Painter, F. V. N. History of Education, p. ZJ-
Payne, Joseph. History of Education, 2:12-21.
Payne, W. M. History of Education, pp. 17-21.
Plato. Dialogues of Plato, including The Republic, and The Laws
282 APPENDIX [282
Plutarch. Morals (Goodin Trans.), 1:3-32, 82-101; 5:399-411.
Reinhart, J. Outline of the Historj' of Education, pp. 13-20.
Schiller, H. Lehrbuch der Geschiclite der Padagogik.
Schmid, K. A. Geschichte der Erziehung, I.
Seeley, L. History of Education, p. 68.
Shoup, W. J. History and Science of Education, p. 148.
Sonnenschein. Cyclopedia of Education, pp. 31, 144, 299, 272.
Taylor, H. O. Ancient Ideals, 1:127, 201.
Zeller. Socrates and Socratic Schools. Plato and Older Academy.
Bent, J. T. Education of Greece. Fortn. Rev., 48 :267.
Burnside, M. Study of Greece. Educa., 10:541 ; 11:23, 106, 158, 220.
Cesaresco, E. M. Peasants of Ancient Greece. Contemp., y2 :887.
Chase, T. Early Days of Ancient Greece. North Am. Rev., 87:481.
Children's Plays in Ancient Greece and Rome. Cornh. 20 :285.
Donaldson, J. Female Society in Ancient Greece (Athens). Contemp.,
34 :700. Sparta. Contemp. 32 :647.
Gladstone, W. E. Greek Mythology. 19th Cent. 21 :46o, 748 ; 22 :79.
Godwin, E. W. The Home in Ancient Greece According to Homer.
19th Cent., 19:914.
Gribble, N. Religion and Conduct of Ancient Greece. Fortn. Rev.,
Lowery, Chas. E. (Trans.) Physical Education Among the Greeks.
Report U. S. Comr. of Educa., 1897-1898, 1:571-589.
Mah^fFy, J. P. Theatre of Dionyses at Athens. Acad., 35 :3i3.
Muore, E. C. Philosophy and Early Education in Greece. Calif. Univ.
Chron.. 3 :i24.
Prrrott, Geo. The Environment of Greek Culture. Pop. Sci. Mo.,
I'omeroy, J. N. Religion and Laws of Ancient Greece. Nation, 18:204.
Quinn, Daniel. Education in Greece. Report U. S. Comr. of Educa.,
1896-1897, I, pp. 271-280.
Sterrett, J. R. S. The Spade before the Sword. Nation, 64:313.
Wenley, R. M. The Socratic Method. Educa. Rev., 2:406.
Whitaker, F. E. Young Greek Boys and Old Greek Schools. Pop.
Sci. Mo., 53:809-821.
Suggestions and Questions.
In the Greek, we have the highest and richest expression of the
Aryan civilization. No other people offer in so short a period so much
that is worthy of our admiration. In many lines of thought they
seem to have exhausted human capabilities and set the standard for
future generations. For this reason the student of pedagogy must
turn with more than usual interest to the study of the Greek ideals
and their processes of attaining them.
283 ] ""â â ^'*''* '- ' '"^ â¢ " ^'â Afi'ENDIX 283
Some Important Dates in Greek History.
"Trojan War, 1183 B. C. (?); Homer about 950 and Hesiod about
850 B. C. ; Spartan Power dominant in the Peloponnesus, 650 B. C.
Athens, â Legislation of Solon, 590 B. C. ; Persian invasion and battle
of Marathon, 490 B. C. ; Invasion by Xerxes, burning of Athens, and
battle of Salamis, 480 B. C. ; Battle of Plataea, 479 B. C. Supremacy
of Athens. Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B. C. ; Defeat of Athens and
supremacy of Sparta, 404 B. C. ; Spartan Wars vi^ith Persia and
Darius ; divisions of Greece ; ascendency of Philip of Macedon over
Greece, 338 B. C. ; Alexander the Great. Greece made a Roman pro-
vince, 146 B. C." S. S. Laurie, Pre-Christian Education, p. 208, ist
1. In what lines of activity did Greece produce masters?
2. Name a few of these masters.
3. How do you account for Greek versatility and greatness?
4. Note religion, form of government and principal pre-Socratic
means of education.
