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petus to immigration. About 1835 a mail route was established from
Auburn via Montezuma, through Savannah and Butler toWolcott, with


a post-office at Crusoe Lake called "Crusoe." When the New York
Central Railroad was completed this route was discontinued and the
post-office moved to Savannah village. The eastern plank road was con-
structed at an early day from Clyde to Port Byron byway of the old salt
works and Howland's Island, the latter points being- connected by a
bridge, which after a few years was neglected and finally went down.
This road was graded to the river, but planked eastward from Clyde
only to the highway leading north from the depot. Other thoroughfares
were surveyed and opened from time to time, and all are kept in excel-
lent condition.

The first town meeting was held at the Crusoe House, one-half mile
east of Crusoe Lake, in April, 1825, and David Cushman was elected the
first supervisor. The absence of the early town records renders it im.
possible to give the other officers chosen at this meeting or of the sub-
sequent supervisors until 1845. The supervisors since then have been
as follows :

Sylvanus Thompson, 1845. R. M. Evens, 1862-63.

Nelson Payn, 1846. William G. Soule, 1864-65.

Chauncey T. Ives, 1847-48. William R. Stultz, 1866-71.

Nelson Payn, 1849. Charles Wood, 1872-74,

Benajah Abrams, 1850. John A. Munson, 1875-78.

Charles D. Haddon, 1851-52. Amnion S. Farnum, 1879-83.

Ebenezer Fitch, 1853. Alonzo D. Wood, 1884-86.

Frank Knapp, 1854. John A. Munson, 1887-89.

Benajah Abrams, 1855. - E. L. Adams, 1890-92.

James M. Servis, 1856-61. Addison P. Smith, 1893-94.

The town officers for 1894 are: Addison P. Smith, supervisor; Charles
C. Taylor, town clerk; John H. Bixby, W. C. Soule, Charles Reed, H.
C. Rising, justices of the peace; Ebenezer Harrington, highway com-
missioner; John L. Spoor aud Gustavus Stuck, overseers of the poor;
E. M. Clark, George Anderson, H O. Bagley, assessors; Fred M. Had-
don, collector.

The Wayne County Gazetteer and Directory (1866) states that Elias
Converse and Joseph Mosher made the first settlements in Savannah in
1812, but according to information furnished by H. H. Wheeler, of
South Butler, and printed in a subsequent publication, it is evident that
settlers were living within the borders of this town as early as 1808. In
that year Eli Wheeler visited this region, and in 1810 located on a farm
of 200 acres in Butler. Stephen Titus was living in Savannah, three
miles east of Harrington's Corners, in 1808, and Noah Starr and Eph-


raim Burch were residents of that neighborhood inl810. Silas Winans

located one-half mile east of Harrington's as early as 1812.

In 1811 Prentice Palmer moved hither from Butler to care for the then
idle establishment of the old Galen Salt Works. He was originally from
Massachusetts, and in 1815 he removed to the town line one-half mile
west of South Butler. For man)- years he was justice of the peace, con-
stable, and collector.

Daniel Harrington, the grandfather of the late resident of that name,
located at the junction of the Muskeeto Point and Galen roads prior to
L815, and from him the place was long known as Harrington's Corners.
His sons were John, Nehemiah, Theophilus, Ira, and Peter. The same
year Noah and Horace Peck (Brothers), Aaron Hall, and Peter Blasdell
settled on the south side of the State road in the northwest part of the

The first settlers between Harrington's Corners and the old Galen
Salt Works were Michael Weatherwax and Job Cushman in 1818. David,
son of the latter, married Poll}- Ann, the eldest daughter of Prentice
Palmer, and died in town; his widow married John Gorham, and their
daughter became the wife of George Wilson, who settled on the Cush-
man homestead. Orrin Wellman, whose father, Paul, was a Revolu-
tionary soldier, married Hannah, another daughter of Mr. Palmer, and
resided on lot 39 under a lease from Jacob Winchell. This property for
many years was celebrated in the annals of litigation. About L820
Charles Clapp settled on a farm south of Mr. Weatherwax, and Howell
Bidwell, his brother-in law, on the place subsequently occupied by By-
ron G. Clark. Horace Bidwell, a brother of Howell, located therewith
him and married Rhoda, youngest daughter of Paul Wellman.

