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on July nth, 1671. Mr. Cotton was buried at St. Mary's on October I3th, 1668.

3 Samuel Lloyd, who was the second son of Mr. John Lloyd, of Shrewsbury,
alderman and draper, was entered at school in 1631 and admitted to the freedom
of the Drapers' Company in 1646. In 1653 he was a benefactor to the school
library.



ANDREW TAYLOR 193

Mr. Samuel Walthall, 1 too, one of their own fellows, who
had been for three years under Pigott at Shrewsbury and
was the son of a burgess, was persuaded by his friends to
offer himself for the post. Under these circumstances it
would have been strange indeed if the college had not elected
Mr. Walthall. But the Corporation of Shrewsbury deter-
mined to resist his appointment and on November 4th sent
a long protest to the college, declaring that Mr. Andrew
Taylor had failed to substantiate the charges made against
Mr. Haynes, who was quite free from factious tendencies. 2

On November 2Oth the Mayor wrote a letter to the same
effect to Dr. Gunning, master of St. John's College. In this
letter it is asserted that Mr. Walthall would never have
become a candidate had he not been "persuaded by some
private persons unconcerned." Further correspondence en-
sued, but after the Mayor had written a conciliatory letter
on February 6th, i66f, in which he freely acknowledged
Mr. Walthall to be a far better qualified man than Mr.
Haynes, the former appears to have resigned his candidature,
and on February I5th, i66f, the college authorities formally
nominated Mr. Haynes. 3

1 Samuel Walthall was a son of Mr. John Walthall, of Shrewsbury, draper.
He was admitted sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, June 2ist, 1652, and is
said in the college register to have been at Shrewsbury School for three years
under Pigott. As he was born in 1634 there can hardly be any doubt that he
originally entered school in Chaloner's time. But his name is not to be found in
the school register. He graduated B.A. in 1655, M.A. in 1668, and B.D. in
1667. On March 25th, 1656, he was elected fellow.

2 Mr. Andrew Taylor had probably been indiscreet in the matter. A memo-
randum which Hotchkis quotes from the Corporation Book of Orders indicates
injudicious behaviour towards the assistant masters, as well as an autocratic
tendency of mind. Remonstrances seem to have been made with him by the
Mayor for claiming undue authority over the second and third masters, and for
keeping them waiting outside the chapel door at service time by retaining the key
in his own possession.

3 The nomination by the college is among the school documents preserved in
the Town Hall at Shrewsbury. For a full account of the correspondence see the
school account-book. Mr. Haynes was a benefactor to the school library in 1670.
At the time of his election to the second-mastership he was minister of St.
Julian's, Shrewsbury, a cure to which he was appointed on June 24th, 1665. On
September 2Qth in that year he married, and a son of his was baptised at St.
Julian's on July 3ist, 1666.

O



194 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

He did not, however, remain long at Shrewsbury School,
for we find that, towards the end of 1672, the second-master-
ship became again vacant. Once more the Corporation
determined to assert its claim to appoint the Shrewsbury
masters. On receiving a notification of the vacancy the
master and seniors of St. John's College proceeded to elect
a new second master. Their choice fell on the Rev. Richard
Andrews, M.A., a member of their own college, a former
scholar of Shrewsbury School, and the son of a burgess. 1
But the Corporation refused to acknowledge the validity of
the appointment, and at once installed in the second master's
room the Rev. Oswald Smith, B.A., of Christ Church, Oxford,
who had only recently taken his degree. 2 The Mayor, no
doubt, had the legal right to refuse his assent to the college
nomination for "reasonable cause." But to install another
gentleman, without asking the college for a fresh nomina-
tion, was an act of manifest illegality. Litigation naturally
ensued, and the contest was carried on for several years,
much to the detriment of the interests of the school ; as,
upon these occasions, the Corporation almost invariably had
recourse to the school-chest for its law expenses. Chancery
proceedings commenced in 1675, the matter having been
referred to the Lord Keeper by Order in Council dated
December i6th, 1674.

Hotchkis has preserved some interesting letters written
from London by Mr. Francis Gibbons, who was acting as
solicitor for the Corporation, to Mr. Alkis, giving various
details as to the progress of the Oswald Smith case.

The first letter is dated June 2Qth, 1675. From it we

1 Richard Andrews was the son of Mr. Roger Andrews, a shoemaker of
Shrewsbury. He was baptised at St. Julian's on December 2nd, 1647, entered
Shrewsbury School in 1656, and was admitted sizar of St. John's College, Cam-
bridge, on January I3th, i66|, at the age of sixteen. He graduated B.A. in
1667 and M.A. in 1671. His nomination by the college to the second-master-
ship bears date December I2th, 1672. His prospects in life were not much
affected by the adverse action of the Corporation, as he obtained the rectories of
Upton Magna and Withington. He died in 1726.

