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himself been in the habit of kneeling at Holy Communion, but had given up the
practice in consequence of an inspired revelation. Both Mr. Justice Johnson
and Mr. Studley wrote to the Council on the subject, Studley on July 3ist,
and the Judge on August I5th. (State Papers, Domestic, Calendar, 1633-34.)
Studley published in the same year a book called The Looking- Glass of Schism to
illustrate the excesses to which puritan fanaticism might lead. It was probably
due to the obloquy which he brought on himself in Shrewsbury by this book that
he resigned his cure in 1637. Two years later he became rector of the second
portion of Pontesbury, which he held till the puritans became masters of Shrop-
shire in 1645, when he was deprived. Peter Studley was a benefactor to the
school library in 1629. He died in 1648, and was buried at Pontesbury on July
1 5th. (OWEN and BLAKEWAY.)

1 Joseph Baynes was promoted from the accidence school at Shrewsbury
on December I4th, 1609.

2 Andrew Griffies was promoted from the accidence school December i6th, 1595.

3 Thomas Bromhall was eldest son of Mr. John Bromhall, of Greenfields and
Northwood Hall. Entered school in 1577. Succeeded his father sometime
between 1606 and 1612. No less than eight sons of his were educated at
Shrewsbury. Buried at St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, October I7th, 1648.



THOMAS CHALONER 151

Northwood Hall, Wem, and Greenfields, Shrewsbury ; Mr.
Robert Betton, 1 barrister-at-law, another Shrewsbury alder-
man, who filled the office of Mayor in 1643 an ^ was an
ardent loyalist ; Mr. Thomas Betton, 2 a merchant, who
shared his brother's politics, and was still living in 1663,
when he was a benefactor to the school library ; and Mr.
John Studley, 3 a leading draper in the town, who was named
an alderman in the Charter of 1638 and was elected Mayor
in 1642.

One of the familiar friends is described as " Ben Evans of
Raven," who may possibly have been the genial host of some
rival tavern to " the Sextry," although Chaloner's inveterate
habit of punning makes it more likely that he is alluding
to the name his friend's mother bore before her second
marriage. For there is no doubt that " Ben Evans " was the
second son of Mr. Roger Evans of Shrewsbury, and was a
contemporary of Chaloner's at school. His mother's maiden
name was Elizabeth Hall, but she was a widow when she
was married to Mr. Evans, her first husband having been
John Raven, Esq., of Hadley, Suffolk, Richmond Herald-at-
Arms. " Ben Evans " was nominated a member of the Town
Council in 1638.

Nearly all these " familiar friends," as well as the more
aristocratic frequenters of " the Sextry," had been educated
at Shrewsbury School, and several of them, besides " Ben
Evans," had been there at the same time with Chaloner.
The Head Master's geniality and humour, his learning, his
warm-hearted disposition, and his enthusiastic temperament,

1 Robert Betton was son of Mr. Robert Betton, mercer, of Shrewsbury, who,
like his son, was nominated alderman in the Charter of 1638, and who was also
Mayor in 1639. Robert Betton, jun., who was baptised at St. Alkmond's July
i6th, 1595, entered school in 1606. He afterwards became a Student of Lincoln's
Inn, and was called to the Bar. Married Sara, daughter of Mr. Arthur Harries
of Condover, at St. Chad's, on January i8th, 162^. Is described as " of Wilcott,"
in Shropshire. Had to compound for his estates by a payment of ^320. Died in
June, 1658.

2 Thomas Betton entered school in 1608. His composition, when the puritans
became dominant in Shropshire, amounted to S3 75. 6d.

3 John Studley, eldest son of Mr. Thomas Studley of Shrewsbury, draper,
entered school in 1583. He married three times, but was dead when Chaloner
penned his lists of friends in 1652.



