George Washington Cowles.

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to supply the village and individuals with gas sinee that date. The
works are situated on the south side of the canal, west of the upper
bridge, and are now in charge of George Tuffts.

The Clyde Electric Company was incorporated September 20, 1890,
by E. Fred Stoetzel (president), Charles II. Ford (vice-president),
E. M. Mclntyre (secretary and treasurer), Calvin Mclntyrc, and J.
George Kaelber, with a capital of $25,000, which has remained un-
changed. The plant was erected that fall and placed in operation
December 25, in a brick building between the canal and the Central
Railroad, west of Sodus street. It is the only plant burning 2,000 candle
power arc lights in streets between Syracuse and Rochester. They
have thirty-eight are street lamps and about 500 incandescent lamps,
and a wired system of fourteen miles. The present officers are : D. M.
Wright, president; Nathan Shaw, vice-president; E. M. Mclntyre,
secretary and treasurer.

The banking interests of Clyde date from L837, when Miller's Bank
was established through the influence of Messrs. Briggs, Ford, Chap-
man, Smith, Griswold, Redlield, and De Zeng. Stocks were issued to
farmers in exchange for mortgages, which became the securities under
State law. The bank did a large business, but it failed in 1843,
spreading disaster in every direction. January ;, L851, Isaac Miller
organized the Commercial Bank of Clyde; but he failed in 1869 with
heavy liabilities. In L865 Mr. Miller, father of Isaae, established the
First National Bank of Clyde, he tilling the office of president, anil
William II. Miller, son of Isaac, cashier. This bank also failed in 1869.
Charles Hamilton, who was born in Steuben county in 181'.), came to



WAYNE COUNTY. r, \

Clyde about L859, and for several years prior to his death (February 23,
L893) conducted a private banking- business.

The Briggs Bank of Clyde was incorporated in 1856, under the
State law, as the Briggs Bank, with Samuel S. Briggs, president,
and William H. Coffin, cashier and principal manager. Its capital was
about $70,000, and among its stockholders were Messrs. Briggs, Coffin,
Redheld, and Ketchum. In 1859 Mr. Briggs became by purchase the
sole owner. January 28, 1860, Aaron Griswold bought a one-half
interest, and at the death of Mr. Briggs in September, 1865, he sold out
to Samuel H. Briggs, son of Samuel S., who also acquired his father's
interest. In the same year S. H. Briggs sold a part of the business to
Lewis H. Palmer, and in the fall of 1866 its circulation was called in,
its securities in possession of the State redeemed, and it became a
private bank under the name of Briggs & Palmer. In March, 1880, it
closed business under this title, and April 19 following began anew
as the Briggs National Bank with paid in capital of $50,000, and with
these officers: Samuel H. Briggs, president; Lewis H. Palmer, vice-
president; J. W. Hinman, cashier; W. A. Hunt, assistant cashier.
These, and W. S. Hunt and George W. Cowles, constitute the Board of
Directors.

In March, 1869, Aaron Griswold and Charles E. Elliott purchased the
office fixtures of the defunct First National Bank and started a private
bank on the corner of Columbia and Glasgow streets; in the next year
it was removed to the corner of Glasgow and Ford streets. The firm
name of Griswold & Elliott was soon changed to Griswold, Elliott &
Company, and subsequently to Griswold & Gurnee. In May, 1874, Mr.
Griswold retired and the firm became Gurnee & wStreeter, but on June
1, 1876, Aaron Griswold repurchased the entire business and conducted
it until his death in February, 1883, when it was discontinued.

