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in music " and " eminent for his birth and learning," entered
Shrewsbury School in 1646. In the Catalogue of the MSS.

1 He was reappointed Recorder of Chester in 1687. (ORMEROD.)
- See Foss's Lives of the Jttdgcs ; BLAKEWAY'S Sheriffs of Shropshire ;
WOOD'S Athftt. Oxon. ; ORMEROD'S Cheshire, etc.


of Great Britain, 1679, fifty MSS. are credited to Sir Henry,
and it has been suggested that they formed part of the old
Abbey library. 1

Dr. Roger Hayward was the son of Mr. John Hayward,
a Shrewsbury baker. He was born in 1635, and entered
school in 1646. After graduating at St. John's College,
Cambridge, he took holy orders, and became in due course
Vicar of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, Prebendary of Lichfield, and
Chaplain to Charles II. 2

Mr. James Gibbons, son of Dr. Francis Gibbons, Vicar of
Holy Cross, Salop, is said to have "served faithfully three
kings in civil employment." 3

Mr. Thomas Burton, eldest son of Francis Burton, Esq., of
Longner, Salop, after leaving Shrewsbury, became a Student
of Lincoln's Inn, and was called to the Bar in 1655. After
the Restoration he applied for a commissionership in the
Alienation Office, representing in his petition his father's
losses and sufferings on account of his loyalty. Though not
successful in his application he was made a " Justice for the
Great Sessions in North Wales." In January, 167-?, he was
elected Steward of Shrewsbury. 4

Titus Thomas, who was entered at Shrewsbury School in
1647 as a native of Shropshire, and was subsequently a
physician and independent minister in Shrewsbury, is
spoken of by Calamy as " an ingenious and learned man."
His marriage, Calamy naively adds, "to a woman of good
means enabled him to be useful."

1 Henry Langley matriculated at Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1653, but subse-
quently became a gentleman commoner at Wadham, where he graduated. He
was knighted on February Qth, i68. Buried at Shrewsbury November 3rd, 1688.
(WOOD'S Athen. Oxon. ; OWEN and BLAKEWAY ; and BLAKEWAY'S Sheriffs.}

3 Roger Hayward was admitted at Magdalene College, Cambridge, on May 6th,
1654. Migrated to St. John's on November 3rd, 1656. B.A., 1657; M.A.,
1 66 1 ; B.D., 1674. Married Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Eyton of Eyton.
He died on November I4th, 1680. (OwEN and BLAKEWAY.)

3 James Gibbons was baptised at St. Julian's, August 3rd, 1639, and was
buried in the Abbey Church in 1712. (OWEN and BLAKEWAY.)

4 Thomas Burton was born in 1637, entered Shrewsbury School in 1646, and
became a Student of Lincoln's Inn in 1651. His father garrisoned his house at
Longner for the King during the Civil War. (State Papers, Domestic, Calendar,


We also find in Pigott's lists the names of Price Devereux, 1
the father of the ninth Lord Hereford ; of Richard Herbert,' 2
grandfather of the first Earl of Powis ; and of the sons of
Bishop Griffith of St. Asaph, and of Dr. Algernon Peyton, 3
Rector of Doddington, Cambridgeshire. 4 Only two bishops
can be claimed by Shrewsbury School in these days, and this
claim must be made with some feelings of doubt.

Edward Jones, who was entered in 1648 as the son and
heir of an esquire or gentleman, and was readmitted in
1654, may probably be identified with the eldest son of
Edward Jones, Esq., of Lluynririd, Montgomeryshire, who
was baptised at Forden, July 1st, 1641, and subsequently
became fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, Dean of
Lismore, Bishop of Cloyne, and in 1692 Bishop of St. Asaph.