Joseph Mosher and George Yredenburgh settled on the road from
Weatherwax 's to Crusoe Creek in 1812. From a landing place at the
junction of this road and the creek there was prosecuted for many years
a small commercial business in row boats. Mr. Mosher became well
known for his numerous swarms of bees.

Settlements on Crusoe Island, in the southern part of the town, com-
menced about as early as those already mentioned. Smith Ward came
in by water from Montezuma to May's Point, and thence to a locality
on the Montezuma turnpike since known as Penstock. In 1818 Nehe-
miah Bunyea settled near the north end of the island and erected a
dwelling on the site of the old Soule homestead; in 1819 George Vre-
denburgh and Elias Converse (father-in-law of Bunyea) moved over.


Mr. Vredenburgh afterward married Sally, youngest daughter of Mr.
Converse, and to them a child was born, being respectively the first
marriage and the first birth in town. Mr. Bunyea finally moved to the
Kingsbury farm and built thereon the first barn on the island; he event-
ually went to Montezuma, where he erected for Dr. Clark and Jethro
Wood the two conspicuous dwellings, long since landmarks, and for the
Montezuma Turnpike Company the first bridges across the Cayuga and
Canandaigua outlets. His father-in-law, Dr. William May, from whom
May's Point was named, was the first physician at Montezuma.

Titus Lockwood, a one-legged Revolutionary soldier, settled on the
State road in the extreme northwest corner of the town in 1819; about
1825 he sold to John M. Cobb. Jerry Mead came in from Cayuga county
about 1819, settled south of Lockwood, and died a few years later. His
successor was John Caywood, who came from Galen and who died on
the place, aged 102 years.

In 1820 Leonard Ferris, with his father, Caleb, and mother, Judah,
and Richard R)^an, his brother-in-law, settled in the northern part of
the town, and Amos Winnegar on the farm adjoining that of Silas Winan.
Henry Winnegar, a brother of Amos, located about 1830 on the place
afterward occupied by his son James R. In 1822 Philip Cook located
west of Crusoe Lake and about the same year Henry O'Neil settled near
by. In 1827 James Stiles came in, at which time Medad Blasdell, son
of Peter, sr., and Samuel Gilbert were residents. The latter was suc-
ceeded by Hubbard Hamlin, and he by his son-in-law, Mansfield B.
Winnegar. Ashley Hogan, Russell Palmer (brother of Prentice), and
Luther Chapin became settlers between 1823 and 1825. Russell Pal-
mer was active in town affairs and served as supervisor, justice of the
peace, etc. Mr. Chapin was elected to the Legislature in 1828.

On a road leading from the turnpike across the island to Crusoe Creek
Henry Taylor built a house in 1824, near where the Central depot now
stands. He died in October, 1893. About the same year George F.
Torry, Channcey Ives, and Garry Burnham settled in the neighborhood.

In the northwest part of the town Edward Bivins and Benjamin Hall,
brothers-in-law, settled in 1818; about 1819 Richard Rice started an
ashery in Savannah on the old State road at a point then called " In-
dian Camp." Thomas Hall, from Saratoga county, the father of Joshua,
Benjamin, Elias, Stephen and Peter, was an early settler. Another
Thomas Hall, a Baptist preacher from Junius, Seneca county, held the
first religious services in the town. He was father in-law of Richard


Rice, and the successors to his homestead were John Sedore, William
Robinson, John Gorham, and William Reed. A Mr. Stackus erected a
log house on the west side of Fort Hill at an early day and got out quan-
tities of oak staves and heading for market. Royal Torrrey, father of
George F., built the celebrated Crusoe House in 1824; it stood north of
Crusoe Creek and one-half mile' east of Crusoe Lake, on the Savannah
and South Butler road and for many years was the only tavern in the
town. In it were held the earlier town meetings and the public gath-
ings. When the railroad was completed in 1854 it ceased its career of
usefulness. Mr. Torrey built the first saw mill in town in 1824, a mile
east of his hotel.