Extracts from Thucydides' account of Pericles.
"And in the matter of education, whereas they (the Spartans) from
early youth are always undergoing laborious exercises which are
to make them brave, we live at ease, and yet are equally ready to face
the perils which they face."
" Then we are lovers of the beautiful, yet simple in our tastes, and
we cultivate the mind without loss of manliness." ..." The great
impediment to action is in our opinion, not discussion, but the want of
that knowledge which is gained by discussion preparatory to action;
for we have a peculiar power of thinking before we act and of acting
too, whereas other men are courageous from ignorance but hesitate
upon reflection." ..." I say that Athens is the school of Hellas, and
that the individual Athenian in his own person seems to have the
power of adapting himself to the most varied forms of action with
the utmost versatility and grace."
1. Many schools of Philosophy took their rise in and about Athens as
the result of some great teacher, around whom many students con-
gregated. Such were the schools of Pythagoras, Socrates, the
Academy of Plato, the Lyceum of Aristotle, and the schools of the
Epicureans and the Stoics.
2. The nature of these schools.
3. Other schools that existed at the time, including the teachers and
subjects of study.
4. Compare earlier and later Grecian civilization and education, i. e.,
pre-Socratic and Socratic periods.
284 APPENDIX [284
Browning, O. Educational Theories, Chap. I.
Compayre, G. History of Pedagogy, p. 18.
Davidson, Thos. Education of Greek People.
Aristotle, Spartan Education, p. 42; also History of
Education, p. 86.
Education among Spartans. Am. Jour. Educa., 3 :
Duruy, V. History of Greece, i 1457.
Falke, J. von. Greece and Rome: Their Life and Art (see Index).
Fustel de Contanges. Ancient City. (Read whole book during year.)
Hailman, W. N. Lectures on History of Education, Lecture IL
Kemp, E. L. History of Education, p. 57.
Laurie, S. S. History of Early Education. School Rev., 2 :337-356.
Pre-Christian Education, p. 240: new edition, p. 226.
Lambros, S. D. Olympic Games.
Mahaffy, J. P. Old Greek Education. Chaps. 13, 27, 77, 108.
Monroe, Paul. Source Book of the History of Education.
Muller, C. O. History and Antiquities of the Doric Race. Edinb.
Painter, F. V. N. History of Education, p. 40.
Payne, Jos. History of Education, 2:14.
Plutarch's Morals (Goodwin). 1:82, 385.
Lives (see Lycurgus) ; see also Ideal Commonwealth.
Sayce, A. H. Phoenicians in Ancient Greece. Contemp., 34 :6o.
Seeley, L. History of Education, p. 68.
Shoup, W. J. History of Education, p. 145.
Sonnenschein. Cyclopedia of Education, p. 174.
1. Compare the education of the Spartans with the Persians on the
one hand and the Athenians on the other.
2. Was their education in any sense individualistic?
3. Are we justified in classing the Spartan system of military train-
ing among the system of education? Why?
4. What was their ideal man? their ideal woman?
5. By what means were these to be obtained?
6. Who were the subjects of their training?
7. Did they pursue the best means of accomplishing their object?
8. What may be said of their speech, their music, their courage, their
285] APPENDIX 285
Extracts from Plutarch's Lives (Lycurgus).
" After regulating the marriages, he ordered the maidens to exercise
themselves with wrestling, running, throwing the quoits, and casting
the dart, to the end that the fruit they conceived might in strong and
healthier bodies take firmer root and find better growth."