Humphrey Humphreys, who entered Shrewsbury School as
an alien in 1660, was probably the eldest son of Mr. Richard
Humphreys, of Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire, an old
cavalier and soldier of Charles L, who was born in 1648,
graduated at Oxford, and became a fellow of Jesus College.
In 1680 he was made Dean of Bangor, and, on the death
of Bishop Lloyd, whose chaplain he had been, he succeeded
him as Bishop of Bangor. In 1701 he was translated to
Hereford. He died in 1708. Bishop Humphreys's name
occurs in the list of benefactors to the school library, a
strong ground for connecting him with the boy of his
name who was educated at Shrewsbury.

1 Price Devereux was the eldest son of George Devereux, Esq., of Vaynor,
Montgomeryshire. He entered Shrewsbury School in 1652, matriculated at
Christ Church, Oxford, July 2Oth, 1654, and was admitted student of Gray's Inn
on April 28th, 1658.

2 Richard Herbert, who was entered at Shrewsbury in 1646, was the eldest son
of Francis Herbert, Esq., of Dolgiog, Montgomeryshire, a strong loyalist. He
married Florence Herbert, granddaughter of Lord Herbert, of Chirbury, and
heiress to her two brothers, Edward and Henry, who held in succession the same
title. (COLLINS 5 Peerage.")

3 Algernon Peyton^ who was created a baronet on March 2 1st, 1666, entered
Shrewsbury in 1658. Wotton makes no mention of his brother Thomas, who was
admitted at the same time.

4 Sons of Sir Richard Prince, of the Whitehall, Shrewsbury, and of Sir Thomas
Edwardes, of Greet, Bart., were also at Shrewsbury under Pigott. These two
families had been educationally connected with the school from its foundation.


The best known name, though not the most favourably
known, in Pigott's register is that of George Jeffreys, 1 after-
wards Lord Chancellor and Baron Jeffreys of Wem. He
was the sixth son of John Jeffreys, Esq., of Acton Park, near
Wrexham, in Denbighshire, and was admitted at Shrewsbury
School, together with four of his brothers, in the latter part
of the year 1652? The eldest brother John succeeded to
his father's property, and was Sheriff of Denbighshire in
1680, when his brother George went on circuit as Judge of
North Wales. 3 Blakeway, who has mentioned this fact, adds
that another brother preached the Assize sermon on this
occasion. 4 Three of the brothers, John, Thomas, and
William, were at Overton School under Chaloner before they
were entered at Shrewsbury. Thomas became in after life a
merchant of Alicante, and was Consul there and at Madrid
for many years. He was knighted at Windsor July nth,
1686, and was also a Knight of Alcantara. George Jeffreys
left Shrewsbury for St. Paul's School about 1659, anc * is said
to have applied himself to Latin and Greek with considerable
diligence while he was there. In 1661 he removed to West-
minster, where Dr. Busby was then Head Master. On March
1 6th, 1662, he was admitted pensioner of Trinity College,
Cambridge, but he does not appear to have taken any degree.
In 1663 he became a Student of the Inner Temple, and in
1669 he was called to the Bar. Mr. William Williams, who

1 The name is spelt Jefferies in the school register, but it is given as, Jeffreys in
the Patent of Peerage in 1685.

a The date of his birth is usually given as May 1 5th, 1645 ; but in the new
Dictionary of National Biography George Jeffreys is said to have been born in
1648. This would make him little more than four years old when entered at
Shrewsbury, which seems very improbable.

3 See Blakeway MSS.

4 The brother who preached the sermon was probably James, who was born
in 1647, and went into holy orders, becoming in 1682 a Prebendary of Canterbury.
William Jeffreys, who was at Overton and Shrewsbury, and graduated at St.
John's College, Cambridge, B.A. in 1664 and M.A. in 1669, may also have been
in orders. Foss makes no mention of Jeffreys filling the office of Justice of North
Wales. The sons of Mr. John Jeffreys who were admitted at Shrewsbury School
in 1652 were John, Thomas, Edward, William, and George. All paid the fee
appointed for sons of esquires or gentlemen. James, the seventh and youngest
son, was not at Shrewsbury.


