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Mr. Lloyd's appointment, the third -mastership became
vacant by the resignation of Mr. John Taylor, 2 who had held
it since 1659. Mr- Henry Johnson, 3 a graduate of their own
college and a native of Shrewsbury, was nominated by the
master and seniors of St. John's as his successor.

Emboldened apparently by the fact that Mr. Oswald
Smith, in spite of the acknowledged illegality of his appoint-
ment, had been ultimately allowed to retain the second room
in which he had been placed by order of the Corporation,
that body, instead of admitting the college nominee,
proceeded to make an appointment of its own, selecting

1 See Hotchkis MSS. and Blakeway MSS. In 1722-23 a Corporation order
was voted that one of the schoolmasters, having accepted a living, should quit the
school. This order seems to indicate that no notice had been taken of the
decree in Chancery by the Head Master, or else that he had resigned Sellack
in 1717 and had subsequently taken another living.

2 Mr. John Taylor was buried at St. Mary's August 1st, 1688.

3 The newly appointed master was a son of Mr. Henry Johnson, an alderman
of Shrewsbury. He was admitted pensioner of St. John's College on May 3 1st,
1682, and graduated B.A. in 1686.


for the purpose Mr. Robert Matthews, 1 who was also a
native of Shrewsbury and a graduate of St. John's. On June
25th, 1688, an order was voted at a meeting of the Corporation
that Mr. Matthews should be put in the third room in the
place of Mr. John Taylor. It is probable that the college
authorities did not feel inclined to embark again in a legal
contest which might prove as prolonged and expensive as
the Oswald Smith case, especially as both the candidates
were graduates of St. John's, for on December i6th, 1688,
Dr. Millington of Magdalene College, Cambridge, wrote to
Mr. Salter, the Mayor of Shrewsbury, that he had heard from
the master of St. John's that, if Mr. Johnson were willing to
surrender his nomination, the college would elect Mr.
Matthews. 2 It is not a matter for surprise that Mr. Johnson
proved unwilling to do this, and on February 27th, i68|,
another order was passed by the Corporation to the effect
that any attempt to oust Mr. Matthews should be resisted at
the school expense. 2 It does not appear whether or not
legal proceedings were taken by Mr. Johnson to enforce his
claims, and his death in September, 1690, left Mr. Matthews
in undisputed possession of the third-mastership. No further
change took place till the death of Mr. Matthews in 1701,
when the Rev. Rowland Tench, 3 B.A., of St. John's College,
was chosen to fill the vacancy. In 1713 the Rev. Leonard
Hotchkis, B.A., of St. John's College, succeeded Mr. Joshua
Johnson 4 as accidence master, and in 1715, on the death of

1 Robert Matthews was the son of Mr. Thomas Matthews of Shrewsbury,
draper. He was baptised at St. Alkmond's on August 3rd, 1659, and, after
leaving Shrewsbury, was admitted sizar of St. John's College on October 3Oth,
1683, aged nineteen. He graduated B.A. in 1685. He was buried at St.
Alkmond's February I2th, 1701. His name appears in the school accounts
for 1694 as curate of Clive.

2 See Hotchkis MSS.

3 Rowland Tench was the son of Mr. Richard Tench of Shrewsbury, alehouse
keeper. Admitted sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, on June I9th, 1697,
aged eighteen; graduated B.A. in 1700 and M.A. in 1710; curate of Astley,
Salop, 1714-1728; second master, 1715-1728; resigned both curacy and master-
ship on being made Rector of Church Stretton in 1 728 ; benefactor to school
library in 1728. Died in 1748, aged seventy-one. (OwEN and BLAKEWAY.)

4 Joshua Johnson was a son of Mr. Richard Johnson of Shrewsbury. He was
admitted sizar of St. John's College on June 6th, 1702, aged eighteen, and
graduated B.A. in 1706 and M.A. in 1710.


