Seeley, L. History of Education, p. 305 ff.
Sharpless, Isaac. English Education, ch. i.
Sonnenschein. Cyclopedia of Education, p. 225.
1. Give an account of the origin and manner of conducting the moni-
2. What are its advantages? Its disadvantages?
3. How do you account for the rapid spread of the system?
4. Is the monitorial system now used outside of Sunday-school work?
5. What was the general condition of education at the beginning of
the 19th century? What provisions were made for the preparation of
349] APPENDIX 349
HERBERT SPENCER (1820 ).
Account of Spencer's Life. Rev. of Revs., 12:698.
Adams, L. The Metaphysics of Evolution â€” Spencer's Principles of
Psychology. New Englander, 34:419.
Barnard, H. Thoughts on Education, from Works of Herbert Spencer.
Am. Jour. Educa., 11:485; 13:372.
Agnosticism of H. Spencer. Rev. of Revs., 12:88.
Butler, N. M. What Knowledge is of Most Worth? Educa. Rev., 10:
105 ; also chap. 2 in " The Meaning of Education."
Compayre, G. History of Pedagogy, chap. 22, p. 535 fÂ¥.
Harris, W. T. Spencer and What to Study. Educa. Rev., 24:135.
Henderson, C. H. Critics of Herbert Spencer. Educa., 10:297.
Hudson, W. H. Herbert Spencer, with portrait ; also Arena, 5 :273.
Spencer's Guiding Principles. An Introduction to the
Philosophy of Herbert Spencev, with biographical
sketch. Educa., 16:78, 144.
The Man and His Work. Pop. Sci. Mo., 50 :433.
Jordan, D. S. Spencer's Essay on Education. Cosmop., 29:266-276.
Laurie, S. S. Herbert Spencer's Chapter on Moral Education. Educa.
Leitch, Jas. Educationalists and Their Systems, p. 239.
Payne, Jos. Lectures on History of Education, 2:185.
Quick, R. H. Educational Reformers (Appleton), p. 493; (Kellogg),
Sper.cer's Essays. Sat. Rev., 71 :446.
Spencer, Herbert. Principles of Psychology. New Englander, 32 :468.
The Rights of Children and the True Principles of
Family Government. Replies to Criticisms, Fortn.
Rev., 20:581, 715.
Education : Intellectual, Moral and Physical.
Williams, -S. G. History of Modern Education, p. 337.
SUGGESTIONS AND QUESTIONS.
1. Ht;rbert Spencer's early life and education; writings; influence in
2. 'rhe conditions of education in England at the beginning of this
3. What new view of life and of society was just beginning to dawn?
'4. In what field of thought has Spencer been most prominent?
A Study of Spencer's Education.
Chapter I. What knowledge is of the most worth?
I. What is the importance of knowing the relative value of studies?
How is this value to be determined?
350 APPENDIX [350
2. What is Spencer's ideal of education ?
3. Does a knowledge of the laws of health prolong life?
" Thus to the question with which we set out â€” What knowledge is of
the most worth? â€” the uniform reply is, Science. This is the verdict on
all the counts.
" For the direct preservation, or the maintenance of life and health,
the all-important knowledge is â€” Science.
'â– For that indirect self-preservation which we call gaining a liveli-
hood, the knowledge of the greatest value is â€” Science.
" For the due discharge of parental functions, the proper guidance is
to be found only in â€” Science.
â– ' For that interpretation of national life, past and present, without
which the citizen cannot rightly regulate his conduct, the indispensable
key is â€” Science. Alike for the most perfect production and highest
enjoyment of art iP.-all its forms, the needful preparation is still â€”
Science. And for the purposes of discipline, intellectual, moral, relig-
ious, the most efficient study is, once moreâ€” Science."
" We do not mean to say that tijese divisions are definitely separable.