by this time had become Recorder of Chester, is said to have
helped the future Chancellor in his first introduction to
business. A voluble tongue and stentorian tones of voice soon
gained for the young lawyer considerable practice, especially
in criminal cases, and his steps up the legal ladder followed
each other rapidly. Common Serjeant to the City of London
in 1671, Solicitor to the Duke of York in 1677, Recorder of
London in 1678, Serjeant-at-Law in 1679, King's Serjeant
and Chief Justice of Chester in 1680, Chief Justice of the
King's Bench in 1683, and Lord Chancellor in 1685. Sixteen
years only elapsed between his call to the Bar and his ascent
of the Woolsack. His promotion in civil rank was equally
rapid; knighted in 1677, he was made a baronet in 1683,
and raised to the peerage in 1685. The extreme severity
which Jeffreys showed, when acting as president of the
five judges appointed to try the rebels after Monmouth's
defeat at Sedgemoor in 1685, has made his name notorious,
and has undoubtedly caused his moral defects to be ex-
aggerated, and his unquestionable abilities to be ignored
by many writers. There are a few exceptions, however.
Speaker Onslow says he was a great Chancellor in the
business of the Court, and was considered "an able and
upright judge " in private causes. Roger North, who hated
him, testifies to his " extraordinary natural abilities," and
says that when he was " in temper" and the matters before
him were " indifferent" he " became his seat of justice
better than any other he ever saw in his place." Serjeant
Davy, speaking of him in 1784, describes him as "a great
lawyer" Yorke, in his Royal Tribes of Wales, says that
if Jeffreys were a bad judge, he was at any rate a good
lawyer. And even Evelyn, while he calls him "of nature
cruel " and " a slave to the Court," praises him for his
" undaunted and assured spirit." The Chancellor's attempted
escape after the abdication of King James II. in the disguise
of a sailor, his recognition and arrest at Wapping, and his
ultimate death in the Tower of London have been often
described, and need no repetition here. 1

1 See Foss's Lives of the Judges ; GARBETT'S History of Went; EVELYN'S
Diary; Diet, of Nat. Biog., etc.


The amicable settlement in 1656 of the long-pending dis-
pute about the school scholarships between the Corporation
of Shrewsbury and St. John's College probably emboldened
the Corporation to apply to the College a few years after
to condone their illegalities and put Mr. Pigott's position
at Shrewsbury on a safer footing ; for, at the time of the
Restoration, the college authorities formally nominated him
to the head-mastership. The Mayor and Mr. Pigott also
did what they could to help Mr. Tallents, the Presbyterian
curate of St. Mary's, by executing a formal deed of appoint-
ment in his favour on October i6th, I66I. 1 But these kind
intentions proved of no avail. On July I4th, 1662, Mr.
Pigott, Mr. Tallents, Mr. John Betton, and several other
leading puritans were imprisoned in the Castle. 2 And,
although they were released in a few days, Mr. Pigott
and Mr. Tallents were both deprived of their posts on
September 1st, 1662, by the Commissioners appointed to
enforce the Act of Uniformity in Shropshire. 3 Poor Pigott
only survived his deprivation for a year. He was buried in
St. Mary's Church on October 2ist, 1663. At the time of
his death he was official of St. Mary's, having received the
appointment in 1651 for a term of forty years, providing he
retained his head-mastership so long. 4


* Among the other prisoners were Michael Betton, who had been " Ganoneer to
the Garrison," John Bryan, Charles Doughtie, Joseph Proud, Richard Lloyd, and
John Bromley. (OWEN and BLAKEWAY.)

3 The Commissioners were the Bishop of Lichfield, Lord Newport, Sir Walter
Lyttelton, and Sir Timothy Tourneur, Recorder of Shrewsbury.

4 Up to this time the curate of St. Mary's had always been the official.




Chaloner's Return to Shrewsbury His Death Andrew Taylor, M.A.,
Head Master, 1664-1687 Richard Lloyd, M.A., Head Master, 1687-1723.