152 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

must have made him a very pleasant companion. The
catholicity, indeed, of his lists of friends is in itself almost
a sufficient proof of his general popularity. It is sad to read,
only a few years after the time of the pleasant evenings at
" the Sextry," of the ravages which death had made among
these old friends. Sir Michael Ernly 1 and Mr. John
Needham 2 had been slain at the taking of the town, and
Sir William Vaughan 3 at Tredagh. 4 Sir Francis Oatley, 5 of
Pitchford, and his brother, Mr. Richard Oatley, 6 were dead,

1 Sir Michael Ernly, who succeeded Sir Francis Oatley as governor of the
town, was not educated at Shrewsbury School. Clarendon says that he was
killed in his shirt when the town was taken ; but as it appears from St. Chad's
register that he was buried on April 28th, 1645, it is probable that neither
Clarendon nor Chaloner were strictly accurate in the matter, and that Sir Michael
died of his wounds.

2 Captain John Needham was buried in St. Chad's Church on February 25th,
164!. He was not a Shrewsbury scholar.

3 Sir William Vaughan was an old Shrewsbury boy and a Royalist commander
of distinction. He was sent over from Ireland into Shropshire in January, 1644,
and was soon after made governor of Shrawardine Castle. While holding this
post he acquired the sobriquet of "The Devil of Shrawardine." In 1645 he was
general of horse for the western counties, and in March, 164!, he was defeated
at Stow-in-the-Wold.

4 Tredagh or Drogheda was stormed by Cromwell on September nth, 1649,
after a stout resistance, and about 2000 officers and men were put to the sword,
the puritan soldiers, by Cromwell's orders, giving no quarter. About 100 men
were burnt alive in a tower, also by the General's directions. Only one officer
escaped with his life. (See CromwelFs Letters, vol. ii. No. cv.)

5 Sir Francis Oatley was the eldest son of Thomas Oatley, Esq., of Pitchford,
Salop. He entered school at Shrewsbury in 1611, matriculated at Lincoln
College, Oxford, on December 4th, 1618, aged seventeen, and was admitted
Student of the Inner Temple in 1619. In 1624 he married Lucy, daughter of
Thomas Edwardes, Esq., and relict of Thomas Pope, Esq. When Charles I.
arrived in Shrewsbury Francis Oatley was residing at "the College," which
belonged to his father-in-law. The King knighted him on his departure and
left him in charge of the town, though the royal patent for his appointment was
not made out till some weeks afterwards. During his governorship a musket
manufactory was set up in Shrewsbury. Sir Francis was superseded by Sir
Michael Ernly in November, 1644. In 1645 he was Royalist Sheriff of Shrop-
shire, Colonel Thomas Mytton being Sheriff for the Parliament. Sir Francis had
to pay a composition of .1200 for his estates. He died September nth, 1649.
(OWEN and BLAKEWAY, and BLAKEWAY'S Sheriffs.}

6 Mr. Richard Oatley entered Shrewsbury School the same day as his brother
Francis. Their respective ages were then ten and nine, and they must have been
forward boys for their years, as both were placed in the second school. Both
also matriculated on the same day at Lincoln College, Oxford, and Richard
Oatley graduated B.A. in 1622 and M.A. in 1624. He was in Shrewsbury at the
time the town was taken.



THOMAS CHALONER 153

and so was Sir Thomas Lyster, 1 of Rovvton. In all, out of
a list of thirty-six friends, no less than twenty-one were
gone. 2 Chaloner's principles were too well known to allow
any chance of his continuing to hold his position undisturbed
when once the puritans got the upper hand at Shrewsbury.
He was ejected from his mastership and plundered of all
that he possessed. " Bonis omnibus exutus " (he writes)



He had been in charge of the school for eight years only,
but they had been in many ways notable years in its history.
A glance at the register will show that, although the remark-
able success with which Chaloner's career at Shrewsbury
commenced was seriously interrupted by the disturbed state
of the country, the number of entries during the year never
fell much below eighty up to the November before the
capture of the town. One noticeable feature of the register
in Chaloner's time is the very large proportion of boys who
paid entrance fees as sons of knights, esquires, or gentlemen.
Scions of most of the chief families of Shropshire and the
neighbouring counties were educated at Shrewsbury while he
was Head Master. Corbetts, Nedehams, Lees, Littletons,
Lysters, Wolryches, Salesburys, Vaughans, Capells, Herberts,
doughs, Bromleys, Hollands, Kynastons, Wrottesleys, Welds,
Wynnes, Purcells, Laughtons, Anwills, and Rodens are to be
found in the lists, and some of these names occur very
frequently. Mention has already been made of David Evans'
promotion to the second-mastership on July i6th, 1638, but
not of the long time the Bailiffs allowed to elapse before they
wrote to St. John's College, on September 1st, 1638, to make
known the vacancy in the third room. Robert Ogden, B.A.,
of St. John's College, was selected by the master and seniors