" Nor was it in the power of the father to dispose of the child as he
saw (fit) ; he was obliged to carry it before certain triers at a place called
Lesche ; those were some of the elders of the tribe to which the child be-
longed ; their business it was to carefully view the infant, and if they
found it stout and well made they gave order for its rearing, and
allotted to it one of the nine thousand shares of land. But if they
found it puny and ill-shapen they ordered it to be taken to a sort of
chasm .... thinking it neither for the good of the child itself
nor for the public interest that it should be brought up. Nor was
it lawful indeed for the father to bring up his children after his own
fancy ; but as soon as they were seven years old, they were enrolled
in certain companies and classes, where they all lived on the same
order and discipline. Reading and writing they gave them just enough
to serve their turn; their chief care was to make them good subjects,
and to teach them to endure pain and to conquer in battle. After they
were twelve years old they were no longer allowed to wear any under
garment ; they had one coat to serve them a year. They lodged to-
gether in little bands upon beds made of rushes which grew by the
banks of the river Eurotas."
286 APPENDIX [286
For references see former outlines, also Card Catalogue, and
1. Socrates as a man, a scholar, a teacher.
2. What do you understand by the Socratic Method?
3. Why did Socrates ask direct questions?
4. What can the mind discover through reflection alone?
5. What subjects of study yield themselves to the Socratic Method?
6. What are the dangers of this method?
7. Did the death of Socrates advantage or disadvantage Greece?
Illustration of Socratic Method.
Socrates â Do you observe, Meno, that I am not teaching the boy
anything but only asking him questions ; and now he fancies that he
knows how long a line is necessary in order to produce a figure of
eight square feet ; does he not ?
Meno â Yes.
Soc. â And does he really know?
Meno â Certainly not.
Soc. â He only guesses that (because the square is double) the line
Meno â True.
Soc. â Observe him while he recalls the steps in regular order. (To
the boy.) Tell me, boy, do you assert that a double space comes from
a double line? Remember that I am not speaking of an oblong, but of
a square, and of a square twice the size of this one â that is to say, of
eight feet ; and I want to know whether you still say that a double
square comes from a double line?
Boy â Yes.
Soc. â But does not this line become doubled if we add another such
Soc. â And four such lines will make a space containing eight feet?
Boy â Yes.
Soc. â Let us describe such a figure : is not that what you would say
is the figure of eight feet?
Boy â Yes.
Soc. â And are there not these four divisions in the figure, each of
which is equal to the figure of four feet?
Boy â True.
Soc. â And is not that four times four?
Boy â Certainly.
Soc. â And four times is not double?
Boy â No. indeed.
287] APPENDIX 287
Soc. â But how much?
Boy â Four times as much.
Soc. â Therefore the double line, boy, has formed a space, not twice,
but four times as much.
Boy â True.
Soc. â And four times four are sixteen, are they not?
Boy â Yes.
Soc. â What line would give you a space of eight feet, as this gives
one of sixteen feet? Do you see?
Soc. â And the space of four feet is made from this half line?
Boy â Yes.
Soc. â Good ; and is not a space of eight feet twice the size of this,
and half the size of the other?
Boy â Certainly.
Soc. â Such a space, then, will be made out of a line greater than this
one, and less than that one.
Boy â Yes ; that is what I think.
Soc. â Very good ; I like to hear you say what you think. And now
tell me, is not this a line of two feet and that of four?
Boy â Yes.
Soc. â Then the line which forms the side of eight feet ought to be
more than this line of two feet, and less than the other of four feet?
Boy â It ought.
Soc. â Try and see if you can tell me how much it will be.
Boy â Three feet.
Soc. â Then if we add a half to this line of two, that will be the line
of three. Here are two and there is one ; and on the other side, here
are two also and there is one : and that makes the figure of which you
Soc. â But if there are three feet this way and three feet that way,
the whole space will be three times three feet?
Boy â That is evident.
Soc. â And how much are three times three feet?
Boy â Nine.