2 Oswald Smith was son of the Rev. James Smith, Rector of Withington. He
graduated B.A. in 1671 and M.A. in 1672. Benefactor to the school library in
1691. Died July 26th, 1715.



ANDREW TAYLOR 195

learn that the Lord Keeper 1 had appointed that day for a
rehearing of the whole question at issue between the college
and the Corporation. Sir Thomas Jones and Sir William
Baldwin were counsel for the latter, and Sir John King was
retained for the former. The heads of the case for the town
are given, and a very poor case it was. It consisted chiefly
of an assertion and an argument. The assertion was that the
Corporation had a plain right to nominate masters, and the
argument that they were the fittest persons to do so. It
seems from Mr. Gibbons's letter that his clients were inclined
to agree to a sort of compromise, and had expressed their
willingness, so long as the right of appointment was acknow-
ledged to be theirs by the college, to nominate a second
person if the college, on examination, should judge their
first nominee to be unfit, and to allow the college to elect
masters when they had no duly qualified candidates of their
own to appoint. So preposterous did these suggestions
appear to the Corporation counsel that they refused to bring
them before the Lord Keeper; and Mr. Gibbons's only re-
course was to go to Sir John King and ask him to consent
to a postponement of the hearing, on the ground that the
defendants' counsel could not attend, agreeing, of course, to
pay costs. In the meantime he sought further instructions
from the Corporation.

Chancery disputes, even in those days, were not quickly
brought to an end, and the Oswald Smith case was still
going on in December, 1677. On November loth of that
year Mr. Gibbons wrote to Mr. Adam Oatley, the Town
Clerk of Shrewsbury, at the desire of Lord Newport, who
was interesting himself in the matter, to ask for further
evidence. But the town had no evidence worthy of notice
to produce, and on November 3Oth Mr. Gibbons had to
tell his clients that, after reading the letters supplied by
them, which were found to agree with those in the college
book, the general opinion was that the Corporation had no

1 Sir Hen cage Finch, Bart., was appointed Lord Keeper on November 9th,
1672, and Lord Chancellor on December iQth, 1675. In the interval he had
been created Baron Finch of Daventry.



196 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

case. On December 5th there was a meeting of counsel at
the house of Lord Newport, who had prepared an abstract of
the letters, and both sides agreed that, with the exception of
one or two, the letters " made wholly for the college." In spite
of this Lord Newport proposed that, not only should Oswald
Smith be left undisturbed in his present position, but, for
the future, the college and the Corporation should nominate
to masterships turn and turn about. This proposal counsel
for the college refused to entertain, and they pointed out
that their clients considered themselves hardly used in the
matter ; they had a trust to fulfil, and nothing to gain for
themselves by clinging to their right to discharge the duties
imposed upon them by that trust But, while they were put to
considerable expense by this litigation, the Corporation paid
its expenses out of the school funds. Mr. Gibbons wrote
to the above effect on December 6th, and on the same day
Mr. Thomas Edwardes 1 enclosed to Mr. Adam Oatley Lord
Newport's "abstract of letters," stating, for the information
of the Corporation, that both Lord Newport and Sir Samuel
Baldwin 2 were satisfied that the college was in the right. It
appears from a letter written by Mr. Roper to Mr. Andrews,
on May 2nd, 1679, that tne case was still before the Court.
It had been heard in part by the Lord Chancellor on Holy
Thursday, and he had postponed the further hearing for a
week, in the hope that the parties might come to some
agreement. It is mentioned in this letter that Lord Newport
had persuaded Mr. Kynaston to offer Mr. Andrews the living

1 Thomas Edwardes was second son of Sir Thomas Edwardes, Bart. , of Greet,
Salop. He entered Shrewsbury School in 1659, matriculated at Queen's College,
Oxford, July ist, 1664, aged seventeen, and became a Student at Gray's Inn on
July ist, 1665. No doubt he was acting for the Corporation in a legal capacity at
this time (1677). In 1681 he was made Town Clerk, and he held that office till
1720. Ancestor of the second line of baronets. (OwEN and BLAKEWAY.)