Mr. Oswald Smith, 1 Rowland Tench was promoted to the
second-mastership, Leonard Hotchkis succeeding to his post,
and the Rev. Alexander Hatton, another graduate of St.
John's, taking the accidence school. Robert Goddard, who
had been accidence master nearly fifty years, died in 1699,
and was succeeded by Mr. Francis Clarke, a graduate of St.
John's, who, after holding office for six years, appears to
have resigned in favour of Mr. Joshua Johnson, receiving for
three years by agreement a portion of his stipend. When
Clarke resigned Johnson had not yet taken his degree,
and the charge of the accidence school was taken for a
few months by Mr. William Kynaston. 2

In 1715 Mr. Ralph Adams, the school writing-master,
died, and was buried at St. Mary's. 3 An arrangement had
been made, as long ago as 1656, with St. John's College,
that $ per annum should be paid to a master "to teach
poor scholars to write." Mr. John Taylor, the third master,
seems to have discharged the duties of writing-master from
1663 to 1665, but after that it is probable that a regular
writing-master was appointed.

In the year 1710 Shrewsbury was thrown into a state
of excitement by the arrival of Dr. Sacheverell in the course
of his triumphal progress from London to Selattyn. On
December I3th, 1709, the Doctor was impeached before the
House of Lords for certain sermons he had preached, and
ultimately he was suspended from preaching for three years.
But, for various reasons into which it is unnecessary to enter
here, he became a sort of popular hero ; and Robert Lloyd,
Esq., of Aston, who had been a pupil of his at Magdalen
College, Oxford, having presented him to the Rectory of
Selattyn, near Oswestry, Dr. Sacheverell proceeded on his
journey to his living amidst a chorus of applause and con-
gratulation. Oxford, Banbury, and Warwick received him
in turn with every mark of honour and welcome. He

1 Mr. Oswald Smith, by will dated March I3th, 1713, left money to found
two exhibitions for Shrewsbury scholars to be held at any college in either
university. (Hotchkis MSS.)

8 See school account-book and Hotchkis MSS.

3 See OWEN and BLAKE WAY'S History of Shrewsbury.


reached Shrewsbury on July 3rd. The gentlemen of the
neighbourhood rode out in large numbers to meet him, and
Leonard Hotchkis, then a Cambridge student, led his horse
by the bridle into the town. Mr. Thomas Dawes, 1 curate
of St. Mary's, and Mr. William Bennett, 2 Vicar of St. Chad's,
being fearful apparently of showing their sympathy in public,
sent a message to Sacheverell to say that they would wait
upon him at "the Raven" at night, and were told in
answer that he would " have no Nicodemuses." 3

Among the distinguished men who were educated at
Shrewsbury in Lloyd's time may be reckoned Dr. Thomas,
Bishop of Salisbury ; Dr. William Adams, Master of Pem-
broke College, Oxford, Samuel Johnson's friend ; Ambrose
Phillips, the poet; Dr. John Taylor, Canon of St. Paul's,
Chancellor of Lincoln, and Archdeacon of Bucks, a great
classical scholar, commonly known in his ov/n day as
" Demosthenes Taylor " ; Richard Lyster, Esq., 4 of Rowton
Castle, who represented Shrewsbury or Shropshire in Parlia-
ment for more than forty years, and was called in the
county "Senator Lyster"; and William Kynaston, of Ryton,
Shropshire, Recorder of Shrewsbury, a Master in Chancery,
and M.P. for Shrewsbury in 1741, 1744, and 1747.

Dr. John Thomas, 5 who was a native of Shrewsbury and

1 Thomas Dawes was a native of Shrewsbury and born in 1650. He was
admitted at Shrewsbury School in 1660, and subsequently graduated at Queen's
College, Cambridge; B.A. in 1671, M.A. in 1675, and B.D. in 1684. He was
a benefactor to the school library in 1691. Died on January loth, 171*, and
was buried at St. Mary's. (OWEN and BLAKKWAY.)

a William Bennett, son of Mr. William Bennett, of Shrewsbury, cloth worker,
was baptised at St. Chad's on May 5th, 1648, entered at Shrewsbury School in
1657, and admitted sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, on June 2nd, 1667,
aged eighteen. He graduated B.A. in 1670 and M.A. in 1676, and was appointed
to St. Chad's on February I3th, 1681. (OwEN and BLAKEWAY.)