Soc. â And how much is the double of four?
Boy â Eight.
Soc. â Then the figure of eight is not made out of a line of three?
Boy â No.
Socâ But from what line ? Tell me exactly ; and if you would rather
not reckon, try and show me the line.
Boy â Indeed, Socrates, I do not know.
Soc. â Do you see, Meno, what advances he has made in his power
288 APPENDIX [288
of recollection ? He did not know at first, and he does not know now,
what is the side of a figure of eight feet : but then he thought that he
knew, and answered confidently as if he knew, and had no difficulty;
but now he has a difficulty, and neither knows nor fancies that he
Meno â True.
Soc. â Is he not better off in knowing his ignorance?
Meno â I think that he is.
Soc. â If we have made him doubt, and given him the " torpedo's
shock," have we done him any harm?
Meno â I think not.
Soc â We have certainly done something that may assist him in find-
ing out the truth of the matter ; and now he will wish to remedy his
ignorance, but then he would have been ready to tell all the world that
the double space should have a double side. Dialogues of Plato, Jowett's
Translation, i :257-259.
289] APPENDIX 289
PLATO AND XENOPHON.
See former references ; also index to Am. Jour, of Educa., card
catalogue and cyclopedias ; Plato's Republic and Laws, and Xenophon's
Cyropedeia and Economics ; Plato's Republic, W. L. Bryan, and B.
Bosanquet. Education of the Young in the Republic of Plato (trans.).
Suggestions and Questions.
A study of the early life, education and environment of Plato and
Xenophon will aid in a better understanding of their writings.
Plato becomes deeply impressed with the dangers that seem to
threaten the social order of Greece on account of the faulty education
of c'nildren, the neglect of women and the disorganization of the state
through ignorant individualism. This feeling is no doubt heightened
by the teachings and tragic death of Socrates. He gives in his Re-
public a plan for overcoming and escaping these threatened dangers.
The State is simply the individual writ large, and like the individual
who has three faculties, the intellect, the spirit and the appetites, the
ideal state is composed of three classes of society (i) the intelligent,
i. e., philosophers and sages ; (2) the spirited, i. e., warriors and
soldiers; (3) the money makers, i. e., tradesmen and husbandmen. As
the strength of the individual depends upon the harmonious develop-
ment of his three faculties, so the well-being of the State depends upon
the proper relation and harmonious action of these three classes of so-
ciety. It is from the development of this thought that Plato gives
voice to the four cardinal virtues, wisdom, courage, temperance and
1. Are all grades of society provided for in Plato's Scheme?
2. How is this ideal state to be brought about?
.3. What becomes of the family? Judging from Plato's standpoint
was this a weakness or a strength?
4. How were children to be cared for and educated?
5. What were the steps in Plato's scheme of education?
6. Point out some of the more noticeable defects.
7. What changed views did Plato reach in later life, as seen in the
8. What writings of Xenophon are of special interest to a teacher,
9. Xenophon, though a student of Socrates and educated in the
literature of the Greeks, makes no provision in his scheme of educa-
tion for intellectual or literary pursuits. Why?
Compare the ideal man and woman of Plato and of Xenophon.
290 APPENDIX [ofjo
ARISTOTLE. 384-322 B. C.
Sec references already cited. Aristotle was born at Stagira, Thrace,
of noble and well educated parents. After the death of his father his
early education was directed by Proxenus of Atarneus. At 18 he en-
tered Plato's Academy, where he remained an apt student for twenty
years. On the death of Plato he returned to Atarneus. At 40 he was
entrusted with the education of Alexander, son of King Philip of
Macedonia. He establi.shed a school at Mieza which he called Nym-
In 335 B. C, when Alexander, then King of Macedonia, prepared
to invade Persia, Aristotle moved to Athens and established a school
in the Lyceum, or Periclean Gymnasium, where he spent his twelve
most important years in teaching and writing. Banished from
Athens he retired to Chalcis in Euboea, where he died of disease of the
stomach in 322 B. C. Among his principal writings are his works on
logic, metaphysics, ethics and politics.