To the foregoing list of early settlers may be added the names of
Benjamin Seeley, John Green, Abner and Ezra Brockway, Henry
Myers, Sampson McBane, Alexander and Martin Lamb, and John

Prominent among those now living are Albert Williams, Jacob and
Abner Wurtz, George, George A., and Ebenezer Farrand (sons of B.
C, who died in May. 1894), Benjamin F. Gage, John H. and Charles
G. Wood, Richard S. and John T. Crandall, James B. Wiley (ex-super-
intendent of the poor), John B. and Henry Carris, Rev. Philip Swift
(brother of the late Rev. Nathan M. ), George Safford (for many years the
conductor of the only Cheddar cheese factory in the county, and which is
now used for an evaporator), Simeon Titus (contractor), Rev. D. D.
Davis, Jacob S., George W. , and Frank Taylor (sons of Henry), Wel-
ling C. and Ernest C. Soule (sons of William G.), Herbert C. Soule
(son of Rowland), George Lockwood, Ebenezer Harrington, Aaron F.
and Andrew S. Hall, O'Connell Ferris, James M. Hadden, John A.
Munson (ex-supervisor, ex-assemblyman, and son of Archibald), Ensign
L. Adams, Amnion S. Farnuim (clerk of the board of supervisors),
Horace W. and Addison R. Smith, Hutchings E. Newton (proprietor
of the Newton House), Adelbert Hungcrford, Arthur W. Evans, Dr.
W. H. Sweeting, D. J. Gotten, Adam and Sylvester Secor, H. Owen
Bagley, Norman and George D. Springstead, Jeduthan E. Tallman, E.
M. Clark, and Benjamin South wick.

Moses Cook, a son of the pioneer, Peter, died here in September,
L891. Rev. Nathan R. Swift, born in 1821, settled on a farm in Savan-
nah soon after L841, and died there in December, L890. He was one
of the founders and president of Adrian College, of which he was long
treasurer and for twenty-five years a trustee. F. M. Johnson, a native


of this town, died here in 1891. Dr. W. H. Smith, father of Horace
W. and Addison P., and for twenty-five years a practitioner in .Savan-
nah village, died in California in 1891; Sylvester A. Farnum, father of
Hon. A. S., died here in February, 1892.

In 1858 Savannah had 951 males and 811 female inhabitants, 343
dwellings, 349 families, 212 freeholders, and 11,251 acres improved
land. The real estate was assessed at $455,362 and the personal prop-
erty at $8,000. In 1890 the population was 1,788, or sevent3^-nine less
than in 1880. In 1893 the real estate was assessed at $623,690 (equal-
ized $636,500); village and mill property $127,679 (equalized $115,-
824); railroads and telegraphs $257,259 (equalized $233,120); personal
property $246,425. Schedule of taxes 1893: Contingent fund, $1,-
222,19; poor fund, $300; roads and bridges, $550; school tax, $1,074.16;
county tax, $2,570.06; State tax, $1,416.24; State insane, $365.36; dog
tax, $74. Total tax levied, $8,135.88; rate per cent., .00710134. The
town has two election districts and in 1893 polled 367 votes.

During the Rebellion the town contributed 158 volunteers to the
Union forces. Its obligations in that long conflict were cheerfully and
promptly met, and its citizens may well feel proud of Savannah's ex-
cellent war record.