A FTER Mr. Pigott was released from prison it is probable
-TV- that he resumed his duties at the schools, for the names
of several new boys were entered during the month of
August, and it was not till September 8th that the second
master, Mr. Edward Cotton, "supplied the Head School-
master's place." 1 While Mr. Cotton remained in charge of
the school twenty-five new boys were admitted and nineteen
more were promoted from the accidence school to the third
school. When once the Commissioners had decided against
Mr. Pigott, all parties in the town seem to have concurred
in the wish that Chaloner should return to his old duties at
Shrewsbury. But he hesitated for a long time before he con-
sented to do so, and it cannot be doubted that his hesitation
was genuine. His exile had been long, many of the old
faces which had been so familiar to him were gone, and
Newport Grammar School had flourished greatly under his
auspices. And so six months passed by before Chaloner
made up his mind to return to his old home. And even
then it was under the influence of pressure, and not very
kindly pressure, that he decided to move. There were those
at Newport whose interest it was that he should leave
the place. Writing on March 4th, 1665, Chaloner expressly
ascribes his determination to leave Newport to the "im-
perious and crafty " behaviour of his " under master," with
whom, he says, he could no longer bear to associate. 1 Poor
Chaloner ! His wife would quarrel with his assistant

1 See school register.


masters, his daughters would fall in love with adventurers,
his younger sons would run into debt ; and now, to crown all,
comes this crushing blow from his firstborn, the one member
of the family who does not seem to have given his father
trouble in his younger days. For there seems no doubt that
Thomas Chaloner, jun., who was invited by Mr. Adams in
1658 to assist his father at Newport, was the "under master"
of whose "imperious and crafty" behaviour the returned
exile speaks. 1 Chaloner's first wife, who had quarrelled with
David Peirce, had long been dead. But Chaloner had mar-
ried again, and he mentions in his diary that, when he went
back to Shrewsbury in 1662, his second wife accompanied
him. Several boys also, who had been with him at Newport,
followed their Head Master to Shrewsbury. Two of the
number, Littleton Powys and Thomas Powys, were destined
to become in after life lawyers of distinction. They were the
sons of Thomas Powys, Esq., of Henley, Salop, Serjeant-at-
Law. Littleton Powys was baptised at Bitterley April 2/th,
1647, and after leaving Shrewsbury was admitted at St.
Edmund Hall, Oxford, in 1663, but he does not appear to
have taken any degree. In the following year he became a
Student of Lincoln's Inn, and in 1671 he was called to the Bar.
His first judicial appointment was that of Second Justice of
Chester, which he received in 1689. In April, 1692, he was
made a Serjeant-at-Law, and in December of the same year
he was knighted. In 1695 he took his seat on the Bench as
Baron of the Exchequer, and in 1700 he was promoted to
the King's Bench. He resigned office in 1726 and died in
March, I73I. 2 At the time of the Revolution Littleton
Powys took up arms for the Prince of Orange and read his

1 It is certain that he was still at Newport in 1664, for in that year he issued a
halfpenny token with "Thos. Chaloner, T.M.C.," on the obverse, and "In
Newport, 1664, his halfpeny," on the reverse. (See Shropshire Archaeological
Society's Transactions for 1 886.)

>J According to Blakeway Sir Littleton Powys died at Henley. But a more
recent antiquarian, Mr. J. Morris, says that his death happened at his Shrews-
bury house. It appears from FOSTER'S Lists of Marriage Licenses, issued in the
Diocese of London, that Sir Littleton married Agnes Carter, of the parish of St.
Dunstan-in-the-Wcst, in December, 1674. For other particulars in his life see
BLAKEWAY'S Sheriffs of Shropshire and Fosb's Lives of the Judges.


proclamation in Shrewsbury. He is said to have been a
good plodding judge, but too apt to import politics into the
cases which came before him. Two favourite phrases of his
which used to excite much amusement at the Bar, " I humbly
conceive " and " Look, do you see ? " gave rise to a metrical
lampoon by Philip Yorke, which he is said to have quoted at
the judge's own table as a specimen of a poetical version of
Coke upon Littleton that he was about to publish :

" He that holdeth his lands in fee
Need neither to shake nor to shiver,
I humbly conceive, for Look, do you see f
They are his and his heirs for ever."