We do not deny that they are intricately entangled with each other in
such way that there can be no training,, foi" any that is not, in some
measure, a training for all. Nor do we qjiestion that for each division
there are portions more important than cef^^'" portions of the pre-
ceding divisions." '^
1. What is included under the term Science? "\
2. Give the principal arguments upon which the, ^^Â°^^ conclusions
3. What is your criticism of the chapter?
Chapter II. Intellectual Education.
" Were we in possession of the true method, divergci'^^^ from it
would, of course, be prejudicial; but the true method ha ^'"^ ^^ ^^
found, the effects of the numerous independent seekers cari"^'"^ Â°"*
their researches in different directions constitute a better agti^^^
finding it than any that could be devised."
" Of the three phases through which human opinion passes"'
unanimity of the ignorant, the disagreement of the inquiring, anc^ ^
unanimity of the wise â€” it is manifest that the second is the parent
" People are beginning to see that the first requisite to success in In *
is to be a good animal."
" In the acquirement of languages, the grammar-school plan is being
superseded by plans based on the spontaneous process followed by the
child in gaining its mother-tongue."
" There is a spreading opinion that the rise of an appetite for any
35 1 ] APPENDIX 351
kind of knowledge implies that the unfolding mind has become fit to
assimilate it, and needs it for the purpose of growth ; and that, on the
other hand, the disgust felt toward any kind of knowledge is a sign that
it is prematurely presented, or that it is presented in an indigestible
" But if there is a more worthy aim for us than to become drudges ;
if there are other uses in the things around us than their power to bring
money ; if there are higher faculties to be exercised than acquisitive and
sensual ones ; if the pleasures which poetry, art and science, and phil-
osophy can bring are of any moment, then it is desirable that the in-
stinctive inclination which every child shows to observe natural beau-
ties and investigate phenomena should be encouraged."
4. What should be the range of object lessons?
5. What are some of the most helpful suggestions in the chapter on
" Intellectual Education ?"
Chapter III. Moral Education.
1. What is the use of ideals in education?
2. What does Spencer consider to be the true aim in moral education?
3. What are natural punishments? Are they uniform and just?
4. How is the law of natural consequences to be applied by parent
5. When is Nature's method of discipline violated by society?
6. What is your opinion of Spencer's views as expressed in the chap-
ter on Moral Education?
" From whatever basis they start, all theories of morality agree in
considering that conduct whose total results, immediate and remote, are
beneficial, is good conduct ; while the conduct whose total results, imme-
diate and remote, are injurious, is bad conduct."
Advantages, as enumerated by Spencer, to be obtained by the appli-
cation of the principle of natural consequences in discipline : " First,
that it gives that rational comprehension of right and wrong which re-
sults from actual experience of the good and bad consequences caused
" Second, that the child, suffering nothing more than the painful
effects brought upon it by its own wrong actions, must recognize, more
or less clearly, the justice of the penalties."
"Third, that, recognizing the justice of the penalties, and receiving
those penalties through the workings of things, rather than at the hands
of an individual, its temper will be less disturbed ; while the parent,
occupying the comparatively passive position of taking care that the
natural penalties are felt, will preserve a comparative equanimity."
" Fourth, that, mutual exasperation being thus, in great measure,
prevented, a much happier and more influential state of feelings will
exist between parent and child."
352 APPENDIX [352
" Command only in those cases in which other means are inapplicable,
or have failed."
" Bear constantly in mind the truth that the aim of your discipline
should be to produce a self-governing being â€” not to produce a being to
be governed by others."
" Not only will you have constantly to analyze the motives of your
children, but you will have to analyze your own motives â€” to discrimi-
nate between those internal suggestions springing from a true parental
solicitude, and those which spring from your own selfishness. ... In
brief, you will have to carry on your higher education at the same time
that you are educating your children."
Chapter IV. Physical Education.
1. Account for the greater interest manifested in the training of ani-
mals than of children.
2. Why is the physical development of children of so much import-
3. To what organic laws are all living creatures subject?
4. Which is the more dangerous, under or over-feeding? Why?
5. What is the proper guide in determining the kind and amount of
the child's food?