In 1832 a company consisting of eight men was formed in Clyde for
the purpose of manufacturing salt. A well 400 feet deep was sunk and
$1,800 were expended in promoting the enterprise. Brine was obtained
in small quantity, but when exposed to the air it turned red. An
artesian well was put down near the glass works which emitted gas and
produced a weak brine. In May, 1887, a company was organized with
a capital of $3,000; the trustees were: W. D. Ely, J. M. Streeter, A. H.
Smith, W. H. Groesbeck, and George O. Baker. On September 13, a
well was commenced on the vacant lot near the glass works; at a depth
of 340 feet the Niagara formation appeared, at 675 feet the Clinton



LANDMARKS OF

group, and at 758 feet the Medina sandstone, and at 1,792 feet work
was suspended. At 1 1<> feet mineral water was found, and at 175 feet
salt water was struck; at 685 feet a pocket of gas was encountered; this
was 'Darned for some time, but was never utilized.

The Clyde mineral springs were analyzed by Professor Hadley, of
Geneva College, in 184-1, and found to contain the following ingredients:
muriate of soda, 55 gr. ; muriate of lime, 30 gr. ; sulphate and muriate
of magnesia, 12 gr. ; a gallon of the water contains 288 grains of saline
matter. In 1893 a well was sank in the middle of the public square
which produces water strongly impregnated with mineral substances.

About the year 1820 William S. De Zeng purchased a tract of land
within the present limits of Clyde, and with James R. Rees founded the
present glass works in 1827. It was then simply a window glass factory,
and the corner stone was laid March 27, 1828, under the superintendence
of Major Frederic A. De Zeng. The proprietors since that time have
been as follows:

William S. De Zeng, James R. Rees (De Zeng & Rees); Charles S. De Zeng; Dr.
Hiram Mann; Lawrence De Zeng, Abner Burlingame, Theodore Hinman (De Zeng
& Co.); James H. Stokes; James H. Stokes, William C. Ely (Stokes & Ely); James II.
Stokes; II. H. Stevens, Isaac Miller (Stevens & Miller); H. H. Stevens, Isaac Miller,
C. E. Elliott, H. G. Groesbeck (Stevens, Miller & Co.); Isaac Miller, George Rowell,
Cornelius Miller (Miller, Rowell & Co.); William C. Ely; Dr. Linus Ely; Orrin South-
wick; Orrin Southwick, Charles W. Reed, John Schindler, George H. Hoyt (South-
wick, Reed & Co.); William C. Ely, Charles W. Reed, John Schindler, George H.
Hoyt (Ely, Reed & Co.); William C. Ely, Charles W. Reed, George H. Hoyt (Ely.
Reed & Co.).

From IS^S to 1864 the window glass factor)- alone was run. In 1864
tlie bottle factory was started, the first firm being Southwick & Woods
(Orrin Southwick and Almon Woods); then Southwick & Reed (Orrin
Southwick and Charles W. Reed). Afterward both factories were
under the management of Southwick, Reed & Co.

On July 24, 1873, the establishment was burned, but was at once re-
built. In 1878 the buildings underwent repairs and the old corner stone
was replaced by anew one August 10. In isso Mr. Rco(] retired and
the (inn became Fly, Son & Hoyt, by the admission of Charles 1). Ely.
William C. Ely died September 20, L886, since which time the firm name
has been William C. Ely's Sons & Hoyt (Charles 1). and William D.
Ely and George II. Hoyt.) Window glass and bottles, fruit jars, etc.,
are made, and the product is sent to all parts of the country.

In 1831 Condit & Van Buren established a foundry in a wooden build-



WAYNE COUNTY. 273

ing; and a little later the firm became Whiting, Humphrey & Co., who,
in 1843, sold to Dolph, Humphrey & Co. The latter erected a stone
building and added the manufacture of machinery and here the business
has ever since been conducted. Among their successors were A. S.
Field, Humphrey & Wood, Millard Olmstead, F. Humphrey, Wood &
Chandler. December 1, 1866, S. W. & S. H. Wood purchased the con-
cern and carried on business until the death of S. H. Wood, when S. W.
assumed the business. In 1887 the latter admitted his son Henry I.
as partner under the style of S. W. Wood & Son. They make traction,
portable, and stationary engines, iron and brass castings, and do a gen-
eral machine business.