1. How did Aristotle's system of Education as seen in the ideal
State (Politics: chs. 4 & 5), differ from that given by Plato?
2. How did it differ from the usual system of Athenian education in
3. Account for these differences.
4. What were the studies pursued by the different classes of Greek
Society? How did these studies differ in number, kind and efficiency
from the studies required of the student to-day?
5. What requirements in the Spartan or Athenian education impress
you as worthy of being ingrafted into our own? What were the weak
points of these systems of education?
6. Do you consider the plans of education as proposed by Plato and
Aristotle better than those they were to supersede? Why?
Extracts from Aristotle's Writings.
Politics, Book V , I. " Education should be regulated by the state for
the ends of the state, and each citizen should understand that he is
not his own master, but a part of the state. What we have to aim
at is the happiness of each citizen, and happiness consists in a com-
plete activity and practice of virtue."
" Up to the age of fourteen it is not desirable to make children
apply themselves to study of any kind or to compulsory bodily exer-
cise, for fear of injuring their growth. They should be allowed only
so much movement as to not fall into sluggish habits of life. Their
amusements should not be of too laborious a sort, nor yet effeminate."
Education, in the strict sense, begins at seven and may be divided
into two periods, seven to fourteen, and fourteen to twenty-one.
We may say that there are four usual subjects of education, viz.:
291 ] APPENDIX 291
reading, writing, gymnastics, music, and further, although this is not
universally admitted, the art of design. Book V. 2.
" Care for the body must precede care for the soul ; next to care for
the body must come care for the appetite ; and last of all care for the
intelligence. We train the appetite for the sake of the intelligence,
and the body for the sake of the soul."
" No citizen has a right to consider himself as belonging to himself ;
but all ought to regard themselves as belonging to the State, inas-
much as each is a part of the State, and care for the part naturally
looks to care for the whole."
" Since the whole State has but one end, it is plainly necessary that
there should be but one education for all the citizens."
" Let no one ignorant of geometry enter here." â Motto above the
door of Plato's private home.
292 APPENDIX [292
Abbott. The Eternal City. Harper, 44:1 (Illustrated).
Arnold, Thomas. History of Rome, 3 vols.
Barnard, H. Higher Education in Ancient Rome. Am. Jour. Educa.,
Bancroft, G. Slavery in Rome. North Am. Rev., 39 :4I3.
Becker, W. A. Gallus, pp. 182-198.
Browning, O. Educational Theories (Kellogg), p. 26.
Chauvin, M. L. Education of the Romans. Educa. Rev., 2 :4i4.
Clarke, Geo. Education of Children at Rome.
Compayre, G. History of Pedagogy, p. 43.
Davidson, Thos. History of Education, p. 105.
Donaldson, J. Ancient Life of the Romans. Chaut., 10:5, 134, 262.
Draper, John W. Intellectual Development of Europe, I.
Duruy, Victor. History of Rome and of the Roman People, I.
Dyer, T. R. The City of Rome.
Gibbon, E. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
Gilman, A. Story of Rome.
Granger, P. Moral Life of the Early Romans. Intern. Jour, of Ethics,
Guhl, E., & Koner, W. Life of Greeks and Romans.
Hailman, W. N. Lectures on History of Education, p. 42.
Hodgkin, T. The Fall of the Roman Empire, Its lesson for us.
Ihne, W. History of Rome, IV.
K^mp, E. L. History of Education, p. 84.
Kiddle & Schem. Cyclopedia of Education, p. 744.
Lawrence, C. E. The Roman Capitol. Harper, 44:570.
Lanciani, R. Underground Christian Rome. Atlan. Mo., 68 :i4.
Notes on Ancient and Modern Rome. Cosmop., 15:702.
Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries.
