George Washington Cowles.

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Gillson House. At East Newark (then Loekville) a tavern was erected
and in 1827 kept by Abner Bannister.

Besides Bartle, Morton & Co., previously mentioned, Philip Lusk
was an early merchant; he also had an ashery on the old school house
lot, and in a building erected for a chair factory Rockwell Stone
made potash and kept a store, being succeeded by Albert F. Cressy,
who was the first hardware merchant. James Blakely was the second
hardware dealer, and later came the firm of Cronise & Co. Esbon and
Ransom Blackmar were early store keepers and also did an extensive
business shipping grain. Bartle, Morton & Co. were succeeded by
James G. Ford and E. T. Grant. The first meat vendor was a Mr.
Filkins, the first jeweler a Mr. Hotchkiss, and the first milliner Mrs.
Electa Partridge. Luther Hutchinson opened the first livery stable in
1827 and ran a line of stages and carried the mail to Geneva. The first
blacksmith was James T. Kipp, and another early one was Roger Ben-
ton, a Methodist preacher, whose smithy stood near the subsequent
residence of his son John W. John P. Groat was a blacksmith at what
was called Groat's Corners, near Philip Lusk's store. One of the
earliest carpenters was Peter P. Coher. John Daggett early began



WAYNE COUNTY. 369

manufacturing carding machines in a little shop standing south of the
M. E. Church, on Main street. He sold out, built a furnace, and
prosecuted a large business. During the war he went South, returned,
and died, and his furnace was converted into an agricultural imple-
ment works, by Samuel R. Tracey. Another furnace was early con-
ducted by the sons of Philip Lusk, a little west of Newark Hotel. J.
B. Gardenier, a carpenter by trade, purchased early the old Eagle
furnace on Union street, a livery stable, and the Newark Hotel of Mr.
Chipps, the builder. He carried on quite an extensive business, but
finally sold out and bought several canal boats, and in 1880 the Union
Hotel. He died in April,- 1801. Vaughn & Mandeville built a furnace
and machine shop at Groat's Corners, and were succeeded by Wilber &
Son, and they by Joseph Wilber.

The advertisers in the Newark ^Egis of December 1, 1839, were L.
L. Rose & Co., W. K. Powers, Alfred Scribner, Doane & Partridge,
Hudson & Button (assignees), dry goods and groceries; A. S. Lovejoy,
watches and jewelry; Roger, Danieldson & Co., drugs, dry goods, and
groceries; A. F. Cressy, hardware; Milo Galloway, manufacturer of
water-wheels; Mills & Barse, steam saw mill; Miss Ruth Parsons,
millinery and mantua making; C. L. Norton, dentist; Miles & Sickles,
tailors; Newark House, S. Nichols, proprietor; Ford & Grant, dry
dry goods, groceries, crockery, and hardware; E, Miles, jr., dry goods,
clothing, and furs, also "black, blue, drab, diagonal, rib, block, fancy
stripe, zigzag, snakeskin, and thunder and lightning cassimers from
$1.50 to $5;" B. Greene & Co., cabinet and chair factory and steam
saw mill; M. H. Tuttle, drugs; Samuel R. Tracey, carriage shop;
Maline Miller, boot, shoe, and leather store; Mrs. Fanning, millinery
and dressmaking; Ballard & Shaver, boots and shoes ; H. L. Fisk, in-
surance; A. W. Marsh, physician and surgeon; S. G. & H. Rogers,
grist mill; Drs. Coventry & Lewis, medicine and surgery; Eleazer
Mighells, carding and . cloth dressing ; Middleton & Culver, lawyers ;
William Payne, livery; Bartle & Bronnon, lumber; Erastus O. Pond,
machine shop and furnace; Mr. Peck, "Newark Select School"; P.
Dawley, "Arcadia village school under his tuition."

Added to the foregoing the following are known to have been in
business prior to 1845: W. Kenyon, O. H. Allerton, E. B. Doane & Co.,
Gray, Bill & Co., A. G. Danieldson, A. T. & H. Blackmar, J. S.
Crosby, D. B. Blakely, J. G. Soverhill, A. Anson, Willis Brownell
(blacksmith), Dr. C. S. Button, Dr. E. H. Rockwood, and Dr. Philip

47



370 LANDMARKS OF

L. Jones. The first brick building was erected by Esbon Blackmar in
L836 and finally became the residence of Orrin Blackmar. The first
brick block was built about the same time by Eleazer Mighells and
John Church. About 1847 the park was graded and planted to shade
trees.