The first school house in Savannah was erected on the site of the
present Evans Cemetery as early as 1816, and the first teacher therein
was Loren Brown, who received five dollars per month. On what was
then Big Hill, where now stands an old orchard, a log school house
was built in 1822; the first teachers in it were Maria Westcott and
Austin Roe. In Savannah village a union school was established sev-
eral years since by the consolidation of two districts, and a brick school
house erected at a cost of $5,000. In 1892 this was replaced by the
present frame structure at an expense of $8,000; this was opened in
February, 1893. It has four departments, a library of 500 volumes,
and employs five teachers, the present principal being Howard N. Tol-
man. Although nominal^ a graded institution, it affords all the privi-
leges of a High school and is governed accordingly. It was placed
under the Board of Regents of the State mainly through the efforts of
C. G. Plumb, M. D., now of Red Creek. The trustees elected in
August, 1893, were D. J. Cotten, president; J. A. Munson, secretary;
and E. M. Clark. The town has twelve school districts with a school
house in each, employing seventeen teachers, during the year 1892-93.
The number of children attending these schools is 458. The school



buildings and sites are valued at $16,7(30; assessed valuation of districts
$1,248,646; money received from the vState, $2,133.23; amount raised
by local tax, $11,217.99.

The first saw mill has previously been mentioned. Following that
came another on Crusoe Creek, near the plank road crossing, which
was erected by Kendrick Bixby. It was operated by steam, and about
1850 was sold to Othniel Palmer, son of Prentice, in whose possession
it burned. A. Wise built a steam saw mill near the west town line,
with which he converted a fine grove of hemlock on the farm of Charles
A. Rose into lumber. Archibald Munson built another saw mill near
Fort Hill and sawed up a large quantity of oak, hickory, chestnut, and
whitewood timber. Gideon Ramsdell erected one near the site of the
old Galen Salt Works some twenty-five years since, which facilitated
his extensive lumber operations for the railroad. A saw mill near
South Butler was the last one of the kind in town. It was built by
Samuel B. Tucker and O. H. Wheeler in 1839, and finally passed into
the possession of Bradway & Crofoot, who conducted it several years.
They also carried on a large business in manufacturing shingles and
cooperage. Capt. William B. Dodge built and conducted at the depot
in Savannah village a flouring mill, cider mill, saw mill, and wheel-
barrow manufactory; these were operated about three years, when they
burned. Hiram Dieffendorf, about 1864, erected a large barrel, stave
and heading manufactory near the depot, which was destroyed by fire
in the fall of 1866; it was rebuilt and soon burned again.

Hill & Munson's flouring mill west of the depot, was built by Hill &
Bradley in 1889. In February, 1890, John A. Munson purchased Mr.
Bradley's interest. This contains the full roller process, and is the only
grist mill in town. Mr. Munson also carries on the coal, grain, and
lumber business that was established by his father, Archibald, in 1858,
and which was conducted by the latter until his death in December,

Savannah Village. — This is the only village, post-office, or railroad
station in the town, and its corporate limits include nearly the whole of
military lots 64- and 65, of township 27. These lots contain 600 acres
each, and were set apart and reserved for the support of the gospel.
When the railroad was completed and the depot built in 1854 this place
comprised only Michael Curry's grocery store and Henry Taylor's resi-
dence. In 1867 it was legally incorporated and the first officers elected
were: Board of Trustees, Hiram Dieffendorf (president), Peter J.


Powell, Nicholas C. Vaught, and Patrick McCullum ; police justice,
Joseph Renyon ; assessors, William R. Stults, John Evans, Horace
Wadsworth; collector, Hezekiah Stults; clerk and treasurer/ Edward
Luce ; street commissioner and police constable, M, Quackenbush.
The succeeding presidents have been:

W. E. Smith, 1868, Charles Wood, 1876.

Peter J. Powell, 1869-70, Records inaccessible, 1877 to 1885,

Charles Wood, 1871, A. Gregg, 1886,

Cyrus Andrews, 1872, C. B. Jepson, 1887-88,

Delos Betz, 1873, Ammon S. Farnum, 1889-91,

Andrew J. Holdridge, 1874, A. S. Hall, 1892-93,

Charles H. Hamlin, 1875, A. S. Farnum, 1894.