Thomas Powys was admitted as a pensioner at Queen's
College, Oxford, on May 2Oth, 1664, at the age of fifteen, and,
after a short stay at the university, followed his brother to
Lincoln's Inn. In 1672 he was called to the Bar, and in
1686 he was made Solicitor-General, being then, according to
Macaulay, only "an obscure barrister." As a law officer of
the Crown he argued before the Court of King's Bench in
favour of the royal dispensing power in the celebrated case of
Sir Edward Hales. In 1688 he became Attorney-General,
and he was leading counsel in the prosecution of " the Seven
Bishops." Macaulay uses strong terms as to his "incom-
petency to perform the ordinary duties of his post," and calls
him " a third-rate lawyer."

Epitaphs are not always trustworthy testimonials, either of
character or abilities ; but still it is hardly possible to believe
that Prior, who wrote the epitaph on Sir Thomas Powys's
monument in Lilford Church, would have spoken of him in
such terms of praise as he uses, were Macaulay's very
unfavourable estimate just and fair. Prior says that " nothing
equalled his knowledge except his eloquence " and " nothing
excelled both except his justice," and also extols his moral
and religious virtues as well as his judicial eloquence.

After the Revolution Sir Thomas continued to obtain a
fair practice at the Bar but was kept on the proscribed list,
so far as promotion was concerned, during the reign of
William III. Early in the reign of Queen Anne, however*


he was made Serjeant-at-Law and then Queen's Serjeant, and
in 1713 he became a Justice of the Queen's Bench.

At that time Sir Thomas had for twelve years continuously
represented Ludlow in the House of Commons. His tenure
of judicial office seems to have been short, as he was super-
seded in 1714, soon after George I. came to the throne, on
the representation of Lord Cowper that it was undesirable to
have two brothers sitting in the same court. 1

Sir Thomas was twice married. He died in 1719. His
great-grandson was created Baron Lilford in 1797, taking his
title from the estate which Sir Thomas bought in 1719 in
Northamptonshire. 2

Two sons of Sir Job Charlton, Bart., Speaker of the House
of Commons, Chief Justice of Chester, and, in the latter years
of his life, a Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, were also
among the boys who accompanied Chaloner when he returned
to his former home. With a brief account of the reasons
which induced him to leave Newport, to which reference has
already been made, and of his resumption of work at Shrews-
bury, Chaloner's diary comes to an end. Of the rest of his
life we know nothing beyond what the entry of new boys'
names in the school register can tell us. On July 2nd, 1664,
he seems to have made his last entry, and the next words in
the register record his death. Like Pigott, whom he so soon
followed to the grave, and many other Shrewsbury masters,
Chaloner lies buried in the " Scholars' Chapel " in St. Mary's
Church. 3

Mr. Edward Cotton, the second master, who discharged the
duties of Head Master for six months after Pigott was
deprived, but appears to have quietly recognised Chaloner's
claims to return to his old post if he cared to do so, now

1 Sir Thomas was a benefactor to the school library in 1717, and is described
in the register as Baron of the Exchequer. It is possible, therefore, that he
was only transferred in 1714 from one court to another. The entry in the library
register is certainly strong evidence, and the probability that Sir Thomas was not
removed altogether from judicial office is increased when we remember that Lord
Cowper spoke of him to the King as the abler of the two brothers.

2 See BLAKEWAY'S Sheriffs of Shropshire, PECK'S Desiderata Curiosa, and
Foss's Lives of the Judges.

3 Chaloner was buried October 2 1st, 1664.


offered himself as a candidate for the head-mastership under
the ordinance which directed the Bailiffs, in the case of a
vacancy, to promote the second master, with the consent of
the Bishop of the diocese, if he had " served two years, and
had proved by his learning, zeal, conversation, and diligence
to be equal to the discharge of the office."