March 9, 1824, a library was organized "at Barnes's Hotel" with
James P. Bartle, Joseph A. Miller, Richard P. William, John S. Keep,
Cyrus S. Button, Artemus Doane, and Joseph Miller, as trustees. A
respectable collection of books was secured and circulated for several
years, and when the society dissolved they were transferred to the
Union school library.

At East Newark there were two tanneries, long since abandoned,
and a shoe shop and tannery formerly operated by Brown, Doolittle &
Baldwin. Gibson & Jessup had an agricultural machine shop that was
burned in 1837 and rebuilt. Their specialty was threshing machines.
Of the earlier merchants were Jesse Owen & Co., L. L. Rose & Co.,
and L. N. Straw. The locks on the canal at this point early gave the
place the name of Lockville. Grorge H. Price has a dry clock there.

The opening of the New York Central Railroad, with a station on
the northernmost limits of Newark village, nearly a mile from the busi-
ness center, developed settlement in that locality and led to several
business interests. Hotels were erected by Gideon Lewis and Thomas
Langdon and a third is kept by Sylvester Sandford. A feed mill was
built in 1890 by C. A. Stebbins and is now operated by the Reeves
Milling Company, of which J. Dupha Reeves is general manager.
The firm also operate a flouring mill a mile northeast of the station on
the site of the pioneer mill erected by Mr. Reeves's grandfather, Paul
Reeves. The latter sold out in 1814, built a mill in Williamson, and
died there. Stores are kept by J. A. Sanford and P. G. Lewis, a
warehouse by C. H. Perkins & Co., and a large vinegar establishment
by the Duffy, Mountfort & Greene Cider Company. The depot here
was burned in January, 1894, and rebuilt.

James P. Bartle was the first postmaster in Newark, and had his
office on the corner of Main and Canal streets. His successors were
Dr. Williams, E. T. Grant, Theodore Menson, Daniel Rusk, R. Lord,
Hiram Clark, Elias W. Ford, Joel H. Prescott, Clark Phillips, W. L.
Willctt, A. D. Smith, W. H. Nicholoy, and Mitchell Chadwick, the
present incumbent. March 15, 1893, a free delivery system was estab-
lished, and js the only one in Wayne county. Two mail carriers are



WAYNE COUNTY. 371

employed. The posmaster at Arcadia (East Newark) is William Tl.
Spragaie, who succeeded John Dillenbeck. It is said that the estab-
lishment of the Arcadia office was due to the representation that an
" impassable hill " existed between that part of the village and Newark
post-office.

Among- the several handsome brick or stone blocks in Newark are
the wStever block, erected in 1875; the Blackmar and Herrick blocks,
built in 1878; the Frey block, in 1877; the Stuerwald block, in 1883;
the Sherman Opera House and block, which was formally opened in
November, 1885; and the Brewer block, erected in 1893.

Newark village was incorporated July 21, 1853, but the first election
was not held until January 24, 1854, at the Newark Hotel, then kept by
Andrew Vanderhoof, at which seventy-seven votes were polled and the
following officers chosen; John P. Sahlor, James W. Perrington, James
D. Ford, John Daggett, and George H. Middleton, trustees; Stephen
Culver, clerk; Fletcher Williams, treasurer; Henry Lusk, collector;
David Lamereaux, Charles Ten Brook, and Albert F. Cressey, assessors ;
John Haight, Hiram Betts, and Samuel R. Tracy, street commission-
ers. The first charter election was held March 8, 1854, and the follow-
ing were elected: John Daggett, George H. Middleton, John P.
Sahlor, James D. Ford, and Jesse Owen, trustees; Stephen Culver,
clerk; Fletcher Williams, treasurer; Peter, Kipp, collector; David
Lamereaux, Jolon Taylor, and E. Darwin Smith, assessors; John
Haight, Benjamin F. Wright, and Thomas Palmer street commission-
ers ; Willis Brownell and Lawrence Hackett, poundmasters. The village
was divided into three wards and street districts, and March 23, 1855,
suitable ordinances were adopted. In 1868 a lock-up was built, in 1887
the corporate limits were enlarged, and in 1893 a number of sewers
were constructed as an extension of the system. The presidents of
the village have been :

John Daggett, 1854-56, Harrison Van Auken, 1869.