In 1866 the First National Paper Manufacturing Company of Clyde
was organized, with Dr. Darwin Colvin, president, and erected a build-
ing with a weekly capacity of nine tons of manilla wrapping paper.
The next year the Clyde Paper Manufacturing Company, of which Aaron
Griswold was president, began making printing paper. After running
about two years, at a heavy loss, both mills were closed. One of the
buildings was afterwards used by T. P. Thorn as a malt house, and in
August, 1877, it was burned with a loss of $11,000.

Isaac Scott, a Quaker, is said to have started the first tannery in
Clyde. William Andrews became his partner and when Roberts &
Rose assumed the business Mr. Scott established another on the north
side of the river. The tannery of Roberts & Rose was finally converted
into a dwelling and occupied by Asahel Tichnor, Ezra Furman, and
others, and eventually was torn down. Root & King also had a tan-
nery here at an early day, and failed about 1835.

In 1818 William S. De Zeng's father built a dam across Clyde River
west of the lower bridge, and the son erected a grist mill on the north
side of the stream just west of the site of the mineral spring. In early
days another mill was built west of the lower bridge and a carding mill
on the north side of the river below that bridge. The first steam grist
mill was erected by Ford & Smith where the lumber yard is now situated.
It was purchased by Aaron Griswold, Charles S. De Zeng, W. C. Ely,
and H. G. Groesbeckin 1851, who sold it in 1854 to Briggs, Coffin &Co. ,
by whom it was converted into a distillery. It burned and was not re-
built. Mr. Griswold and Fredus Chapman purchased in 1843 two grist
mills and a saw mill which at that time constituted the milling interests
of Clyde, and the two men also engaged in mercantile business. Mr.
Griswold subsecpiently soldhis interest to Luther Redfield, jr. In 1854

35



274 LANDMARKS OF

Cornelius Miller erected a brewery and malt house which his son, John
C, transformed into a grist mill, and its proprietors have since been
James H. Congdon, 1857; Zina Hooker, 1863; Louis Strumm and John
Hartman, 1864 ; Mary Hartman, 1874; and Wood & Keesler since L883.
The latter have enlarged and remodeled the mill and substituted the
roller process for stones. S. Skinner built a steam saw and grist mill on
the south side of the river which subsequently passed to Joel Thorn.
It was demolished in 1883 to make room for the West Shore Railroad.

The malting business, though carried on in a quiet manner, forms one
of Clyde's most important industries. In 1854 Cornelius Miller erected
a brewery and malt house previously mentioned; upon the death of
Louis Strumm it was leased for four years by A. H. Smith. Capacity
12,000 bushels. Charles E. Elliott had a malt house near the present
foundry, and his successors were Reed & Elliott, A. H. Smith, and
Charles R. Kennedy, since 1880. Capacity 30,000 bushels. Mr. Ken-
nedy also leases a malt house of C. W. Reed. In I860 Charles Gordon
converted one floor of his warehouse into a malting establishment with
a capacity of 8,000 bushels. S. D. & J. M. Streeter purchased the
building, and in 1806 increased its capacity to 60,000 bushels. In 1891
S. D. Streeter sold his interest to George B. Greenway, who one year
later became sole proprietor, enlarging its capacity to 100,000 bushels.

John Stevens & Company started a malt house capaple of carrying
about 15,000 bushels. Thomas P. Thorn succeeded as proprietor and
also to that of the Newlove brewery adjoining, and in 1867 he enlarged
the latter, making the combined capacity 100, 000 bushels. Thorn &
Fox started a malt house in the old paper mill on the south side of the
river about 1864, but abandoned it some four years later. In 18(18 the
Nichols warehouse was converted into a malt house with a capacity of
12,000 bushels. Upon the death of Mr. Nichols, Charles W. Reed
bought the property, enlarged it to a capacity of 60,000 bushels, and
excepting two years, when he was in partnership with A. II. Smith,
has since conducted it. Mclntyrc & Warner's malt house was built as
a storehouse by Calvin Mclntyre. Its capacity, formerly 35,000 bushels,
was increased in L889 to 158,000 bushels. Thomas Smith built a malt
house in L856 with a capacity of 8,000 bushels, which he increased, until
in 1867 it was 100,000. In lssl he associated his son Arthur II. in a
partnership styled T. Smith & Son, which continued until L888, when
J. K. Souther, a Boston brewer, and A. II. Smith bought the concern
as the Smith Malting Company. In L89Q Mr. Souther purchased his