The village officers for 1894 are: A. S. Farnum, (president), Horace
W. Smith, Ensign L. Adams, Charles B. Jepson, trustees ; O. Clate
Silver, clerk; E. M. Crandall, collector; Hiram Ellis, police justice;
William H. Fitch, police constable ; L. C. Sherman, treasurer; J. Wy-
man Joslyn, street commissioner; Dr. William H. Phelps, Andrew J.
Holdridge, John A. Munson, assessors.

Archibald Munson settled on a farm here in 1825 and erected the sec-
ond house on the site of the village; Henry Taylor, previously men-
tioned, preceded him in 1824. The first regular store was opened by
John Evans in 1854 near the railroad ; in 1855 he went into partnership
with R. W. Evans and moved to a larger building erected by Winans
Winnegar, where business was afterward prosecuted by R. W. Evans
alone, William R. Stults, and W. G. Smith. The Savannah Hotel was
built by Archibald Munson in 1858 and opened by Bela Smith and A J.
Squires, lessees, February 20, 1859. This subsequently had several
landlords. The first blacksmith shop was built and kept by Joseph
Remer in 1854. Putnam & Co. 's barrel factory was started by them in
1893. In 1888 A. J. Conroe began the manufacture of a Chinese laun-
dry bluing; in October, 1893, the business was sold to C. H. Betts, of
Wolcott, who organized the present Consolidated Bluing Company. A
few years since the manufacturing of flag salt, a proprietary medicine,
was commenced ; this was developed into quite an extensive business
under the direction of Dr. W. H. Sweeting. Besides these the village con-
tains six general stores, one hardware store, a jewelry store, two hotels
and liveries, two newspapers and printing offices, a meat market, two
coal, lumber, and produce dealers, one millinery store, a grist mill, two
churches, a graded school, three physicians, the usual shops, etc., and
a population of 505.


The Savannah Fire Company No. 1, was organized July 26, 1887, and
reorganized February 6, 1893. It is equipped with a hand engine, hose
cart, ladders, hose, etc. The officers for 1894 are: Michael McGinniss,
president; George W. Cooper, vice-president; O. Clate Silver, secretary;
Horace W. Smith, treasurer; W. C. Soule, chief engineer; D. B. Remer
and Addison P. Smith, foremen.

May's Point, in the south part of the town, contains a store and a half
dozen dwellings. A half mile north is the jewelry establishment of
William Farrand.

Churches. — The Presbyterian church, of Savannah, was organized by
Revs. Wilson and Young, from Lyons, in 1864, in the district school
house, with seventeen constituent members. The first pastor was Rev.
George W. Warner and the first elders and deacons -were Moses Treat
and John North. Their house of worship was built at a cost of about
$5,000, and was dedicated August 18, 1864, by Rev. Horace Eaton,
D.D., of Palmyra. The first superintendent of the Sunday school was
Archibald Munson, and the last pastor of the church was Rev. E. B.
Fisher. The society finally grew weaker in members and influence, and
is now virtually disbanded. The edifice though still owned in the name
of the board of trustees, was converted into a cold storage in 1893.

The Methodist Episcopal church, of Savannah, was organized about
L861 and their frame edifice was completed and dedicated in November,
L870. This church owes its foundation largely to Archibald Munson,
who contributed $1,000 towards the lot and building, and who was other-
wise influential in sustaining and promoting its interests. The society's
parsonage was erected in 1883-84 at a cost of about $1,500. The pres-
ent pastor is Rev. G. E. Campbell.

St. Patrick's church (Roman Catholic), of Savannah was built in 1875-
76, and cost about $2, 500. Fulfilling the wishes of Mrs. Michael C. Curry
the lot on which it stands was donated to the parish by her daughter,
Mrs. Andrew McDade, of Rochester. The church is in charge of the
resident priest in Clyde and is served from there. It owes its founda-
tion to the Rev. P. W. O'Connell, D.D., assisted by Edward Flinn.