6. What are the best foods?
7. What is Spencer's view of the hardening process?
8. Does Spencer agree with Locke on physical education? Explain.
" But, paying due regard to those two qualifications, our conclusions
are : that food of children should be highly nutritive, that it should be
varied at each meal and at successive meals, and that it should be abun-
" With clothing, as with food, the established tendency is towards an
" Among the sensations serving for our guidance are those of heat
and cold ; and a clothing for children which does not carefully consult
these sensations is to be condemned. The common notion about
hardening is a grievous delusion."
" Our conclusions are, then, that while the clothing of children should
never be in excess, so as to create oppressive warmth, it should always
be sufficient to prevent any general feeling of cold."
" We do not yet sufficiently realize the truth that as, in this life of
ours, the physical underlies the mental, the mental must not be devel-
oped at the expense of the physical."
353] APPENDIX 353
ALEXANDER BAIN (1818 ).
For references, see Card Catalogue and Pool's Index.
1. What are the most important divisions of his work on "Education
as a Science?"
2. What is the nature and educational importance of his work?
3. Compare the educational views of Spencer and Bain.
4. Make a list of the three best references in the library on Bain as
5. Name a few other educational writers of England during this
period who have won international fame.
6. What were some of the more important changes in the educational
system of England during the 19th century?
354 Arrn^^mx [354
HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN AMtRICA
A BRIEF BIBLIOGRAPHY ON THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN AMERICA
Adams, Francis. The Free School System of the United States. Lon-
Adams, H. B. Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia. U. S.
Bureau Educa. Circ. Information, No.i, 1888.
Bacon, Leonard. Genesis of New England Churches.
Barnard, Henry. American Journal of Education. 31 volumes ; and
Index published by the United States Bureau of Education,
Washington, D. C. Also, American Pedagogy â€” Education, the
School, and the Teacher.
Boone, R. G. Education in the United States.
Brown, E. E. The Making of Our Middle Schools.
Campbell, D. The Puritan in Holland, England, and America.
Clews, Elsie W. Educational Legislation and Administration of the
Coflfin, Chas. C. Old Times in the Colonies.
Drake, S. A. The Making of New England.
Earle, Alice M. Customs and Fashions in New England.
Eggleston, E. The Beginnings of a Nation. Also, The Transit of Civi-
lization from England to America.
Fiske, John. The Beginnings of New England. Also, The Dutch and
Quaker Colonies in America.
Ford, Paul L. The New England Primer.
Gilman, A. History of the American People.
Green, J. R. History of the English People.
Hart, A. B. American History Told by Contemporaries.
Johnson, C. The Country Schools in New England.
Kiddle, Henry, and Schem, Alex. J. Cyclopedia of Education.
Lodge. H. C. The English Colonies in America.
History of the English Colonies in America.
Mann, Horace. Life and Works. 5 volumes.
Martin, Geo. H. Evolution of Massafhusetts Public School System.
Meriwether, C. History of Higher Education in South Carolina. U. S.
Bureau Educa. Circ. Information, No. 3, 1883.
Powell, L. P. History of Education in Delaware. U. S. Bureau Educa,
Circ. Information, No. 3, 1893.
355] APPE^rDIX 355
Randalls, S. S. History of the Common School System of the State of
New York Since 1795.
Shoup, W. J. History and Science of Education.
Smith, Chas. L. History of Education in North Carolina. U. S. Bureau
Educa. Circ. Information, No. 2, 1888.
Steiner, B. C. History of Education in Maryland. U. S. Bureau Educa.
Circ. Information, No. 2, 1894. Also, History of Education in
Connecticut. U. S. Bureau Educa. Circ. Information, No. 2, 1893.
Stockwell, Thos. B. History of Public Education in Rhode Island.
Tolman, W. H. History of Higher Education in Rhode Island. U. S.
Bureau Educa. Circ. Information, No. i, 1894.
Wickersham, Jas. P. History of Education in Pennsylvania.