H. L. Mundy, 1857, Oliver Crothers, 1870,

Joel H. Prescott, 1858, Charles W. Stuart, 1871,

Durfee A. Sherman, 1859, Richard H. Palmer, 1872,

James G. Granger, 1860. Jacob Lusk, 1873,

I. K. Chipps, 1861, David F. Wilcox, 1874,

John W. Benton, 1862-63, Oliver Crothers, 1875,

A. O. Lamereaux, 1864, John E. Stuart, 1876,

John S. Cronise, 1865-66, David F. Wilcox, 1877-78,

Meade Allerton, 1867, Charles S. White, 1879,

A. C. Bartle, 1868, Charles W. Stuart, 1880,



3?'2 LANDMARKS OF

Wilbur F. Nutten, 1881, Moses F. Hamm, 1887,

James H. Miller, 1882, Newell E. Landon, 1888,

Frederick M. Allerton, 1883, Hanson A. Gardner, 1889-91.

Henry J. Peirson, 1884, Thomas Whittleton, 1892,

Emor E. Burleigh, 1885, Augustus A. Young, 1893,

John Stuerwald, 1886, John E. Stuart, 1894.

The village officers for 1804 are: John E. Stuart, president; William
T. Peirson, Nathaniel Cook, J. B. McDermott, Alois Seigrist, William
H. Keller, and C. A. Tator, trustees; E. Fred Cowles, clerk; P. R.
Sleight, treasurer; M. W. Plass, collector; H. R. Drake, Thomas K.
Langdon and A. H. Vanderbilt, assessors; George Wright and William
J. Lawrence, street commissioners; Henry L. Rupert, attorney; Will-
iam Jenkins, chief of police.

August 8, 1835, twenty men were appointed to form a fire company
and man the fire engine owned by the town, but nine of these declined
to serve, and on September 14 nine more were chosen. Junel, 1859,
Newark Engine Company No. 1 was organized with fifty members,
and with these officers: Clark Mason, foreman; Ira Pratt, assistant
foreman; Joel H. Prescott, treasurer; A. I. Bristol, secretary; Arcadia
Fire Company, No. 2, was formed at the same date with William E.
Olds, foreman; William G. Daggett, assistant foreman; Myron Owen,
secretary; T. F. Horton, treasurer; and forty-three firemen. John
Matteson was appointed fire warden. March 29, 1859, two fire engines
had been purchased at a cost of $350 each, and Messrs. Sherman and
Kemper were appointed a committee to purchase hose, hooks, and
ladders as accompanying apparatus. The village appropriated $300
for engine houses and E. T. Grant and Morton Kemper were appointed v
a building committee; they obtained a five years' lease of Ganargwa
Hall. June IT, 18G2, a hook and ladder company was formed with
thirty members and with Gideon L. Bennett as foreman. In 18G2 and
1st,:; incendiary fires endangered property to such an extent that the
village offered a reward of $500 for the apprehension of the criminals.
Jul}' 2, 1879, two Babcock extinguishers were purchased for $050, and
in L886 Excelsior Hook and Ladder Company, No. 1, was organized
with fourteen members. In January, L888, the N. Y. C. Hook and
Ladder Company was formed.

In 1864 Joel H. Prescott was chief engineer of the fire department
with James D. Ford and John L. Mills as assistants. Among Mr.
Prescott's successors have been Charles H. Perkins in 1868, John S.
Cronise in IS72, Edwin K. Burns in 1874, J. Stuerwald in 1875, M. J.



WAYNE COUNTY. 373

Flynn in 1888, Thomas J. Jenkins in 1889, E. M. Hooper in L890, Will-
iam T. Peirson in 1891, and E. B. Elliot in 1892. The present chief is
P. E. Nellis; George Crater, first assistant; William G. Schufelt, sec-
ond assistant. The department now consists of Protective Extin-
guisher Company No. 1, Deluge Hose Compan} 7 No. 1, Excelsior Hook
and Ladder Company, No. 1, and New York Central Hose Company
No. 1.