2 Sir Thomas Jones was now a Justice of the King's Bench. Sir Samuel
Baldwin, of Stoke Castle, was a Serjeant-at-Law. He was not at Shrewsbury
School himself, but had two sons there, both of whom were entered in 1662.
The elder of the two, William, died unmarried. Charles, the younger, succeeded
his father at Stoke Castle, became Chancellor of Hereford Cathedral, and was
elected M.P. for Ludlow in 1688 and 1695. Both sons were at Queen's College,
Oxford. (Blakeway MSS.}



ANDREW TAYLOR 197

of Hordley, in Shropshire, but that he had refused to sur-
render his nomination to the second-mastership. 1 There is
little or no doubt that some arrangement of this sort was
ultimately made, for Mr. Oswald Smith retained his post till
his death in 1715.

Mr. Andrew Taylor must have been quite a young man
when he began work at Shrewsbury as Head Master, and
as we hear of sixty-seven boys being admitted in 1684
and fifty-eight in i685, 2 at a time when his career was
drawing to an end, it seems probable that the school was
fairly prosperous in the early years of his mastership.
Unfortunately the school registers between 1664 and 1798
have been lost for many years, and the materials for giving
any detailed account of the history of the school, or the
boys who were educated there in Taylor's time, as well as
in that of his successors during the eighteenth century, are
but scanty.

We know, however, of a few men of some distinction who
were educated at Shrewsbury School while Taylor was Head
Master.

Richard Hill, 3 the diplomatist, who built the mansion in
Hawkestone Park, Shropshire, was for some years at Shrews-
bury before he went to Eton College. He graduated at
St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1678, and was made a
fellow in the following year. He also took deacon's orders ;
but becoming acquainted, when acting as tutor to Lord
Hyde, son of Lawrence, Earl of Rochester, with the Earl
of Ranelagh, Paymaster-General of the forces, he was
recommended by him for the appointment of Deputy Pay-
master to the army sent into Flanders in 1691. This office
he held till the end of the war in 1697. Subsequently
Mr. Hill was frequently employed in the diplomatic service.

1 See Hotchkis MSS. 2 See Blakeway MSS.

3 Richard Hill was second son of Mr. Rowland Hill, of Hawkestone, Salop.
He was born on March 23rd, 165!, and admitted at St. John's College, Cambridge,
on June i8th, 1675, at the age of nineteen (?). He graduated B.A. in 1678 and
M.A. in 1682 ; fellow in 1679. J t should be noted that the date of his birth, as
given by Blakeway, does not agree with his age in 1675, as recorded in the college
register.



i$8 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

After the peace of Ryswick, in 1699, he went as Envoy
Extraordinary to Turin, and on his return he was made
a Lord of the Treasury. On the accession of Queen Anne
he was transferred to the Admiralty, and he continued in
that department till the death of the Prince of Denmark.
In 1703 he went out to Italy as Envoy Extraordinary and
Minister Plenipotentiary to all the Italian States except
the Papal, and in 1709 he was nominated on a similar
mission to the States General and the Council of State in
the Netherlands. But on this latter occasion he was pre-
vented by illness from attempting the journey. After his
retirement from public life Richard Hill took priest's orders
and was made a fellow of Eton College. He is said to
have been offered a bishopric. The house at Hawkestone
was built by him for his nephew, Rowland Hill, for whom
he also procured a baronetcy. His own residence was at
Richmond. He died in 1727 and was buried at Hodnet.
He was a great benefactor to his college at Cambridge, and
his portrait hangs in the college hall. 1

Robert Digby, Baron Digby, of Geashill, Ireland, was
another pupil of Taylor. He matriculated at Magdalen
College, Oxford, on November 6th, 1670, at the age of
sixteen, and was created M.A. on July nth, 1676. He
had succeeded to the title the same year that he went to
Oxford. In May, 1677, Lord Digby was elected M.P. for
Warwick, but he died on December 29th of the same year-
His name appears as a benefactor in the register of the
school library, where he is described as " former scholar."

Mr. Robert Price, Justice of the Court of Common Pleas,
was also at Shrewsbury in Taylor's time, having previously
been, according to Foss, at Wrexham School. He was a son
of Thomas Price, Esq., of Gealor, in the parish of Cerrig-y-
Druidion, Denbighshire, and was born on January I4th,

1 Much of his property was left to two nephews, Samuel Barbour and Thomas
Harwood, both of whom assumed the name of Hill. Harwood, by his second
wife, who was a daughter of Mr. Justice Noel, was father of Noel Hill, created
Baron Berwick in 1784. For other particulars of Richard Hill's life see BLAKE-
WAY'S Sheriffs of Shropshire, BAKER'S Hist, of St. John's College, and the Diet,
of Nat. Biog.