Wightman, Jos. M. Annals of the Boston Primary School Committee,
Williams, S. G. History of Modern Education.
For a more complete bibliography, add to the above the important
histories of the United States, cyclopedias, state educational histories
and reports, annual reports from the United States Commissioner of
Education, circulars of information U. S. Bureau of Education, pro-
ceedings of the National Educational Association and the American In-
stitute of Instruction, and such educational periodicals as Education,
School Review, and Educational Review. The following bibliographies
will be of service to the student in the history of education : Bibliog-
raphy of Education, by G. S. Hall and J. M. Mansfield, 1886; Catalogue
of Pedagogical Library, Philadelphia, by Jas. MacAlister, 1887 ; Bib-
liography of Education, by W. S. Monroe, 1897 ; Books on Education,
in the Columbia University Libraries, 1901 ; and Bibliography of Cur-
rent Educational Literature, by J. I. Wyer and Isabel E. Lord, as pub-
lished annually since 1900 in the Educational Review, New York City,
appearing usually in the June number of each year. The last reference
is especially valuable on account of its careful evaluation of most of
the educational literature referred to.
356 APPENDIX [356
EARLY COLONIAL EDUCATION, 1607-1660.
a. Our European ancestors : English, Dutch. French, Spanish,
GENERAL DIRECTION FOR STUDY.
1. Who were they?
2. Whence did they come?
3. Where did they settle?
4. General intellectual development in their old homes, i. e., educa-
tional conditions, including schools, educational and religious ideals?
5. Class of people who came?
6. Object in coming, whether for mere adventure, or to better their
social, religious, or educational condition ?
7. How did their new environments change their views of life?
8. What provisions did they make for education?
9. How did these differ from the educational conditions they left?
Bacon, L. Genesis of New England Churches, p. 67.
Bancroft, G. History of the United States (D. Appleton & Co.),
I :224, 311.
Bjnngton, E. H. The Puritan in England and New England, pp. "jg,
Campbell, D. Puritan in Holland, England and America.
Coffin, Chas. C. Old Times in the Colonies.
Davis, W. T. Who were the Pilgrims? Harper, 64:246.
Doyle, J. A. English Colonies in America, vol. 2, chaps, i. 2.
Drake, S. A. Making of New England.
Edwards, T. Pilgrims and Puritans. Scrib. Mo.. 12:212.
Ellis, G. E. Puritan Age, etc., chaps. 3, 4, 5.
An English Nation. Harper, 66:706.
Gilman, A. History of American People, pp. 91, 576 ff.
Green, J. R. History of the English People, vol. 3, chaps, i, 2.
Hart, A. B. American History Told by Contemporaries (Family Life),
Hildreth, R. History of the United States, vol. I, chaps. 6, 7.
Lodge, H. C. Short History of English Colonies in America, pp. 344,
436, 464 fif.
Palfrey, J. G. History of New England.
Stowell, W. H.. and Wilson. D. History of Puritan and Pilgrim Fath-
ers, pp. 468, 475. 477, 480, .485. 4S7-9, 497.
Thwaites, R. G. The Colonies, pp. 178-194.
Winsor, J. Narrative and Critical History of America, 3:240. 242, 281.
357] APPENDIX 357
Bancroft, G. History of the United States, i :84, 408.
Coffin, Chas. C. Old Times in the Colonies, pp. 211-215.
Cavaliers in America. New Eng., 23:651.
Cooke, J. E. Virginia: A History of the People, pp. i, 167 ff.
Doyle, J. A. English Colonies in America, i :38i-395.
Fiske, J. Beginning of New England, chaps, i and 4.
Green, J. R. History of the English People, 3 :58.
Hildreth, R. History of the United States, 1:99, 204, 335, 509; 2:25.
Ridpath, J. C. History of the United States, p. 85.
Thwaites, R. G. The Colonies, pp. ii-iii.
Winsor, J. Narrative and Critical History of America, vol. 3, chs. 4, 5.