1 Sir Thomas Lyster was eldest son of Richard Lyster, Esq., of Rowton. He
was baptised at Alberbury October I5th, 1612, and entered Shrewsbury in 1626,
when he was placed in the highest school ; admitted Student of the Inner Temple
in 1630. A devoted loyalist, and presented the King on his arrival in Shrewsbury
with 500 pieces of gold. After the capture of Shrewsbury Rowton Castle was
gallantly defended by Lady Lyster for a fortnight, and she ultimately obtained
from Colonel Mytton favourable terms of surrender. Sir Thomas was buried at
St. Chad's March i;th, 165*

2 See Chaloner's diary in the school register, vol. ii.



154 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

as the new third master, and their choice was signified to the
Bailiffs on September 7th. A week later they sent a Latin
letter to the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield to the same
effect, and on September 3<Dth the Bishop informed the
Bailiffs that he had " diligently and carefully examined " Mr.
Robert Ogden, and had found him " very sufficiently learned
and well deserving of the place," and that he desired them to
give him formal admittance. 1

Mr. Hugh Spurstow, 2 who had been accidence master for
many years, died on October iQth, 1636, and Mr. Ralph
Jackson, M.A., must have been his successor. In Chaloner's
notes about the proceedings at the audit of November i6th,
1642, he mentions that Mr. Jackson was given $os. to the
amendment of his small stipend, and that 40^. had been
given him in the same way two years before. The next
year Chaloner tells us that Mr. Jackson was leaving the
place, and that 4 was given him at the November audit.
He also mentions the fact that Mr. Jackson had presented
Polani Syntagma to the school library, apparently as a
parting gift. The register of benefactors shows that Mr.
Jackson was connected with the school as early as 1638, for
in that year he gave a "Dutch Bible" to the library. The
only magisterial post he can have occupied at this time
is plainly that of accidence master. 3 Mention has already
been made of some of Chaloner's pupils who rose to dis-
tinction in after life ; but a few other names may be added
to the list. Robert Powell, 4 D.D., of Park, in the parish of

1 See school account-book. Robert Ogden was the son of Mr. Robert Ogden,
of Chelmsford, vintner, and was educated for seven years at Chelmsford Grammar
School, under Mr. Peake. He was admitted sizar of St. John's College on July
1st, 1634, aged nineteen. Ogden remained third master till 1639. It is possible
that he left Shrewsbury for Buxton, as a gentleman of his name was Head
Master of Buxton in 1654. Phillips describes Robert Ogden as in holy orders.

2 See Hotchkis MSS.

3 Ralph Jackson was son of Mr. Ralph Jackson, of Whitchurch, Shropshire,
and matriculated at Trinity College, Oxford, on June 2Oth, 1628, as pleb. fil. of
Salop, aged twenty-one. He graduated B.A. of Lincoln College, April 3Oth,
1631, and M.A. of New Inn Hall, January 2ist, 163!- The father was admitted
at Shrewsbury in 1578 as a native of Shropshire.

4 Robert Powell, who was eldest son of Edward Powell, Esq., of Park, was born
in 1629. He was admitted at Shrewsbury School in 1641 ; he graduated B.A.



THOMAS CHALONER 155

Whittington, Shropshire, was Archdeacon of Salop, in Lich-
field, and Chancellor and Canon of the Cathedral of St.
Asaph. He seems to have been a decided pluralist, and to
have found favour during the Commonwealth, as well as after
the Restoration.

Silas Taylor, 1 also known as Domville, was a skilled
musician and a man of considerable antiquarian knowledge,
who served in the parliamentary army, and was afterwards
appointed a sequestrator in Herefordshire. In this capacity
he acted with such civility and moderation that the interest
of some of the royalists who were under obligations to him
procured for him soon after the Restoration the office of
Commissary of ammunition at Dunkirk, and at a later period
that of Keeper of the King's store -houses at Harwich.