WAYNR COUNTY. J7r,

partner's interest and continues the business under the above name. In
1890 Arthur H. Smith bought the site of the old Franklin House ad
joining the Central Railroad and erected his present malt house;
capacity 100,000 bushels.

George A. Brown opened a harness shop in Clyde in 1872, and from
that year to the present gradually increased the business, employing
now about fifty-five hands in making harness for the trade and turning
out $90,000 in goods annually. He has occupied his present quarters
since 18G4, and also deals in carriages, wagons, etc.

The canning factory of Hemingway & Company was started in the
old paper mill building in 1878. They have since erected a large plant
and carry on an extensive business.

The Clyde Creamery Company was incorporated in the summer of
1 89 I, and a factory placed in operation in August of that year.

Of the merchants in Clyde thirty years ago Ambrose S. Field, Jacob
.Strauss, and Sylvester J. Childs are the only ones who still continue
business. Chester A. Ward opened a general store in 1838, and after-
ward had George M. Closs as partner; on the death of the latter the
business was closed out. Mr. Ward was elected sheriff on the Whig
ticket, moved west, and died in Michigan in February, 1892. Among
other old-time merchants in the village were: Frisbie & Nichols, A.
Mundy, Isaac Miller, Halsted & Clark, Luther Redfield, jr., Frederick
Bellamy, J. D. Stone, S. J. Sayles, Edward Canfield, Ely & Mead,
Scott & Dickinson, and J. C. Atkins. Jacob Zearfoz, a German bach-
elor, had a hat factory here in early da3^s.

The Clyde marble and granite works of Edward B. Wells was estab-
lished by him in 1860. In 1873 he represented the First Assembly
District of Wayne county in the Legislature.

The S. S. Briggs brick block, one of the oldest in the village, was
erected in 1851; the A. E. Adams block, three stories, in 1869; the
Adams block, two stories, in 1882; and the L. W. Burton brick build-
ing, also in 1882. Other handsome and imposing brick blocks have
been erected from time to time, giving the main street (Glasgow) of the
village quite a metropolitan appearance.

Clyde village now contains three dry goods stores, three hardware
stores, seven groceries, three boot and shoe stores, five millinery stores,
two jewelry stores, three clothing stores, three drug stores, one news
room, a photograph gallery, three furniture establishments, one furniture
repair shop, two printing offices and newspapers, two hotels, three



276 LANDMARKS OF

liveries, two flouring mills, seven malt houses, three coal dealers, one
lumber yard, one produce dealer, five lawyers, six physicians, three
dentists, four meat markets, two marble works, one warehouse, a
machine shop, two cooper shops, a district graded school, a high school,
five churches, and a population of 2,638.

Lock Berlin. — This place was first settled by Solomon Ford in 1805.
He bought one hundred acres of land mainly on the south side of the
canal, which five years later became a prosperous farm. In his neighbor-
hood in 1812 James Showers, John and McQuiller Parish, and John
Acker each purchased one hundred acres and settled. The last survivor
of these families was Mrs. Delia Gernard, daughter of John Parish.
The first frame house was built by David Ford in 1817 on the farm
owned by the heirs of Daniel Jennison. David, William, and Benjamin
Ford erected and opened the first store in 1824, and in connection
therewith conducted a distillery, a brick yard, a cooper shop, and an
ashery. Aaron Griswold and William Ford started a second mercantile
business here in 1831, but a year or two later Alfred Griswold, brother
of Aaron, purchased Mr. Ford's interest, and the two continued trade
until March, 1836. N. B. Gilbert, father of W. H. Gilbert, came here
in 1837 and engaged in carpentering; in 1849 he began making carriages,
which he continued until his death in 1875.