" I have a . . . thrice seven years' experience in this despicable, but
comfortable, employment of teaching Schoole. . . . But, alas, we that
wholly undergo the burden of school-teaching, can tell by our own ex-
perience how laborious it is, both to mind and body, to be continually
intent upon the work, and how irksome it is (especially to a man of quiet
temper) to have so many unwilling provocations into passions ; what
good parts for learning and right qualifications in all points of behavior
are required of us ; how small our yearly stipend is, and how uncertain
all our other incomes are. Again, we call to mind the too much indul-
gency of some parents, who neither love to blame their children's un-
towardness, nor suffer the Master to correct it. We remember their
generall ingratitude for the Master's well-doing, and their open clamour
for his least doing amisse ; we observe their common indiscretion in
wholly imputing the Scholar's lesse profitting to the Master's more
neglect, and their own happy thriving to their own onely towardliness ;
not to mention their fond ambition in hastening them too fast. Besides,
small account which the vulgar have, the too censorious eye which the
more judicious cast, and the slight regard which our Academicians (for
the most part) carry toward the poor School-Master makes us some-
times judge our calling (as many do) too mean for a scholar to under-
take or desire to stick to too many years." A New Discovery of the
Old Art of Teaching Schoole. By Charles Hoole. London, 1659.
" If any christian, so called, . . . shall contemptuously behave himself
toward the word preached, or ye messengers thereof called to dispence
ye same, in any congregation, ... or, like a sonn of Corah, cast upon
his true doctrine, or himself, any reproach, . . . shall for ye first scan-
dole be convented . . . and bound to their good behaviour; and if a
second time they breake forth into ye like contemptuous carriages, either
to pay Â£5 to ye publike treasury, or to stand two houres openly upon a
block 4 foote high, on a lecture day, with a pap fixed on the breast, with
358 APPENDIX [358
this, "A WANTON GOSPELLER," written in capitall letters, yt
others may fear and be ashamed of breaking out into the Hke wicked-
ness." Records of Massachusetts. II:i79 (4 Nov., 1646).
Adams, C. F. Three Episodes in Massachusetts History (see index).
Applegarth, A. G. Quakers in Pennsylvania. Mag. Am. Hist., 28:353.
Arnold, S. G. History of the State of Rhode Island, 1:264-270; 2:85,
Bancroft, G. History of the United States, i :528.
Clarkson, T. Portraiture of Quakerism. Edinb. Rev., 10, 85.
Coffin, Chas. C. Old Times in the Colonies, p. 216.
Fiske, J. Beginnings of New England, p. 177 flf.
Garrison, W. P. Some Primitive Quakers. Nation, 5 :392.
Gilman, A. History of American People, pp. 129, 152-162.
Greene, G. W. A Short History of Rhode Island (see index).
Hildreth, R. History of the United States, i :339, 453, 474, 475.
Lodge, H. C. English Colonies in America (see index).
Modern Quakerism. Edinb. Rev., 87 :503.
Winsor, J. Memorial History of Boston, i :i79, 195.
Narrative and Critical History of America, vol. 3 (see
Bancroft, G. History of the United States, 1:475; 4:i30-
Barnard, H. Development of Public Instruction in Holland. Am. Jour.
Educa., 8:595; 14:495, 641.
Scheme of Education by Synod of Dort, 1618. Am. Jour.
Educa., 5 -.77.
Campbell, D. Puritan in Holland, England and America, 1:32, 158; 2:
Z2,7 ff - 466.
Coffin, Chas. C. Old Times in the Colonies, pp. 42, 195, 224.
Drake, S. A. The Making of Virginia and Middle Colonies, p. 108 Q..
Draper, A. S. Public School Pioneering in New York. Educa. Rev.,
Eggleston, E. The Beginnings of a Nation.
Migrations of American Colonists : Dutch. Cent., 3 :724.
Fiske, J. Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America, chaps, i, 2, 8, 15.
Griffis, W. E. Dutch Influence in New England. Harper, 88:213.
Leyden and Its Archives. Nation, 55:143.