ANDREW TAYLOR 199

i65f. In May, 1673, Robert Price was admitted Student
of Lincoln's Inn; in 1679 he was called to the Bar; and in
1682 he was made Attorney-General of South Wales. Sub-
sequently he became, in 1683, Recorder of Radnor; in 1687,
Town Clerk of Gloucester; in 1700, a Justice of North
Wales; in 1702, Baron of the Exchequer; and in 1726,
Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. Before he attained
high judicial office Robert Price sat in the House of
Commons for the borough of Weobley during several Par-
liaments. In 1685 he was appointed Steward of Shrewsbury
by the Crown, but was removed from office three years later.
Foss says that Mr. Robert Price was never knighted. He
died on February 2nd, 173!. l He was a benefactor to
Shrewsbury School library in 1693, and is described in the
register as " former scholar."

Another of Taylor's boys was Arthur Maynwaring, the
poet and politician. He was born at Ightfield, in Shropshire,
and was a descendant of Sir George Maynwaring, who was
at Shrewsbury School under Ashton. His grandfather, Sir
Arthur Maynwaring, was a well-known courtier in the reign
of James the First and a friend of Prince Henry. After
leaving Shrewsbury Arthur Maynwaring went up to Christ
Church, Oxford, in 1683, but he does not seem to have taken
a degree, though it was not till 1687 that he became a
Student of the Inner Temple. His mother was a Cholmley,
of Vale Regis, and the Jacobite tendencies of his younger
days were probably due to the influence of his uncle, Sir
Francis Cholmley. Two of his earliest poems were political
satires, written from a Jacobite point of view, Tarquin and
Tullia and The King of Hearts. The former was directed
against William the Third and Queen Mary. Subsequently
Arthur Maynwaring became reconciled to the existing regime,
and in 1695 he obtained a commissionership of Customs
through the influence of Lord Halifax. In 1706 he was

1 Robert Price was admitted pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge, on
March 28th, 1672, at the age of seventeen, and was made a fellow-commoner on
September I5th of the same year. It appears from the college register, which
describes him as "bred at Ruthin," that he must have left Shrewsbury for Ruthin
before going to Cambridge.



200 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

elected M.P. for Preston, and from 1710 to 1712 he repre-
sented West Looe in Parliament. In 1705 he was appointed
Auditor of Imprests with a salary of ^3000 a year. For
many years he was on terms of great intimacy with Mrs.
Oldmixon, the celebrated actress, whom he made his executor,
and to whom he left half his property. He died on Novem-
ber 1 3th, 1712, and was buried at Chertsey in Surrey. 1

Thomas Bowers, Bishop of Chichester, the son of Mr.
Richard Bowers, a baker of Shrewsbury, was educated at
Shrewsbury School and St. John's College, Cambridge. In
1704, being then Vicar of Hoo, in Sussex, he was a bene-
factor to the school library. In 1715 the Rev. Thomas
Bowers was made a Prebendary of Canterbury. Subsequently
he became Archdeacon of Canterbury and a royal chaplain.
In August, 1722, he was consecrated Bishop of Chichester,
but he only held the see for two years, dying on August
22nd, 1 724.2

Another Shrewsbury-born boy who was at school under
Taylor, John Weaver, acquired in after life considerable fame
in Shropshire and elsewhere as a teacher of dancing, though
we have no reason for supposing that he acquired his know-
ledge of that art at Shrewsbury School. Tradition relates
that he introduced scenical dancing into England. An
exhibition of this sort, called " The Judgment of Paris," was
performed by his pupils about 1750 in the great room over
the market hall at Shrewsbury. Mr. Weaver's essay on the
history of dancing had some reputation in its day. He is
described as a little, cheerful, dapper man, and is said to have
been much respected in Shrewsbury. 3

As early as 1677 Mr. Taylor's health had begun to fail,
and he appears to have thought seriously of resigning. 4 But

1 Arthur May nwar ing vta.s born in 1668. He matriculated at Christ Church in
1683 at the age of fifteen. For other details of his life see Diet, of Nat. Biog.

2 Thomas Bowers was admitted as a subsizar at St. John's College, Cambridge,
on June I3th, 1677. See BAKER'S Hist, of St. John's College, Cambridge.

3 John Weaver was baptised at Holy Cross, Shrewsbury, on July 2ist, 1673, and
was buried at St. Chad's on September 28th, 1760. (OwEN and BLAKEWAY.)

4 When the Oswald Smith case was before the Court of Chancery Lord
Newport mentioned at a meeting of counsel held at his house on December 5th,
1677, that Mr. Taylor was about to resign. See Hotchkis MSS.