It has generally been claimed that the post-office was first established
in William Ford's store, and it is probable that he was the first post-
master. The present incumbent is James Dunkley. James Darned
and Seth Brown, the first road commissioners of Galen, were prominent
residents of the hamlet ; and Samuel Brockner was one of its earliest
blacksmiths. In 1838, and for many years before, a tavern furnished
entertainment for travelers. William Griswold had the lock grocery at
an early day and went to New York each fall and spring to buy goods,
purchasing generally from forty to fifty casks of whisky and a liberal
supply of rum, gin, and brandy. At that time the place contained
about seventy-five inhabitants. The temperance movement long since
suppressed the large number of bar rooms and lias given to Lock Berlin
a respectable reputation. Situated on the canal and the Central Rail-
road, in the west part of the town, the little hamlet now contains a
store, post-office, evaporator, district school, church, and the usual
shops.

M \kkm;o. — This little village is the site of the first settlement in
Galen. It is situated in the southwest part of the town on lot 95, on



WAYNE COUNTY. 277

the Montezuma turnpike, a half mile north from the county line.
Thomas Beadle, of Junius, Seneca county, originally owned the land,
and in 1800 settled his son Laomi upon it. The latter erected the first
house and the first saw mill, and Edward G. Ludlow started the first
store in 1818; this was in charge of his agent, Cyrus Smith, who was in
that year appointed the first postmaster; the present official is David
H. Perry. About 1818 Edward Wing built and opened the first tavern,
and Nathan Blodgett started an ashery. The village was rapidly sur-
rounded by thrifty farmers, most of whom were Quakers, who long im-
parted to the community an influence for good. They early established
a church of their sect and have maintained their simple doctrines and
quiet reserve through the intervening years to the present day.

Angell's Corners, three miles east of Marengo and half a mile north
from the county line, is a small rural hamlet of a few farm houses.

Meadville, or Lock pit, is a little settlement on the canal near the
southeast corner of the town. It has a grocery and a few dwellings.

Churches. — The oldest religious organization in this town is the
Galen Preparatory Meeting of Friends, which was formed in 1815 into
a regular monthly meeting to be held alternately in the towns of Junius
and Galen. Among the first members from this town were : David
Beadle, Stephen Y. Watson, James Tripp, Daniel and Nathan Strang,
Mathew Rogers, and Henry Bonnell. Five years prior to this they had
organized the above society in conjunction with Junius, and until 1812
meetings were held occasionally in a log meeting house near Marengo ;
in that year their present house of worship was built one-fourth of a
mile west of that village. After, several years' experience as a regular
monthly meeting the organization changed back to the Galen Prepara-
tory Meeting of Friends, which title it still retains.

The First Presbyterian Church of Clyde was organized by Rev.
Francis Pomeroy, of Lyons, and Rev. Hippocrates Roe, of Palmyra,
July 8, 1814, with these members: Samuel Garlic, William Diddie, Ezra
and Nabby Lewis, John and Sally Grow, and Erastus Wilder. On the
following day the Presbyterian form of government was adopted, and
Samuel Garlic, Erastus Wilder, and Ezra Lewis were chosen elders;
Erastus Wilder, deacon; Rev. Francis Pomeroy, stated moderater;
Samuel Garlic, clerk. At this meeting Tamar, wife of Erastus Wilder,
became the first member admitted to the society, and on July 10, Huldah
and Charlotte Grow, Lydia Elizabeth Wilder, and John A. Addison
were christened and baptized into the church by Rev. Mr. Roe. The