Arcadia 1 was set off from the western part of Lyons on the loth of
February, 1825. It originally comprised a portion of the old district of
Soclus (which see), from which the town of Lyons was formed March
1, 1811. It lies immediately west of the southern center of Wayne
county, and is bounded on the north by Sodus, on the east by Lyons,
-£>n the south by Ontario county, and on the west by the counties of On-
tario and the towns of Palmyra and Marion. The town has an area of
30,914 acres, and lies wholly within the bounds of the old Pultney
estate, of which Capt. Charles Williamson was the local agent or pat-

The surface is diversified by drift ridges, basins, and valleys, and
was originally covered with a heavy growth of timber. The soil is very
fertile and easily cultivated, being mainly a sandy or gravelly loam ad-
mixed with more or less clay. Gypsum exists in the southwest and
marl near the center. Outside of Newark village the chief industry is
agriculture, in which the town has ever maintained a foremost position.
Wheat, oats, corn, barley, hay, apples, small fruits, tobacco, potatoes,
vegetables, peppermint, etc., are grown extensively and with profit.
In the production of peppermint and the shipment of oil the town is
one of the most important in the United States.

The principal stream is Ganargwa Creek, which flows easterly
through the town and receives a few small tributaries. Trout Run,
flowing northward through Marbletown and a corner of Newark vil-
lage, courses thence easterly into Lyons. In 1799 the Legislature
passed an act making Ganargwa (Mud) Creek a navigable stream, and
dams could not be constructed without locks. This afforded the earli-
est communications with eastern markets, and until the completion of

1 According to Pausanias, an eminent Greek geographer and historian, the word
Arcadia is derived from the eponymous hero Areas, the son of Calisto, and in Greece
is applied to the largest county in the Peloponnesus. Why or by whom the name
was given to this town has never been definitely determined.


the Erie Canal in 1825 was the principal route of transportation. The
opening of the canal had a marked influence upon the development and
subsequent growth of this section, and especially imparted to Newark
a decided impetus.

In 1854 the direct line of the New York Central Railroad was com-
pleted and opened, and assured to the town a future that has more than
fulfilled expectations. In 1852 the Sodus Point and Southern (now the
Sodus branch of the Northern Central) Railroad was incorporated, a
route was surveyed, and grading was commenced, but in 1857 the work
was suspended. In 1870 the work was revived, the road was com-
pleted, and the first train passed over it July 4, 1872. It has stations
at Newark, Fairville, and Zurich. To aid in the construction of this the
town was bonded September 1, 1870, for $122,000, of which sum $114,-
400 remained unpaid January 1, 1804. The railroad commissioners are
Clark Phillips, J. G. Pitts, and Peter R. Sleight. The West Shore (orig-
inally the New York, West Shore and Buffalo) Railroad was completed
and formally opened January 1, 1885.

The first road leading to Phelps was laid out from Newark south-
ward to the outlet, and the earliest effort to improve the highways was
the building of bridges across the Ganargwa. In 1804 a bridge was
erected at the "Excelsior" mills of Howell & Reeves, and others fol-
lowed until the construction of the plank road over the flat, which was
done by subscription, the prime movers being Messrs. Bartle, Miller,
and Blackmar. It was known as the Newark and Sodus road, and Mr.
Bartle was president of the company. Travel avoided it, however, to
escape the toll and the road was given to the town. In 1825 forty-nine
road districts were formed and as many overseers were chosen.

The first town meeting was held at William Popple's coffee house in
Newark on April 5, 1825, and the following officers were elected:
James P. Bartle, supervisor; Theodore Partridge, town clerk; Heze-
kiah Dunham, Joseph Luce, Andrew Finch, assessors; Hiram Sover-
hill and Joseph Mills, overseers of the poor; Henry Cronise, Edmund
T. Aldrich, Durfee Sherman, commissioners of highways; Hiram So-
verhill, William Terry, James McCain, constables; Caleb P. Lippett,
Artemus Doane, John L. Kipp, commissioners of common schools;

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