Sir Adam Oatley, 2 knight, son of Sir Francis Oatley, was a
barrister-at-law, and filled the office of Town Clerk of Shrews-
bury from 1662 to 1 68 1. He was also a Master in Chancery.

Sir Richard Oatley, 3 knight, another son of Sir Francis

at Oxford on January 22nd, 164!, from Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; M.A. in
1651 ; incorporated at Cambridge, 1654 ; elected fellow of All Souls' ; made B.D.
and D.D. at Oxford in 1663, and admitted to same degrees at Cambridge in
1678 ; King's Chaplain and Canon of St. Asaph, 1660 ; Rector of Whittington,
1666-81 ; Archdeacon of Salop, 1666 ; Chancellor of St. Asaph, 1670. Died
February, 1683. (WOOD'S Fasti; BLAKEWAY'S Sheriffs.}

1 Silas Taylor was eldest son of Silvanus Taylor, Esq., of Harley, Much
Wenlock. Born July i6th, 1624. Entered Shrewsbury September 7th, 1637.
In 1641 he became a commoner of New Inn Hall, Oxford, but on the out-
break of the Rebellion left without taking a degree and joined the rebel
army, in which he became captain under the command of Colonel Edward
Massie. Among other writings of Captain Taylor Wood mentions The History
of Gavdkind. He died at Harwich November 4th, 1678. Wood says that
Silas Taylor was at Westminster School. (Athen. Oxon.}

3 Adam Oatteywas baptised at Pitchford October 26th, 1628; admitted Student
of Gray's Inn August 2nd, 1647; and called to the Bar July 2nd, 1652; knighted
at Whitehall June 3Oth, 1680. Died October I2th, 1693. (OWEN and BLAKEWAY ;
LE NEVE'S Pedigrees of Knights.} In 1711 his nephew, Dr. Adam Oatley,
Bishop of St. David's, gave certain books to the school library, which are
described as a legacy of Sir Adam, but some of the books were not published till
after Sir Adam's death. The legacy was probably, in part at least, in money.

3 Richard Oatley was baptised at Pitchford September 15th, 1626; entered
Shrewsbury, together with his younger brother, Adam, on April Qth, 1638; ad-
mitted Student of Gray's Inn March ist, 164!; married Lettice, daughter of
Robert Ridgeway, Earl of Londonderry; knighted in June, 1660. Died in
London August loth, 1670.



156 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

Oatley, was elected M.P. for Shropshire in 1661. He was
also a Deputy-Lieutenant for the county, and soon after the
Restoration was made a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber
to Charles II.

Charles, Lord Kilmorey, 1 Sir Thomas Harris, 2 Bart., of
Boreatton Park, his brothers, Sir George 2 and Sir Paul, 2 who
succeeded in turn to the baronetcy, and Cassius Benthall, 3
who became a colonel in the royal army, and fell in battle
at Stow -in -the -Wold, were all at school together under
Chaloner, and like many other pupils of his, whose names
might be mentioned, were distinguished subsequently for
their devotion to the royal cause.

1 Charles Nedeham, Lord Kilmorey, was second son of Robert, Lord Kilmorey,
who died in 1653. He succeeded to the title on the death of his elder brother,
Robert, in 1657. In 1659 he joined Lord Derby and Sir George Booth in the
premature movement in Lancashire for the restoration of the monarchy. He
was made prisoner by General Lambert and taken to London, where he died in
1660. (Diet, of Nat. Biog. )

