both of which related to
the humanities and were in a certain sense philological
seminaries, the oldest example of a university seminary hav-|
ing for its object the professional training of teachers was
the philological seminary established by J. M. Gesner in the;
University of Gottingen 1737.
While a student of theology under Buddeus at Jena, Ges-
ner had shown particular interest in pedagogical problems,
and at the suggestion of the former had written, in 171 5, his
" Institutiones rei scholasticae," a sort of educational com-
pendium containing many important rules for teachers, and
intended to be used as a basis of lectures in a pedagogical
For the next 20 years Gesner had an un-
THEwoRKOF ugu^lly Hch cducatioual experience, first as
GESNER AT ,., / ,Tr . , , i
GOTTINGEN, 1737 librarian at Weimar, then as rector of the
Ansbach gymnasium, and still later as rector
of the celebrated Thomas school at Leipzig, where he exerted
3i] BEGINNING AND GROWTH 3 1
great influence in restoring the ancient classics to a place of
honor. Called in 1734 to the new University of Gottingen
as professor of eloquence and poetry, he was appointed
inspector of the Hanover schools, and soon afterwards
(1737) opened his philological seminary for the training of
young theologians for the office of teaching.
Fries ' speaks of this work as being divided into three
divisions : 1st, a special scientific one in philology, mathemat-
ics, natural sciences, history and geography ; 2d, a peda-
gogical one with the schools over which he was inspector as
a basis; and 3d, a practical one through practice teaching
in the city schools of Gottingen. The practice-teaching,
however, does not seem to have been an essential part. The
greatest stress was placed upon philology and a more
rational study of the languages, Gesner, as a disciple of
Ratich, Comenius and Locke, constantly endeavored to
bring about reform in the teaching of the languages. He
occupied a position about half way between the realists on
the one hand, and the classicists on the other. He believed
that the study of language should never be separated from
the study of things, and for this reason would increase the
curriculum of the classic schools by adding several scientific
studies as shown above.
In his " Institutiones " he says : " It is a hundred times
easier to learn a language by use and practice without
grammar than from the grammar without use and practice."
But again he says, " I reject grammar only for youth as
hurting them more than helping them, but for grown per-
sons it is in the highest degree necessary," ' His philolog-
ical writings were vigorous and helpful.
A more representative type of these early institutions
* Die Vorbildung der Lehrer fiir das Lehramt, p. 23.
â€¢ From Karl von Raumer, Amer. your. Educ, 5 : 745,
32 TRAINING OF SECONDARY TEACHERS [32
was the philological seminary opened by Fr. A. Wolf at
the University of Halle in 1787, a year made
THE PHiLOLOG- memorable in the history of German educa-
ICAL SEMINARY , , , , ,. , , , ^, , ,
AT HALLE, 1787 **Â°" "^ ^"^ establishment of the Oberschul-
Already in 1765 J. S. Semler, "Father of German Ra-
tionalism," had established in connection with his theological
seminary at Halle a course of lectures intended to fit stu-
dents for the ofhce of teaching. These lectures were given
at first by the inspector of the Seminary (Schirach, later
Schiitz)' and were philological in character, covering the
use of the Latin tongue and the explanation of classic
Attracted by this beginning, the State Minis-
voN zEDLiTz ^^^' ^Â°" ZcdHtz, an ardent disciple of Basedow,
desired to have established in the theological
seminary a special pedagogical division according to the
Dessau plan, which would serve also for the training of
good common school teachers (Volksschullehrer). He
induced Schutz to study the arrangements at the Dessau
Philanthropin, and in 1777 introduced into the theological
seminary the new pedagogical division.
Two years later when Schutz, who had given the pedagog-
ical lectures, was called to the professorship of eloquence
and poetry at Jena, von Zedlitz made use of the opportunity
to obtain in his stead E. C. Trapp, a member of the famous
Dessau Philanthropin. The work of Trapp, however, was
disappointing. His pedagogical lectures failed for want of
students. He exalted the study of things and discouraged
the study of languages. His position can be seen from the
following statement : " The learning of foreign languages is
one of the greatest evils which afiflict the schools, especially
in Germany, and which hinder the progress of men to per-
' Fries, Die Vorbildung der Lehrer fiir das Lekramt, p. 23.
33 j BEGINNING AND GROIVTH 33
fection and happiness." ' Such views were out of harmony
with the place and time, and made it necessary for Trapp to
resign, which he did in 1782.
A small practice school had been established in connec-
tion with the seminary, but like the pedagogical lectures it
had failed for want of members.
At this time Fr. A. Wolf, a youth of twenty-two, rector of
the Os*^erode gymnasium, was attracting much attention
through his philological writings. The one entitled " Plato's
Symposium " had just appeared and received unusual appre-
ciation. Minister von Zedlitz, still desirous of carrying for-
ward the pedagogical work, felt that in Wolf he would have
an especially strong man for the position. Wolf was conse-
quently chosen not only a professor of philology but also of
pedagogy, and it was further stipulated that he should give
annually a free course of pedagogical lectures, should him-
self instruct in and have supervision over the teachers' semi-
nary, and offer model lessons in teaching. Disgusted with
the superficiality of the philanthropinists and feeling himself
unsuited to the work, he allowed the educational institution
to go down, gave up the pedagogical professorship and be-
came professor of eloquence instead.
Wolf now set himself to work to overcome
the mcreasmg opposition to the humanities
AIM OF THE
SEMINARY ^y oneri'ig ^ more thorough and extended
study of the classics. He believed also that
the instruction in the higher schools could never reach its
greatest efficiency while the recruiting of teachers depended
almost wholly on the theologians. There should be a body
of teachers trained especially for these schools. It was for'
these reasons that he established in 1787 his philological
seminary, the first institution whose purpose was to edu-
cate teachers for the higher schools without regard to
^Amer. your. Educ, 6 : 200. Trans, from Karl von Raumer.
34 TRAINING OF SECONDARY TEACHERS [^34
theology. Having received the sanction of the Higher
School Board (Ober-Schulkollegium) the seminary was
opened in the fall of 1787 with twelve regular members
selected on examination from among those who had spent
at least one year in the university. The members thus
selected continued in the seminary for the next two years of
their university course.
The work of the seminary consisted in the interpretation
of ancient authors, discussions by the members in Latin of
written exercises and theses, assigned either beforehand, or
at the moment, by the director. The more advanced mem-
bers had some practice in the Latin school of the Orphan
House at Halle.
The aim of the seminary was two-fold, (i) to extend and
deepen the knowledge of the classics, and (2) to produce
effective classical masters for the gymnasiums and higher
Though not so intended by the School Board
and probably not by Wolf, the pedagogical side
PEDAGOGY ^ â– ' ^ / . .
received but little attention. The growing in-
terest in philology caused this subject to be given all the
Fries in speaking of this feature of the school says, " As a
fact the didactic guidance never became really efficient, for in
the first years they were content to send from time to time for