January 22, 1886, the first steps were inaugurated to construct a vil-
lage water supply system, but the matter was held in abeyance until
April 18, 1887, when a franchise was granted an out of town company,
which erected a stand pipe on Asylum hill and placed the present
works in operation in January, 1888. April 18, 1887, a franchise was
nlso granted to construct and maintain an electric light plant, but this
was subsequently revoked and another granted to the Newark Electric
Light and Power Company, Ltd., on December 21. May 23, 1889, a
permanent contract was signed for the maintenance of forty arc street
lamps, which number has since been increased to fifty-two. H. A.
Gardner is the local superintendent of both concerns.

The First National Bank of Newark is derived from the old Bank of
Newark, an individual enterprise, originating at Palmyra as the Palmyra
Bank. It was moved to Newark by Fletcher Williams, the veteran
banker, and with himself as president, and Lambert McCain as cashier,
business was commenced in the store of Rockwell Stone, north of the
canal. The building now in use, on the west side of Main street, was
leased for a time, and on expiration of the lease was purchased The
bank was organized in March, 1864, with the following Board of Direc-
tors: Fletcher Williams, A. Ford Williams, Joseph A. Miller, EliabT.
Grant, jr. , Samuel S. Morley, and Anna D. Williams. Fletcher Williams
was chosen president and has ever since served in that capacity. A.
Ford Williams was cashier till June 6, 1865, when he was succeeded by
E. T. Grant, jr., who resigned April 1, 1869, and was followed by Byron
Thomas. Mr. Thomas subsequently resigned and was in turn succeeded
by E. T. Grant, the present cashier. Mrs. Sarah H. Williams is vice-
president and Miss Lillian Eggleston is assistant cashier. The capital
is $50,000. The present directors are: Fletcher Williams Mrs. Sarah
H. Williams, Joel H. Prescott, Byron Thomas and E. T. Grant.

Peirson & Perkins's private bank was started by S. S. Peirson, and E.
P. Soverhill in October, 1866. In December, 1S67, the latter sold his
interest to Henry R. Peirson and five years later C. H. Perkins relin-



374 LANDMARKS OF

quished his law practice and bought out the last named partners.
Besides a general hanking business the firm deals extensively in produce,
etc.

Vary & Sleight started their private bank in 1887 and have occupied
the present quarters since 180'.'.

The New York State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-Minded Women. —
The history of the Custodial Asylum dates from 1878, when, as a result
of the efforts of the State Board of Charities "to establish a custodial
institution for unteachable idiots and feeble-minded persons," the Leg-
islature made provisions to open a department for feeble-minded gins
and young women, under the direction and control of the Trustees of
the New York Asylum for Idiots at Syracuse. The institution was
opened September 3, 1878, as a branch of the New York Asylum for
Idiots, with two inmates, the late C. C. Warner as superintendent, and
his wife as matron. The sum of $18,000 was appropriated for the pur-
pose, and before November a building had been rented and twenty-seven
inmates received. This building forms the middle one of the present
group facing the north, and was originally built for a theological insti-
tute. In 1881 the usefulness of the asylum had become so marked and
well recognized by State and county officials that a committee was ap-
pointed, consisting of the comptroller, superintendent of public instruc-
tion, and trustees of the Idiot Asylum, to determine whether the prop-
erty should be purchased or the lease continued. They recommended
that the institution be permanently established. In 1881 Hon. S. S.
Peirson and in 1885 Hon. E. K. Burnham represented the district in the
Assembly, and it is due to their untiring efforts that a bill was passed
May 14, 1885, incorporating and permanently establishing the New York
State Custodial Asylum at its present commanding location in the village
of Newark. Ever since the institution was first projected Mr. Burnham
has been one of its most ardent supporters and benefactors.

The first board of trustees appointed by Governor David B. Hill
consisted of Hon. David Decker, of Elmira; Rev. M. S. Hard, then of
Canandaigua; Darwin Colvin, M.D., of Clyde; Mrs. Lucy W. Butler,
of Syracuse: Mrs. Lucien Yeomans,of Walworth; Mrs. E. C. Perkins, of
Newark; Charles G. Pomeroy, M. D., of Newark; S. N. Gallup, of
Macedon; and S. S. Peirson, of Newark.