2 Thomas Harris was eldest son of Sir Paul Harris, Bart., of Boreatton Park,
Shropshire, who died in July, 1644. Thomas Harris was originally entered at
Shrewsbury in October, 1643, but he probably left school for a time on his father's
death, as we find his name re-entered, together with those of his younger brothers,
George and Paul, on January 8th, 164*. The boys were evidently at school when
the town was captured in the following month, as the name of Sir Thomas is in-
cluded in the list of prisoners. All three boys returned to Shrewsbury about a
year after Pigott became Head Master in the place of Thomas Chaloner. Sir
Thomas was concerned in 1655 in a plot to seize the Castle of Shrewsbury. The
plot failed through the indiscretion of Ralph Kinaston, Esq., of Llansantffraid,
Montgomeryshire, who, on the day before the castle was to be seized, openly
enlisted troopers within ten miles of Shrewsbury to serve under Charles II. On
news of this, Colonel Hunt, governor of Shrewsbury, who was doubtless aware
of Sir Thomas's disaffection, marched on Boreatton at once with such troops as
he could collect, and took him, and other gentlemen assembled in his house,
prisoners. No lives seem to have been sacrificed in connection with this abortive
plot, and Sir Thomas himself survived to the Restoration. In June, 1660, he
applied for a lease of the Post Office, offering to pay ,15,000 for it. (Calendar
State Papers, Domestic.} On the death of Sir Thomas the baronetcy fell in
succession to Sir George and Sir Paul, and on the death of the latter to their
uncle, Sir Roger, who died in 1685, and was succeeded by his brother Robert.
On the death of Sir Robert in 1693 the title became extinct. (OwKN and
BLAKEWAY; BLAKEWAY'S Sheriffs; Transactions of Shropshire Arc hceo logical
Society for 1898, etc.)

3 Cassius Benthall, according to Owen and Blakeway, was a younger son of
Lawrence Benthall, Esq., of Benthall, Shropshire, but he paid the eldest son's
fee when entered at school in 1641. His name is given in the list of prisoners
taken at the capture of Shrewsbury.



THOMAS CHALONER 157

Two sons of Colonel Humphrey Mackworth of Betton
Strange, who played a leading part in Shropshire on the
side of the Parliament, were also at Shrewsbury School
under Chaloner. Of these the elder, Thomas, 1 who suc-
ceeded to the family estates, was Farmer of the Excise in
Lancashire, represented Shropshire in the Parliaments of
1656 and 1658, and was Sheriff of the county in 1669. The
other son, Humphrey, 2 was a colonel in Cromwell's army and
governor of Shrewsbury after his father's death. He repre-
sented Shrewsbury in the Parliaments of 1654, 1656, and
1658, and held the office of Town Clerk from 1652 to 1660.
From 1649 to 1655 he discharged the duties of one of the
Justices of Chester as deputy for Mr. John Bradshaw.

The Rev. Andrew Taylor, 3 of King's College, Cambridge,
who was Head Master of Shrewsbury 1664-87, spent two or
three years as a boy at Shrewsbury School before going to Eton.

The Rev. Richard Roderick,* M.A., the first Head Master
of Wem Grammar School, was also a pupil of Chaloner.

1 Thomas Mackworth was born in 1626, and was entered at Shrewsbury School
in May, 1638, on the same day as his younger brother Humphrey. Both boys
were re-entered at school in 1641. Thomas was twice married, first to Anne,
daughter and heiress of Mr. Richard Bulkeley, of Buntingsdale, and second, to a
daughter of Colonel Thomas Mytton. (BLAKEWAY'S Sheriffs."]

2 Humphrey Mackworth was baptised on May 3ist, 1631, at St. Chad's,
Shrewsbury. He is said to have been made Recorder of Shrewsbury on Mr.
Edward Moseley being appointed to a Scotch judgeship. But it is possible
that his father may have been re-appointed Recorder on this occasion, for Mr.
William Jones, who was chosen for the office on March 1st, 165!, is said to have
been appointed on the death of Humphrey Mackworth, Esq., and it was of course
the elder Humphrey Mackworth who died in 1654. There is probably some con-
fusion in the records between father and son. Humphrey the younger died in
1 68 1, and was buried on June 2ist at Sutton. (OWEN and BLAKEWAY.)

3 Andrew Taylor graduated B.A. in 1661, but there is some doubt whether he
ever took his M.A. degree. He was nominated Head Master on November
30th, 1664.