RICHARD LLOYD 201

this intention was given up for a time ; probably there was
some temporary improvement. But a few years later, in
1686, the Head Master's condition was regarded as so
hopeless that the Roman Catholics began to make prepara-
tions for securing the succession to the head-mastership. A
Jesuit named Sebrand was admitted a burgess of Shrewsbury
on June 3Oth, with the view of smoothing away difficulties
that might stand in the way of his future appointment. The
next year is notable in the annals of Shrewsbury for James
II.'s visit to the town. 1 The authorities received the King
with all due respect, and " the conduits ran with wine the day
his Majesty came to town." Unfortunately we have neither
school register, nor Taylor MS., to tell us what part the
boys took in the entertainment of the King. But there is
little or no doubt that during the royal visit, which was made
in the month of August, arrangements were completed for
the immediate appointment of Sebrand so soon as Mr.
Taylor's death should take place. But these designs were
thwarted by the Head Master's secret resignation in Novem-
ber. Messengers were at once despatched to Cambridge, and
the authorities of St. John's College lost no time in electing
Mr. Richard Lloyd, who was one of their own fellows. The
approval of the Bishop of Lichfield was obtained as speedily
as possible, and the new Head Master was formally installed
in his office by the Mayor of Shrewsbury. It was well that
no time had been lost in the matter, for the Roman Catholic
partisans had provided themselves with a royal mandate for
Sebrand's appointment, and Andrew Taylor only survived
two months after his resignation. He was buried at St.
Mary's on January 26th, i68|.

Richard Lloyd, Head Master 1687-1723.

Richard Lloyd was the son of Mr. Griffith 2 Lloyd of
Frank well, Shrewsbury, and was born about 1661. He
received his school education at Shrewsbury, and was

1 See OWEN and BLAKEWAY.

3 Blake-way MSS. The admission register of St. John's College gives the
father's name as George.



202 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

admitted sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, on June
24th, 1677, at the age of sixteen. After graduating, as B.A.
in 1679 and M.A. in 1683, ne was elected fellow of his
college on April 8th, 1685. On November 2Oth, 1687, he
was chosen by the master and seniors as Mr. Andrew
Taylor's successor, and he continued Head Master of
Shrewsbury for thirty -six years. The school is said to
have flourished under his charge for some years ; but, by
1719, it had fallen to a very low ebb. Blakeway tells us
that in that year there were only seven boys to be found in
the highest school, seven in the second, nine in the third,
and three in the accidence school. The Rev. Benjamin
Wingfield, M.A., curate of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, has left
a melancholy picture of the condition of the school in the
latter part of Lloyd's head-mastership in an affidavit which
he made on January 2nd, 174!- He says that he was under
Mr. Hotchkis between one and two years while he was an
assistant master, 1 but was removed from Shrewsbury to
Wem Grammar School with several other boys in conse-
quence of the low repute of the former school, the Head
Master being, "by his age and infirmities, incapable to
discharge his duties." 2

One reason, at any rate, for the decay of the school under
Mr. Lloyd is the fact that, during his tenure of office at
Shrewsbury, he held stalls at Hereford and Brecon, as well
as the Vicarage of Sellack in Herefordshire. 3 At last, in
Michaelmas term 1717, an information was filed in the
Court of Chancery against the Head Master and Mr.
Rowland Tench, 4 the second master, by the Attorney-
General, Sir Edward Northey, at the relation of Bulkeley
Mackworth, Esq., and others, for the breach of the school
ordinance which prohibited the holding of parochial or other
cures with the school masterships. It was stated by the

1 Leonard Hotchkis was third master from 1715 to 1723; so that it is plain
that Mr. Wingfield was at Shrewsbury sometime during the last eight years of
Lloyd's head-mastership.

2 See Hotchkis MSS.

3 Sellack was in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Hereford.

4 Mr. Rowland Tench held the curacy of Astley at this time.



RICHARD LLOYD 203

petitioners that the inhabitants sent their boys to other
schools in consequence of the masters' neglect, and that, at
the time the information was filed, there were only eight
boys in the highest school.

In the decree issued by Lord Chancellor Macclesfield,
apparently in the same term, it was ordered that Mr. Lloyd
should be given six months time to make up his mind
whether he would resign the head-mastership or his vicarage.
In other respects the plaintiffs' bill was dismissed. No costs
were given to either side. 1 Probably Mr. Lloyd decided to
give up the Vicarage of Sellack, as he did not resign the
head-mastership till June, 1723. He died in 1733, aged
seventy-two, and was buried in St. Mary's Church. Various
changes took place in the staff of masters during the time
Mr. Lloyd was Head Master, and the Corporation took
advantage of the very first vacancy that occurred to assert
again, in defiance of the ordinances, its right to appoint the
schoolmasters, and to pay the cost of any consequent
litigation out of the school funds. In 1688, the year after



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