The new board met at the asylum June 5, 1885, and organized with
S. S. Peirson, president; Rev. M. S. Hard, secretary; and S.N. Gallup,
treasurer. . C. C. Warner and his wife were retained as superintendent




& 9?.' (oLi^It



€Z>'m



WAYNE COUNTY 375

and matron. They resigned in March, 1886, and were succeeded by
Mr. and Mrs. W. Landon Willett, who gave place to the present effi-
cient incumbents, Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Winspear, July 5, 1893. Mrs.
Yeomans declined the appointment as trustee and Mrs. Helen B. Case,
of Rochester, was appointed to the position. In 1887 Dr. Pomeroy
died and his place was filled by Hon. E. K. Burnham. In 1886 the
east dormitory and boiler house were erected and steam fixtures put
in the main and east buildings. In 1888 the laundry was built, and in
1889 the west dormitory was completed. Charles Schuman & Co. were
the contractors and builders of all these structures and S. N. Keener
the architect, except the laundry. The chapel was finished and dedi-
cated June 10, 1890, at which time there were 310 inmates. The hos-
pital building, conveniently and pleasantly located at a little distance
from the principal group, was completed and occupied February 15,
1893, and the Legislature of that year appropriated $45,000 for main-
tenance, $10,000 for the erection of a cottage dormitory (the foundation
of which has been laid), and $3,000 for the disposal of sewerage.
The location of the Custodial Asylum is one of the most sightly and
healthful in Western New York. It commands an extensive view of
the surrounding country. The grounds, comprising a little more than
forty acres, are beautifully laid out under the supervision of C. H,
Perkins, and are planted with trees, shrubs, and flowers. They also
contain a well cultivated garden, which furnishes many of the vege-
tables used in the institution, and connected with the latter is a pro-
ductive greenhouse. Throughout, the buildings are well furnished,
comfortably heated and ventilated, and scrupulously clean. Most of
the work and the making of wearing apparel are performed by the
inmates.

According to the last annual report of the trustees, transmitted to
the Legislature January 17, 1894, the entire property of the Custodial
Asylum was valued at $154,445.99. The daily average population
during the year ending September 30, 1893, was 340; on that date the
whole number of inmates was 326; cost of maintenance, $46,475.72.
The present officers are as follows: Trustees,

Darwin Colvin, M.D., Clyde, Silas N. Gallup, Macedon,

Mrs. Eliza C. Perkins, Newark, Hon. Charles McLouth, Palmyra,

Hon. E, K. Burnham, Newark, Mrs. Gertrude A. Moss, Rochester,

Hon. Silas S. Peirson, Newark, Hon. Daniel Candee, Syracuse.
Mrs. Lucy W. Butler, Syracuse,



:'.7<i LANDMARKS OF

Officers cif the Board, — Hon. Silas S. Peirson, president; Hon. E. K. Rurnham,
secretary; Mrs. Eliza C. Perkins, treasurer.

Executive Committee. — Dr. Darwin Colvin, Hon. S. S. Peirson, Mrs* E. C. Perkins,
Hon. E. K. Burnham, Hon. Charles McLouth.

Resident Officers. — C. W. Winspear, superintendent; Mrs. Gertrude E. Winspear,
matron; M. Alice Brownell, M.D., physician; Miss Kate J. Rahill, assistant matron;
Miss Alice M. Burnett, teacher; Miss Gertrude Hoxie and Miss Amelia Sauter,
supervis< >rs.

The Wayne County Preserving Company was founded by Ezra A.
Edgett in 1856. Mr. Edgett was born in Freehold, N. Y. , November
1, 1828, and moved with his parents in 1835 to Camden, N. Y., where
he married Harriet Marvin in L856, when he came to Newark, where
he died in January, 1889. He was the pioneer in the canning business
in the State, and was very successful. The works were burned in IS] -J,
but were rebuilt and are owned by Mrs. Edgett and Hon. E. K. Bttrn-
ham. Besides this there are in the village the Reed Manufacturing
Company, capitalized at $30,000; the foundry and machine shop of
Thomas L. Hamer; the lumber and planing establishment of C. Conk-
lin and Stephen N. Keener and D. I. Garrison (Keener & Garrison) ; the
nurseries of Charles W. Stuart & Co. (started in 1852), and Jackson &
Peirson; the granite and marble works of Lynn Brothers, and others.

