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Bailiff. No provision had been made in the ordinances as to
the method to be adopted in the election of this official.
But common sense suggested that the trustees of the school
property, the Town Bailiffs and the Head Master, would be
the natural and proper electors. Such was the opinion of the
counsel consulted in behalf of Mr. John Coyde, one of the
candidates for the vacant office, and with this opinion Lord
Chancellor Bromley 1 fully agreed. But one of the Bailiffs,
backed up by a considerable party in the town, was obstinate
in the matter, claiming that the election should be made by
the general voice of the burgesses, and that the office should
only be held from year to year, and should be terminable
at the pleasure of the Bailiffs. Several months elapsed
before the self-willed Bailiff gave way, although the Lord
Chancellor distinctly assured him and his colleague that the
claim put forward in behalf of the burgesses was " contrary
to the constitutions and ordinances of the school," recom-
mending them at the same time to " leave off these questions
tending to sedition and contention." 2 Various letters on this
subject are preserved among the town records, and in one
of these, which purports to be an official letter from the
Bailiffs and Head Master to the Lord Chancellor, it is
asserted in support of the burgesses' claim that the office
of School Bailiff had been originally granted to David
Longdon by the Bailiffs and burgesses, and that he had
been placed in office by them after the ordinances had been
finished by Mr. Ashton. It is difficult to understand how
Mr. Bailiff* can have made such an assertion when he must
have known that David Longdon was employed by Mr.
Ashton to collect rents, etc., as early as 1573, and that he was
expressly nominated as School Bailiff in the ordinances of 1577.

1 The Lord Chancellor was interested in the matter as a Shropshire man.

2 The letter was written from his house near Charing Cross, and is dated
March 6th, 158!.

3 The Bailiffs for the year 1586-87 were Mr. Thomas Sherer and Mr. David
Lloyd. It is unlikely that Mr. Sherer, who was Clerk to the Council of the
Marches and a lawyer of repute, can have been the recalcitrant Bailiff.



HUGH OWEN 215

The resignation of Mr. Lloyd, the Head Master, in June,
1723, was the signal for another and, as it proved, a final
struggle on the part of the Corporation for supremacy in the
appointment of schoolmasters. For some time past strenuous
efforts had been made to bring about the Head Master's
resignation, with the view of installing in his place Mr. Hugh
Owen, B.A., of Jesus College, Oxford, a native of Carnarvon-
shire. Mr. Owen had not been born in Shropshire nor
educated at Shrewsbury School, and he was not an M.A.
of at least two years' standing.

In order, apparently, in some way to make up for his
entire want of statutory qualifications Mr. Owen was ad-
mitted as a burgess of Shrewsbury in 1721. Sometime
during the year 1721-22 an order was voted by the Corpora-
tion that " the schoolmaster having accepted a living should
quit the school," and there can be no moral doubt that this
order was passed with the view of enforcing Mr. Lloyd's
resignation. It will be remembered that, when an informa-
tion against Mr. Lloyd was filed in the Court of Chancery in
1717, Lord Chancellor Macclesfield decided that it was a
breach of the school ordinances for the Head Master to hold
a parochial cure with his mastership, and gave Mr. Lloyd
six months to decide which he would resign, Shrewsbury
School or the Vicarage of Sellack. It is almost impossible to
suppose that, in spite of this decree, Mr. Lloyd had continued
to hold the living of Sellack up to 1721, and Mr. Corbet
Kynaston, M.P. for Shrewsbury, would hardly have said as he
did in 1723, that the Corporation had "unjustly endeavoured
to oblige him to resign," if that body had merely called upon
Mr. Lloyd to obey the Lord Chancellor's decree in the
matter of Sellack Vicarage. It is probable that the Corpora-
tion order, to which reference has been made, was passed
with the object of representing the two Cathedral stalls,
which Mr. Lloyd still held, as within the scope of the Lord
Chancellor's decree. Two interesting letters written by Mr.
Corbet Kynaston in 1723, which have recently been printed
in Shrewsbury Notes and Queries, prove conclusively that
for some time before Mr. Lloyd absolutely resigned it had



216 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

been notorious in Shrewsbury that the Corporation in-
tended to install Mr. Hugh Owen as Head Master as
soon as the post was vacant. It is also evident from what
Mr. Kynaston says that the master and seniors of St. John's
College were well aware of this design, and that Mr. Lloyd
was negotiating both with the municipal leaders and also
with Mr. William Clark, fellow of St. John's, whom his
college proposed to nominate as the new Head Master,
in order that he might obtain favourable terms for himself
before he completed his resignation. 1 Mr. Kynaston's first
letter was in answer to one which Mr. John Lloyd, the Head
Master's son, had written to him from Shrewsbury on June
1 9th. From it we learn that the college had now, after some
hesitation, come to the resolution to have recourse, if
necessary, to the Law Courts to uphold its legal right to
nominate masters against the Corporation. Mr. John
Lloyd's chief objects in writing to his friend, Mr. Kynaston,
seem to have been to explain to him the reasons why the
negotiations between his father and Mr. Clark for the
former's resignation had been broken off, and to ask his
advice about certain terms of resignation which had been
proposed to his father by Mr. Brickdale, the Mayor 2 of the
previous year, apparently in behalf of the Corporation. 3 The
Head Master appears to have been alarmed lest the Corpora-
tion should be able to carry out its threat of enforcing his
resignation, and to have begun to think it might be better