4 Richard Lyster, eldest son of Thomas Lyster, Esq., of Rowton Castle, was
born in 1691. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, on July 3rd, 1708, as
gen. fil. of Salop, aged sixteen. In 1708 he was admitted Student of the Inner
Temple. He is described in the register of benefactors to Shrewsbury School
library as " formerly scholar of the school." He died April 13th, 1766. (BLAKE-
WAY'S Sheriffs of Shropshire. )

5 Dr. John Thomas was the son of a Shrewsbury maltster who lived in
Frankwell. He was baptised at St. Chad's on November 27th, 1687 ; B.A.
in 1713, M.A. in 1717, and D.D. in 1729. (See OWEN'S History of Shrewsbury.}


graduated at Catharine Hall, Cambridge, while acting as
chaplain to the English merchants of Hamburg, 1725-1729,
became known to King George II., who persuaded him to
come to London, made him his chaplain, and got him ap-
pointed Rector of St. Vedast's, Foster Lane. His first
considerable appointment was to the Deanery of Peter-
borough. In April, 1744, he was consecrated Bishop of
Lincoln, and in 1761 he was translated to Salisbury. The
Bishop is said to have been a " pleasant, facetious man, but
rather deaf."

Dr. William Adams 1 was also a native of Shrewsbury, and
was only thirteen years old when he entered Pembroke
College, Oxford. Of this college he became fellow, tutor,
and, in 1775, master. By virtue of his mastership he held
a prebendal stall at Gloucester. A few years later Dr.
Edward Cresset, Bishop of LlandafT, made him his Ex-
amining Chaplain, and gave him the Archdeaconry of
Llandaff. It was in June, 1784, that Johnson and Boswell
paid Dr. Adams their fortnight's visit at Oxford. Johnson
had formed an intimacy with Adams during his residence
at Pembroke in 1728-29.

The life of Ambrose Phillips 2 is included by Dr. Johnson
in his Lives of the Poets. His Pastorals and some other
poems were collected into a volume in 1749. The Pastorals
are said to have been written when Phillips was at St. John's

1 William Adams was the eldest son of Alderman John Adams of Shrewsbury.
He was baptised at St. Chad's on September 3rd, 1706, was admitted at
Pembroke College, Oxford, in 1719, and graduated B.A. in 1723, M.A. in 1727,
and B.D. and D.D. in 1756. From 1731 to 1775 he hel( i the curacy of St.
Chad's, in Shrewsbury, and in 1755 he was made Rector of Cound, Shropshire.
He is described in the register of Shrewsbury School library, to which he was a
benefactor in 1738, as a former scholar. Dr. Adams is said to have written the
first reply to HUME'S Essay on Miracles. He died in 1789. (OWEN and BLAKE-
WAY ; BOSWELL'S Life of Johnson ; Diet, of Nat. Biog.) Dr. Samuel Parr says
of Dr. Adams that he united the " learning of a scholar, the accomplishments of a
gentleman, and the piety of a Christian." (NlCHOL's Literary Illustrations^ vol. v.)

2 Ambrose Phillips , son of Mr. Ambrose Phillips, a draper of Shrewsbury, was
baptised at St. Alkmond's October 9th, 1674. He was admitted subsizar of
St. John's on June i$th, 1693, at the age of eighteen, and was elected fellow in
1699. (See OWEN and BLAKEWAY, BAKER'S Hist, of St. John's College, and
Diet, of Nat. Biog.)


College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1696 and
M.A. in 1700. His Epistle to the Earl of Dorset, written at
Copenhagen in 1709, was praised highly by Steele as a
" winter piece " ; but more recently Mr. Gosse has described
it as " frigid and ephemeral." The Odes to Children, on the
other hand, Mr. Gosse thinks " charming."