Gambling and Cheating in Ancient Rome. North Am.
Lossing, B. J. Old Romans at Home. Harper, 46:66, 174.
Laurie, S. S. History of Early Education. School Rev., 3:i43, 211.
Pre-Christian Education, p. 319, (2d ed., p. 3oO.
Mivart, S. T. G. Roman Society and Christianity. Cosmop., 17:102.
Christianity and Roman Paganism. 19th Cent., 34:822.
Mommsen, T. History of Rome, Abridged for Colleges and Schools.
Monroe. Paul. Source Book of the History of Education, Greek and
Painter, F. V. N. History of Education, p. 65.
Payne, Jos. History of Education, 2:22.
293] APPENDIX 293
Pliny. Letters of Younger Pliny.
Preston & Dodge. Private Life in Ancient Rome. Atlan. Mo.,
Plutarch. Lives â Miscellanies and Essays.
Quintilian. Roman Thoughts on Education. Am. Jour. Educa., 11:
111-132; also Institutes of Oratory, i.
Rosenkranz. J. K. F. Philosophy of Education, p. 229.
Sallustius, Crispus Caius Florus and Velleius Paterculus : Trans, by J.
Schmid, K. A. Geschichte der Erziehung, i.
Seeley, L. History of Education, p. 74.
Shoup, W. J. History and Science of Education, p. 156.
Sonnen?chein. Cyclopedia of Education.
Stillman, W. J. Old Rome and New. Atlan. Mo., 68:23.
Taylor, H. O. Ancient Ideals, I and II.
Wells. D. A. Taxation in Ancient Rome. Pop. Sci. Mo., 48:580.
Suggestions and Questions.
Lesson one will include the education of Regal and Republican Rome,
752-727 B. C.
Lesson two and following will include Early Imperial Rome.
Observe in your study the suggestions given in the first lesson. Note
especially the government, religion, chief occupation, ideals of Edu-
cation and means of obtaining them, branches of study, types of man-
hood and womanhood in demand, and general character of the early
1. What changes took place in education under imperial Rome?
2. Compare Roman with Grecian civilization. Note especially the
characteristic differences in the education.
3. If the following extracts from the Twelve Tables of Roman Law
were the only sources of information, what could you infer of Roman
Extracts from the Tioelve Tables of Ronton Law, about 451 B. C.
"A father may kill at its birth a child monstrously deformed. He
shall have a right of life and death over all his lawful children, and
also of selling them. If a father sells his child thrice, the child shall
afterwards be free from him. If a child be bom to him within ten
months after his death it is his lawful child."
" Let there be an interval of two feet and a half between the wall of
one house and that of another."
'' If roadside fields are left without enclosure, any one may drive
cattle over them."
" If any one takes more than eight and a third per cent, interest on a
loan, he shall forfeit four times the amount."
294 APPENDIX [294
" Let there be no exception of law in favor of the individuals.
Let there be the same law to the obligor and the obligee, to the con-
stant ally and to him who has been restored to an alliance formerly
violated. If a judge or arbitrator lawfully appointed take a bribe for
his decision, let it be a capital offence. Let no capital punishment be
pronounced against a Roman Citizen except in the great assembly of
the people. Let inquisitors of murder be created by the people to in-
quire into capital crimes. If any person collect nightly meetings in
the city, let it be a capital offence. If any one incite an enemy against
Rome, or betray, or deliver up, to the enemy a citizen, let it be a cap-
" Let not the dead be buried or burned within the city. Abolish ex-
pense in mourning and funeral ceremonies sacred to the infernal deities.
Let not the funeral pile be made of carved wood. Let there be no more
than three mourning women, and ten flute players. Let not the women
tear their hair, nor use loud bowlings. Let not the separate bones of a
dead man be preserved for a second funeral, excepting in the case
of one killed in battle, or in an enemies' country. Let the anoint-
ing of slaves and the handing around of liquors be abolished. Let no