1 These letters are given in the Appendix. The first was written from London
to Mr. John Lloyd, a barrister-at-law, and the son of the Head Master. It is
dated June 25th, 1723. The second letter was addressed to the Rev. William
Clark, M.A., and is dated June 29th, 1723. The original letters are in the
possession of Mr. Adnitt, of Shrewsbury.

2 Mr. Michael Brickdale was first appointed School Bailiff in 1708, and held
the office till 1713. In that year he seems to have resigned, Mr. Thomas
Hewitt being chosen in his room. But he was reappointed in 1717, and after
that he continued Bailiff till 1754, when he was succeeded by Mr. Edward Cotton.
In 1721 Mr. Brickdale was elected Mayor of Shrewsbury. He was a furrier by
trade, according to Owen and Blakeway, but is described in the Shrewsbury
Burgess Rolls in 1 707 as a plateworker.

3 Mr. Kynaston, however, says that Mr. Brickdale used the name of the Cor-
poration when proposing terms to Mr. Lloyd without any authority from that
body.



HUGH OWEN 217

for him to accept the proffered terms and resign in such
manner and at such time as would best suit the convenience of
the municipal authorities. Mr. Kynaston's answer is clear
and distinct. The Corporation would not think of offering
terms to the Head Master if its members believed they had
the power of removing him from his place. Any terms offered
by Mr. Brickdale must be looked upon with suspicion, as
Shrewsbury rumours pointed to an engagement between
Miss Brickdale and Mr. Hugh Owen, or rather to an engage-
ment prospective on the intended bridegroom obtaining the
head-mastership. Mr. Kynaston was decidedly of opinion
that Mr. Lloyd could not in honour treat with the Corpora-
tion on any terms without the knowledge and consent of the
college, and that he would expose himself to very unfavour-
able comments if he did so. The second letter, which was
written four days later to the Rev. William Clark, does not
throw much further light on the subject It appears from it
that Mr. Clark's difficulty in accepting Mr. Lloyd's pro-
posed terms of resignation was that he was asked to give up
a certainty in exchange for a disputed title^ which he would
have to defend at his own expense. The college, it must be
remembered, had only just resolved to maintain its rights in
the Law Courts. It is evident from his letters that Mr.
Kynaston was firmly convinced that the course taken by the
Corporation was calculated to injure the school and to be
detrimental to the public good.

How Mr. Lloyd's negotiations with the Corporation ended
it does not appear. But it seems probable that the suggestion
made by Mr. Kynaston that he should formally give notice to
the college of his desire to resign in favour of Mr. William
Clark was not carried out, as the Mayor and Corporation
would hardly have ventured to install Mr. Hugh Owen in the
Head Master's room, as they did on July 2nd, unless Mr. Lloyd
had previously placed in their hands an unconditional resig-
nation of his office. Of Mr. Clark's intellectual capacity his
position as fellow of St. John's College and his published
works are sufficient evidence. The only witnesses to Mr.
Owen's abilities and fitness are certain anonymous " persons



218 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

of learning and distinction, whose understanding and integrity
rendered them as able, fit, and proper judges of choosing
masters as the college of St. John's," who were stated by the
Corporation to have approved the appointment. 1

The college authorities had, as Mr. Kynaston told Mr. John
Lloyd, resolved to take legal proceedings to uphold their
right to nominate masters, and they filed a bill in the Court
of Exchequer against the Corporation and Mr. Owen. But
three years elapsed before a decree was issued by the Court
in favour of the plaintiffs. 2 The decision of the judges
appears to have been unanimous. Mr. Owen was displaced,
the college was ordered to elect a fit person under the ordin-
ances, and the defendants were condemned in costs. But on
January I3th, 172^, the Corporation resolved to make one
further effort and to appeal to the House of Lords.