In 1724 Phillips accompanied his friend Boulter, who had
been made Archbishop of Armagh, to Ireland, where he
acted for a time as his secretary. He represented Armagh in
the Irish Parliament of 1725, and in 1733 was made Judge of
the Prerogative Court.

In 1721 he was a benefactor to Shrewsbury School library.
He is described in the register as fellow of St. John's College
and formerly a scholar of Shrewsbury School.

Dr. John Taylor 1 was grandson of the Rev. John Taylor,
who was third master at Shrewsbury School from 1659 to
1688. He was baptised at St. Alkmond's June 2Oth, 1704.
His father was a barber, and he himself was intended to
follow the same occupation. But his early passion for books
brought him under the notice of Mr. Edward Owen, of
Condover Hall, who assisted in sending him to St. John's
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1724, M.A.
in 1728, and LL.D. in 1740. In due course he was made
fellow and tutor of his college. In 1732 he was elected
librarian, and in 1734 registrary of the university. He is
called in the register of benefactors to Shrewsbury School
library " a former scholar."

Among his works were editions of Lysias and Demosthenes
and The Elements of Civil Law. He died April I4th, 1766,
leaving most of his valuable library to Shrewsbury School.

1 Dr. Taylor, after leaving Cambridge, practised for a few years as an advocate
at Doctors' Commons. In 1744 he was made Chancellor of Lincoln, but he did
not take holy orders for some time after this. He is said to have forfeited Mr.
Edward Owen's favour by refusing to drink a Jacobite toast. In March, 1754,
he was in residence at St. John's College, Cambridge, as tutor to Mr. Thynne.
It was of him that Johnson once said, " Demosthenes Taylor is the most silent
man, the merest statue of a man that I have ever seen. I have dined in company
with him, and all he said during the whole time was ' Richard.' " (See NICHOL'S
Literary Anecdotes, vol. iv. ; OWEN and BLAKEWAY'S History of Shrewsbury;
BAKER'S Hist, o/ St. John's College ; and BOSWELL'S Life of Johnson.}


A dispute which had been carried on for many years
between the school trustees and Mr. Daniel Wycharley, of
Clive, in Shropshire, as to the amount of stipend to be paid
to the curate of Clive, was finally settled in 1695, during
Mr. Lloyd's head-mastership.

During the closing years of the Commonwealth, Mr.
Wycharley 1 had instituted a suit in Chancery against the
school trustees with the view of obtaining an increase of
the curate's stipend, and for something like nine years,
while the case was still undecided, he refused to pay any
tithes for his Clive property. The suit was ultimately
dismissed with costs. But in 1662 the Commissioners
for enforcing the Act of Uniformity in Shropshire issued
an order that the stipend of the curate of Clive should
be raised from $ to 10. The master and seniors of

1 Mr. Daniel Wycharley was eldest son of Mr. Daniel Wycharley, of the Clive,
Salop, who mortgaged his Clive estate to Mr. Gardner, of Sansaw. Gough
describes the father as a spare, lean person, always in strife and greatly in debt.
The son, he adds, was "well educated and bred to the law." He was entered in
the second school at Shrewsbury in 1616, and re-entered in 1618 and 1619, and
subsequently became a Student in the Inner Temple. When King Charles I. was
leaving the west with his army he received him into his house. At that time
Mr. Wycharley held a lease of Whitchurch farm under the Dean and Chapter of
Westminster in conjunction with his brother-in-law, Mr. Shrimpton. For a time,
at any rate, during the Commonwealth, he appears to have acted as steward to
John Paulet, Marquis of Winchester, and is said to have remitted considerable
sums to Charles II., when in exile, from the estates of the Marquis. As a
punishment for this loyalty Wycharley and Shrimpton had to surrender their
Whitchurch lease to Mr. Robert Wallop. It is probable that after this Wycharley
practised in London as a barrister, for he was residing in the Inner Temple in
September, 1660, when he petitioned the King for a royal letter to the Dean and
Chapter, commanding them to renew the lease, which Wallop had in his turn
forfeited, to himself and Shrimpton. It does not appear whether or not this
request was granted ; but Wycharley was made a Teller of the Exchequer. After
the Restoration he bought the lordship of the manors of Loppington and Wem,
and was made J. P. for the county. But, for some reason or other, his brother
justices protested against his appointment, and, Lord Newport supporting their
protest, Wycharley was summoned before the Council and deprived of his
commission. He was a benefactor to the school library in 1681. {Domestic
State Papers, Cal. 1662 ; GARBETT'S Wem; COUGH'S Middle; and Hist, of St.
Johris College.} It is possible that one or other of the three school entries may
refer to another Daniel Wycharley who went up to Queen's College, Cambridge,
about 1622, and became a fellow of the college, but was ejected for his loyalty in