278 LANDMARKS OF

church was attended by supplies until July, 1820, when Rev. Charles
Mosher was made the first pastor; he was succeeded among' others by
Maltby Gelston, Joseph Fisher, S. J. M. Beebe, J. W. Roy, John
Ward, Robert E. Wilson (sixteen years), J. R. Young-, A. C. Roe, and
W. H. Bates (twelve years). The present pastor is Rev. J. C. Mead,
and the society has about 200 members. The society worshiped a few
years in the school house south of the river, and then in the upper story
of Sylvester Clarke's store, the same now occupied by his son Sylvester
H. as a dwelling. The first house of worship stood on the corner of
Lock and Caroline streets; was of wood and cost $5,500 ; its cornerstone
was laid in August, 1829. In 1870 it was superseded by the present
imposing brick edifice, the corner stone of which was laid August 20.
The church cost about $30,000. It was dedicated November 30, 1871.
The parsonage was donated to the society by General Charles P. Kings-
bury of Watertown, Mass., as a memorial to his mother, who was long
one of its members.

On the 4th of April, 1821, the Galen Sabbath School Society was
organized at the house of Ephraim Marsh with the following officers:
Rev. Charles Mosher, superintendent; Dea. John Leavenworth, vice-
superintendent; James Humeston, secretary; Dr. John Lewis, treasurer;
Oliver Whitmore, Joel Blakeman, Sylvester Clarke, Capt. Jerry Darrow,
and Asahel Tickner, trustees. It had thirty-two teachers and was
attended by children of all the church-going families in the village and
its vicinity. Shortly afterwards it was merged into the Presbyterian
church and among its subsequent superintendents was Jacob T. Van
Buskirk from 1859 to 1873, who increased its membership from fifty-
seven to over 300. It now lias an average attendance of L25, with G. A.
Brown, superintendent.

The First Baptist Church of Clyde was organized as early as 1*1 H,
and Rev. Joseph Potter was the first pastor; but owing to the loss (A'
the records to 1843. further information concerning its early history
cannot be obtained. The erection of an edifice was begun soon after
the formation of the society— an edifice that has since been remodeled
into the present church. In L843 the pastor was Rev. Mr. Maxwell,
and following him came Revs. Mitchell, Weld), Vrooman, Loomis,
Gilbert, Cormac, Cooley, and Hubbard, the latter serving in 1858-59.
Dissension sprang up in the church which threatened its existence, and
it was finally decided to dissolve and reorganize thesociety. September
10, 180 1, and soon after the old church had formally disbanded, a meet-



WAYNE COUNTY. 279

ing for reorganization was held and the present society was formed.
In September the legal organization and recognition by council took
place in Parker's hall. The new church had fifty members and these
officers: P. Sloan, A. Devereaux, J. Vandenberg, B. Jones, and J. S.
Lamereaux, trustees; A. De Laney, treasurer; La Fontaine Russell and
Hiram Burton, deacons. The first pastor of the new society was Rev.
William H. Steegar; the present pastor is Rev. C. H. Howes, who is
also moderator of the Wayne Baptist Association, 1893-94. In 1864 the
church building was partially sold to the Free Methodists, who still own
a half interest ; but the new Baptist society has always used it for their
meetings. It is a brick structure on Sodus street, and cost about
$2,500. In 1877 it was remodeled at a cost of $4,319, and on October 3,
of that year, it was dedicated. The church has about one hundred
members and a Sunday school with an average attendance of seventy-
five scholars; the superintendent is W. L. Devereaux.

The First Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Clyde was
organized in the village school-house by Revs. Isaac Chase and Joseph
Gardner, November 23, 1824, the first trustees being Jabez Cook, Ben-
jamin B. Wright, and Isaac Chase. In 1831 their first house of worship
was finished and dedicated at a cost of about $1,900. It was of wood
and was used until 1859, when a brick structure was erected on the
corner of Sodus and Caroline streets. Enlarged and its length increased
to one hundred feet it was rededicated November 23, 1871 ; it was again
remodeled and refurnished in 1892. The church proper including the
parsonage is valued at about $30,000, and the society has a membership