The population of Newark village in 1844 was about 1,800; in 1858 it
numbered 2,042; in L875 about 3,000; in 1880, 2,450; and in 1890, 2,824.
It is one of the most progressive villages of Western New York,
and in many respects ranks foremost among those of Wayne county. . A
spirit of enterprise and social advancement is manifest on every hand,
while the many attractive residences, handsome blocks, excellent
churches and schools, and flourishing industries attest general activity
and substantial prosperity.

Fairville is a post village north of the center of the town, five miles
from Newark and about a mile northwest from the station of the same
name on the Sodus Point & Southern Railroad. The original owner of
the site was Joseph P. Crandall, who built and opened a tavern there
many years ago. His son was a physician, and an earlier practitioner
was Dr. Nicholas. James Bennett operated a tannery for sometime,
and G E. Robinson early kept a store, while P. Fleck had a wagon
shop. The place contains two churches, a school house, one or two
stores, a hotel, blacksmith shop, mint still, and about 1 liO inhabitants.
The postmaster is Henry Brier.

Zurich -is, a postal hamlet and station on the Sodus Point & Southern




O^tz o/ tDedtadt



WAYNE COUNTY. 377

Railroad in the northeast corner of the town. The postmaster is John
McNamara, who succeeded C. S. Schufeldt.

Marbletown is a rural hamlet in the southeast part of Arcadia, on
Trout Run, and formerly contained a church, which was moved to
Newark.

Hydeville, a small settlement lying northwest of Newark, is chiefly
noted as the birthplace of what became the Rochester rappings and
spiritualism, as heretofore mentioned. It is now merely a cluster of
houses.

Churches. — The present town of Arcadia originally comprised a part
of the old Seneca Circuit of Methodism, which dates back to 1796, but
the first ministers that traversed our limits probably came in 1801, their
names being James and Josiah Wilkinson. Smith Weeks and John
Billings were the circuit riders of 1802-3, and Roger Benton (the black-
smith) and Sylvester Hill performed these duties in 1804-5. In 1805
Mr. Benton's health failed and in 1806 he settled permanently in Newark,
in which year the Lyons circuit was formed and his house became and
continued a regular appointment until 1815, when the first M. E. church
in town was erected on his farm on the site of the present Newark
cemetery, the frame being raised October 1, of that year, under the
circuit pastorship of Rev. Daniel Barnes. The edifice was dedicated
June 22, 1816, and the builders were: Roger Benton, Jeremiah Lusk,
the families of Luce and Stansell, Ezra Lambright, Henry Cronise, and
Messrs. Winters and Aldrich. The structure was used for about twelve
years, when it was converted into a dwelling and a second building
erected near the center of the village, among its builders being Roger
Benton, JohnL. Kipp, Joseph Miller, Henry Cronise, Minor Trowbridge,
L. Bostwick, William Stansell, Pinkham Crommett, and Oliver Morley.
In 1854, under the pastorship of Rev. J. K. Tuttle, the nucleus of the
present church was built on Main street and dedicated. At this time
Henry Cronise, Peter P. Kechor, Oliver Morley, John W. Benton, and
L. J. Benton were trustees. The edifice was remodeled and rededicated
February 1, 1888, by Charles N. Sims, D.D., LL.D., chancellor of
Syracuse University. The first parsonage was built on Mr. Benton's
farm in 1824. The society now has about 375 members under the pas-
toral charge of Rev. J. E. Allen.

The First Presbyterian Church, of Newark, was constituted at the
village school house on the 20th of April, 1825, by Revs. Francis
Pomeroy and H. P. Strong, with sixty-three numbers, of whom thirty-

48



378 LANDMARKS OF

seven were from the Presbyterian Church at East Palmyra. Peter
Cook and John G. Kanouse were the first elders. In November, L826,
•the first pastor, Rev. Alfred Campbell, was installed and served until