St. John's College sent their formal consent under the
impression that the trustees were willing to comply with the
order. But, from a letter which Dr. Gunning, the master,
wrote to Sir Richard Prince, the Mayor of Shrewsbury, on
July loth, 1663, it appears that the trustees had declined to
pay the increased stipend on the grounds that the school
revenues were much abated ; that they had some troublesome
suits pending; that much money was needed to put the
school buildings in proper repair ; that the visitation of the
Commission was intended for the regulation of men and not
for the disposition of estates ; and that the Bishop of Lichfield
and Coventry, who was one of the Commissioners, had not
the power, as such, to issue the order in question. The
matter seems to have remained in abeyance till 1691, when,
on a further appeal to the Queen in Council, it was referred
to the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London,
and on their report an order was ultimately made on
May 1 4th, 1695, that the stipend of the Clive curate should
be raised to 30 per annum, and that 10 should be paid
by the school trustees for arrears. 1 Mr. Wycharley died
in 1697.

1 It appears from the school accounts that in 1696 and for many years after, the
payment made on account of Clive was only .13 6s. &/., so that the account given
by Hotchkis of the Order in Council can hardly be correct.


Hugh Owen, B.A., 1723-1726 Robert Phillips, D.D., 1727-1735.

VARIOUS instances have already been mentioned in
which the Corporation of Shrewsbury set at nought the
school ordinances of 1577, and claimed the right to fill
vacant masterships without any reference to St. John's
College, 1 and this, too, in spite of the decisions of Law
Courts 2 and the opinion, in one case at any rate, of their own
counsel. 3 It seems difficult at the present day to suggest
any reasonable grounds for the contention of the Shrewsbury
burgesses, and it is impossible in a faithful history of the
school to refrain from some endeavour to arrive at the
motives by which they were influenced. Two arguments
appear to have been put forward in support of their claim ;
first, that the Charter of Edward VI. gave them the right
to appoint masters ; secondly, that they were the fittest
persons to do so. It is true that the King's Charter did
give to the Bailiffs and burgesses of Shrewsbury, with the
advice of the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, the right
of appointing the masters, as well as of framing ordinances
for the government of the school. But the grant of Queen
Elizabeth, made a few years afterwards, was not only a grant
of new endowments, but practically a renewed grant of those
of Edward VI., and the indenture by which it was made
expressly reserved to Thomas Ashton the right of framing
orders and constitutions for the application of these endow-
ments to the better maintenance of the school, with the

1 In 1635, 1646, 1672, and 1688.

2 In 1636.

3 In the Oswald Smith case Lord Newport and the Corporation counsel. Sir
Samuel Baldwin, were both agreed that their clients had no case.