It is probable that Bishop Racket refused his consent. At
any rate, it is certain that the Bishop was very desirous of
securing the appointment for a Mr. Bull, 1 in whose candi-
dature Lord Newport, for some reason or other, took great
interest. But the master and seniors of St. John's College,
on November 3Oth, 1664, selected the Rev. Andrew
Taylor, M.A., 2 fellow of King's College, Cambridge, who
was the son of a Shrewsbury burgess, and had been at
Shrewsbury School before going to Eton College.

Efforts seem to have been made by Lord Newport and his
friends to induce the Bailiffs to veto the college nomination,
and the Bishop gave all the help he could in the matter by
delaying for several weeks to sign and seal his documentary
approval of the college choice. But Andrew Taylor's friends
in Shrewsbury, especially Mr. Archbold, 3 whom the Bishop
calls " a little crafty creature," and Mr. Richard Taylor, 4 who
was probably a near relation, exerted themselves strenuously
in his behalf.

On January 7th, i66|, the Bishop wrote to Lord Newport,
telling him that Mr. Andrew Taylor had handed him the
college nomination, and that he could not but perceive him to
be " a capable person," but that he had delayed his admission
to the head-mastership on the ground that Mr. Cotton had
not yet legally surrendered his claim to promotion, this
excuse being, as the Bishop explained, only a pretence, his

1 Mr. Bull's name is not to be found in the school register.

2 Mr. Taylor is described as M.A. in the college nomination, but only his B.A.
degree is mentioned in the Cambridge list of graduates.

3 Henry Archbold, Esq , was appointed official of St. Mary's in 1665.
(Hotchkis MSS. ) He was an eminent advocate and was subsequently knighted.

4 Mr. Richard Taylor was son of Mr. Richard Taylor, of Shrewsbury, mercer.
He was an attorney by profession, and filled the office of Mayor in 1669. He
died December 26th, 1676, aged 63. (OwEN and BLAKEWAY.)


real object being to give Lord Newport an opportunity of
persuading the college authorities to nominate Mr. Bull as
well as Mr. Taylor to him, so that he might exercise a choice
between the two. The Bishop concludes with the expression
of a hope that his lordship might be persuaded to make
a more generous contribution to the vast expense of repairing
Lichfield Cathedral. 1

As the Bishop executed the necessary documents in con-
firmation of Mr. Taylor's appointment on January I4th, it is
probable that Lord Newport did not think it advisable to
continue the contest any longer. Andrew Taylor was entered
at Shrewsbury School in February, 164^, and his name
appears in a school list of 1642 in the second class of the
third school. After leaving Eton he became in due course a
scholar and fellow of King's College, and graduated B.A. in
i66i. 2

Poor Mr. Cotton did not long survive his disappointment.
He died on October loth, 1668, and was succeeded by Mr.
John Haynes, M.A., of Magdalene College, Cambridge, whose
father appears to have been a resident in Shrewsbury, though
not a burgess, when the son was entered at school in 1652.
John Haynes graduated B.A. in 1664 and M.A. in 1668, and
had resided in Shrewsbury during the four years which had
elapsed since he took his B.A. degree.

On October 2Oth, 1668, the Mayor, Mr. Samuel Lloyd, 3
wrote to the master and seniors of St. John's College,
strongly recommending Mr. Haynes for the second-master-
ship. But Mr. Andrew Taylor was not in favour of his
candidature, believing him to be inclined to the "presbyterian
faction," and other objections against him seem to have been
urged by persons in Shrewsbury, whose names the college
did not disclose.

1 The Bishop's letter is given in the Blakeway MSS.

* Mr. Taylor married Elisabeth, widow of Mr. Cotton, at St. Mary's Church,

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