Kiddle & Schem. Cyclopedia of Education. See Netherlands.
Lamb, Mrs. M. J. History of the City of New York.
Lodge, H. C. A Short History of the English Colonies in America
359] APPENDIX 359
Martin, G. H. Public School Pioneering. Educa. Rev., 5:232, 345, 406.
Motley, J. L. History of the United Netherlands.
Life and Death of John of Barneveld, 2:405,
O'Callaghan, F. B. Documentary History of New York.
Roberts, E. H. New York, vol. i, chaps. 2-6.
Thwaites, R. G. The Colonies, pp. 50, 195 ff.
Arnold, S. C. History of the State of Rhode Island (see index).
Baird, C. Huguenot Emigration to America (a review). Atlan. Mo.,
Bancroft, Geo. History of the United States, i :432.
Coffin, Chas. C. Old Times in the Colonies, pp. 30, 148, 341.
Carlyle, Thos. French Revolution.
Guizot, F. P. G. History of France.
Graves, H. The Huguenots in New England. New Eng. Mag., 11:497
(New Series, 1894-1895).
Jackson, S. M. Huguenots. Johnson's Cyclopedia, 4:400.
Kitchin, G. W. History of France, 3:1 ff., 78, 182.
Lawrence, E. Huguenots. Harper, 41 :8oi.
Ramsey, D. History of South Carolina, p. 23.
Taine, H. A. Ancient Regime (transl. by J. Durand), pp. 62, 135,
The Huguenot Captain. Blackw., 38:790; 39:17-
Tocqueville, A. Old Regime and the Revolution.
Thwaites, R. G. The Colonies (see index).
Van Laun, H. French Revolutionary Epoch.
Weiss, G. French Protestant Refugees (a review). Blackw., 74:1.
SUGGESTIONS AND QUESTIONS.
Observe in your study the questions and suggestions as offered in the
first outline on American education.
I. Whence originated our common school system?
In addition to the references given above, see : Am. Jour. Educa.,
10:32. E. Ingle, in Johns Hopkins Studies in Hist, and Pol. Sci., 3:
116 ff. Also for Scotch-Irish Ancestors: Bancroft, Hist, of the U. S.,
1 :43i, 500; 2:266; 3 :28. J. Palfrey, Hist, of the N. E., I, p. 8; cf. pref.,
II, 389; IV, table of contents, see p. 461. Also German ancestry: Ban-
croft, Hist, of the U. S., 2 :265. Kiddle & Schem, Cyc. of Educa., p. 361.
36q appendix [360
EDUCATION DURING COLONIAL PERIOD.
1. What provisions were made for elementary education in the dif-
2. To what extent were these early schools free?
3. What were the subjects of study, the kind of text-books, and the
nature of the discipline and instruction ?
4. How did the schools of the colonies differ from those of Europe
during the same period?
5. Who were the teachers? How esteemed? How prepared? How
6. Compare the provisions for education among the various settle-
7. What other sources of education had the colonists?
Adams, C. F. Three Episodes of Massachusetts History, 2 '.764, 800.
Bacon, Leonard. Genesis of New England Churches, p. 306 ff.
Bailey, Sarah L. Historical Sketches of Andover, p. i.
Barry, J. S. History of Massachusetts Colonial Period, chaps. 2-7.
Biography of Ezekiel Cheever. Am. Jour. Educa., i :297.
Boone, R. G. Education in the United States, p. 14.
Dexter, F. B. Influence of English University. Mass, Hist. Soc. Proc,
Dexter, H. M. As to Roger Williams and His Banishment from the
Massachusetts Plantation, with a few further words concerning
the Baptists, Quakers, and Religious Liberty.
Drake, S. A. Making of New England.
Earle, Alice. Customs and Fashions in New England.
Eggleston, E. Transit of Civilization from England to America, chaps.
I, 3 (see topics on margins of pages), 4, 5.
Early New England Schools and Teachers. Am. Jour.
Fiske, John. The Beginnings of New England, p. 151.