proviso that this right should pass to the Bishop of Lichfield
and Coventry and the Dean of Lichfield for the time being,
in case Ashton should die before they were framed. In
accordance with the provisions of the Queen's indenture
ordinances were ultimately made by Ashton after con-
sultation with the Bailiffs of Shrewsbury, Sir George
Bromley, Sir Henry Townshend, and other learned and
experienced friends, and to these ordinances the Corporation
of Shrewsbury gave its full assent on February nth, iS/f.
Now, by one of them, it was provided that, whenever any
of the three masterships contemplated by the ordinances
should become vacant the master and seniors of St. John's
College, Cambridge, should "elect and send an able, meet,
and apt man" to fill the post, the right of disallowing
their choice for " reasonable cause " being given to the Bailiffs,
and it is difficult to understand how, under these circum-
stances, the Corporation can have been so ill-advised as
again and again to ignore the legal rights of the college.
Still more preposterous was the assertion made by the
members of that body that they were better able to make
a fit choice than the Cambridge men. It is to be hoped
that the Shrewsbury burgesses were more wrong-headed
than dishonest in the matter, and that they were influenced
by desire of power rather than by love of jobbery. But
we must remember at the same time that the Head Master
would be able to exercise little power as co-trustee with
the Bailiffs of the school property were he to become a
mere nominee of the Corporation, and that the unrestricted
right of appointing the other masters would secure for the
leading members of the Corporation opportunities of pro-
viding suitable and well-paid work for such of their friends
and relations as had received university education. Litigation
too, we must not forget, was not carried on between the
Corporation and the college upon equal terms ; for while
the college authorities had to pay their own law expenses,
the costs of the Corporation were taken from the school-
chest. And this fact accounts, no doubt, for the Corporation
resuming the contest again and again in spite of repeated


defeats ; for there was always the chance of the college giving
way, as indeed it seems to have done on two or three occasions,
for fear of the heavy costs, on condition that suitable pro-
vision should be made for its nominee in some other form.

It is not creditable again to the Corporation that state-
ments should sometimes have been made and evidence put
forward in their behalf which apparently had no foundation.
A memorandum has been preserved in the school account-
book under the date April 6th, 1675, made at the time when
the Oswald Smith case was proceeding, that Mr. Samuel
Lloyd 1 had averred in the Exchequer that when Meighen
resigned in 1635 the college nominated one Evans as his suc-
cessor ; but that the Corporation refused to accept him, and
sent Mr. John Lloyd, his father, who was then Chamberlain
of the town, to present Mr. Chaloner to the college authorities,
who did thereupon choose him as Head Master. It is true
that the Town Bailiffs did veto the appointment of Mr.
William Evans on account of his youth ; but the rest of the
statement seems to have been, to say the least of it, a serious
misrepresentation. Mr. Samuel Lloyd completely ignored
the installation of Mr. John Harding as Head Master by the
Bailiffs, the consequent litigation between the college and
the Corporation, and the defeat of the latter. The corre-
spondence too between the college and the Bailiffs in
January, February, and March, 163^, is quite inconsistent
with the truth of Mr. Lloyd's indirect assertion that Mr.
Chaloner was practically chosen by the Corporation. 2 Another
example of what certainly appears, on the face of it, to be
unscrupulous misrepresentation occurs at a much earlier
period of the school history.

1 Mr. Samuel Lloyd had been Mayor in 1668-69.

3 Mr. John Lloyd was a Shrewsbury draper. He was the bearer of the official
letter written by the Bailiffs some time in January, 1637, to the college authorities,
in which they were urgently entreated to "finde out and recommend a man fitted
for the head place of our schoole." Mr. Lloyd also conveyed a private and much
stronger letter to the college, for which only one of the Bailiffs, Mr. Simon
Weston, was responsible. These letters, as well as that written by Dr. Beale, the
master of St. John's College, enclosing Mr. Chaloner's formal nomination, are
quite conclusive as to the groundlessness of Mr. Samuel Lloyd's statement. (See
the school account-book and BAKER'S Hist, of St. John's Colkge.}


On the death of David Longdon in 1586 it became
necessary to appoint someone to succeed him as School

Online LibraryGeorge William FisherAnnals of Shrewsbury School → online text (page 21 of 56)