4 Richard Roderick was a native of Oswestry, and entered school in 1637. He
was appointed Head Master of Wem Grammar School in 1650. Sir Thomas
Adams was the founder of the school, which was at first carried on in a large
room over the market-house. But in August, 1665, Mr. Wycharley, who had
bought the barony and manor of Wem, forbade its further use for this purpose,
and from that time till 1670, when the school-house was built, the masters appear
to have taught the boys in church. Roderick matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford,
June 26th, 1640, aged nineteen; B.A. in 1644; M.A. (Brasenose) in 1647. He
remained Head Master of Wem till his death in 1674. (GARBETT'S Hist, of Wem.}



158 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

In the registers of benefactors to Shrewsbury School
library there are many notes in Chaloner's handwriting
which throw some light on the state of things in Shrewsbury
during the siege, and are, at the same time, illustrations both
of his strong feelings on religious and political questions, and
also of the somewhat malicious humour which was one of hi s
characteristics. Soon after the occupation of Shrewsbury on
behalf of the King a council of war was appointed for the
whole district, of which, Arthur, Lord Capel, was president.
This council held its meetings in the school library, and the
names of the members who were present on April 3rd, 1643,
on one of these occasions, have been preserved. 1 The place
appointed for meeting was not altogether gratifying to a book-
loving Head Master, and Chaloner has indignantly recorded
in the register of benefactors that the Notes of Heinsius on
the New Testament, given by Mr. Daniel, printer, was " stolen
away when the King's Commission for Artillery sat daily in
the library," and that Dr. Andrewes* Sermons, given by Mr.
Andrew Griffies, one of the Shrewsbury aldermen, had been
" basely torn by the sacrilegious fingers of a Scotch camp
chaplain." 2

In one place in the register Chaloner speaks of two leading
puritans of Shropshire, Mr. Richard Clutton 3 and his father-
in-law, Alderman Charles Benyon, by the nicknames which
they apparently bore among the Shrewsbury loyalists, veiling
his satire, however, under Greek words, and English words

1 They were: Arthur, Lord Capel, Henry Bromley, Esq., High Sheriff of
Shropshire, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir John Meenes, Sir Francis Oatley, Sir Richard
Lee, Sir John Weld, Edward Cresset, Esq. , and Euseby Andrewes, the secretary.
(OWEN and BLAKEWAY.)

2 Both these books were given to the library in 1644, so that the outrages
cannot have been perpetrated till the latter days of the siege.

3 Mr. Richard Clutton gave Spenser's and Donne's poems to the library.
Chaloner calls him " TrpcDros r&v crTpoyytiXwv ruv Ka<.voTOfj.ovvTwv /cat yafjippbs
TOV Tr\av5ri\tyyov." Nehemiah Walton speaks of him in his Historical Notices,
vol. ii. p. 97, as having taken an active part, in September, 1642, in trying to
induce the inhabitants of Nantwich to resist the Commissioners of Array when
they proposed to take possession of the town for the King. (Blakeway MSS.)
He was a barrister-at-law and an Independent. Alderman Charles Benyon, who
was admitted at Shrewsbury School in 1593, was an attorney-at-law. He was
Bailiff of Shrewsbury in 1625 and 1634, and Mayor in 1644 and 1651.



THOMAS CHALONER 159

written in Greek characters. Glutton was " the first of the
Roundheads of the New Cut," and his father-in-law " the
Plain Dealer." Elsewhere we find allusions to that " most
bloody rebellion," and a eulogy of Archbishop Laud's " most
learned " treatise against Fisher the Jesuit. From this latter
entry, which was made in 1642, it is plain that a rumour
of the impending fate of Laud had just reached Shrewsbury.
The Archbishop " is condemned, they say, babad seggi
orraban rw Trpiv" The interpretation of this cryptogram
may be commended to the ingenuity of those skilled in
such matters. Earlier in the same year is an amusing note
on Dr. James Betton, 1 curate of St. Mary's, who " vespertilio-
nised " when Shrewsbury became a royal garrison to avoid
taking the oath of allegiance.

For some months after Chaloner's expulsion " Black
David " was in charge of such boys as still remained in
the school. His name appears in the school account-book
under the year 1645-46 as second master, and fifty-two
names were entered on the register between November i/th,



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