The appeal was heard after a comparatively short delay,
and on February 28th, 172^, the Exchequer decree was
affirmed by a majority of thirty-two to fifteen. A further
motion was then made on behalf of the appellants that
nothing in the resolution just passed should prejudice the
right of the Corporation under the Charter of Edward VI.
to make such additional ordinances as might be thought
necessary. But this motion was negatived by the same
majority as before. 3

In the meantime Mr. Hugh Owen 4 had been carrying on
the work of the school, but we can hardly imagine that under
existing circumstances the four years during which he was

1 See ADNITT and NAUNTON'S History of Shrewsbury School.

2 The case came on for hearing on May i6th, 1726.

3 A fairly complete account of the proceedings in the lawsuit is to be found both
in the Hotchkis MSS. and the Blakeway MSS. It is impossible to trace the
amount of school money wasted by the Corporation in their renewed efforts to set
aside the school ordinances, as it had become the practice for a considerable time,
doubtless by direction of that body, to lump together in the school accounts under
the head !of "necessary expenses" many items which it might have been incon-
venient to particularise. But several of the sums entered under the head of
"necessary expenses" between 1725 and 1730 are significantly large.

4 Hugh Owen is described in the Shrewsbury burgess-book as "of Salop,
clerk." Blakeway says he was son of Owen Roberts, gentleman, of Llanadron,
Carnarvonshire. He matriculated at Jesus College, Oxford, on December i8th,
1710, as pleb. fil., aged sixteen, and graduated B.A. on February 26th, I7i|.






ROBERT PHILLIPS 219

de facto Head Master were prosperous years for Shrewsbury.
It is said that when Mr. Lloyd resigned there were only
sixteen boys left in the school, 1 and although it seems unfair
that its decline in numbers and the loss of its former reputa-
tion should have been ascribed by the college counsel to Mr.
Owen's appointment, 2 the facts they mention show at any
rate that little or no improvement can have been effected by
him on the deplorable condition in which Mr. Lloyd left the
school.

Robert Phillips, D.D., 1727-1735.

While the suits between St. John's College and the Corpo-
ration were pending, Mr. Clark 3 was presented by Archbishop

1 See COLLINS'S Public Schools.

2 Blakeway says that it was stated in the bill filed by the college in the Court of
Exchequer that "the school was very much decreased and had lost its former
reputation." (Blakeway MS 'S.)

3 William Clark was son of Richard Clark, of Downton, near Shrewsbury.
He was born in 1695, and after leaving Shrewsbury School was admitted sizar
of St. John's College, Cambridge, on June 5th, 1714, aged seventeen. He
graduated B.A. in 1715 and M.A. in 1719, and on January 2ist, 171^, was
elected fellow in the place of a nonjuror. For a short time before the death of
Bishop Adam Ottley, of St. David's, in 1723, Mr. Clark acted as his chaplain,
and he subsequently became domestic chaplain to Thomas Holies, Duke of
Newcastle. He obtained the living of Buxted on the recommendation of Dr.
Wootton, whose daughter he married. His father-in-law's treatise, entitled
Leges WalHa, to which he contributed a Latin preface, was given by Mr. Clark
to the school library in 1736. In 1738 he was made a Prebendary of Chichester.
In 1767 he published The Connection of the Roman, Saxon, and English Coins,
and in the following year resigned Buxted by permission of the Archbishop in
favour of his son, the Rev. Edward Clark. In 1 770 he was made Chancellor of
Chichester, and obtained with his new office the rectories of Chillingley and
Pevensey. He died October 2ist, 1771, and was buried in the Cathedral.
Hayley speaks of the "engaging mildness of his manner and countenance," and
Bishop Huntingford testifies to his "exquisite taste and diversity of erudition."
His letters, several of which are given by Nichol, show humour, ability, and
research. An epigram, written by Mr. Clark in allusion to the words Domus
Ultima, inscribed on the vault of the Dukes of Richmond in Chichester Cathedral,
is worth quoting :

" Did he, who thus inscribed the wall,
Not read or not believe St. Paul,
Who says there is, where'er it stands,
Another house not made with hands,
Or may we gather from these words,
That house is not a House of Lords ? "
(See NICHOL'S Literary Anecdotes, vol. iv., and the Diet, of Nat. Biog.}



220 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

Wake to the Rectory of Buxted in Sussex, and he did not care
to give up his living in order to go to Shrewsbury. Failing
him the college selected the Rev. Robert Phillips, D.D., Vicar
of Kinlet, Shropshire, and official of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury,
who was formally admitted on June iQth, 1727. Dr. Phillips
was a native of the town and had been educated at Shrews-
bury. But he was already fifty-seven years old, and was not
likely at that age to restore the fallen fortunes of the school.

Of his mastership, which only lasted eight years, absolutely
nothing is known beyond the fact that, though holding the
office of catechist and receiving its stipend, Dr. Phillips 1 did
not either say the daily prayers in chapel nor catechise the
boys. 2 A Welsh poet of some little note, named Rice
Jones, 3 appears to have been at Shrewsbury in his time.
But that is all that can be said about his pupils. Shortly
after the appointment of Dr. Phillips Mr. Rowland Tench,
who had been twenty-seven years at Shrewsbury, resigned
the second-mastership, and the Rev. Leonard Hotchkis was
promoted to fill the vacancy. On November 23rd, 1728,
the college authorities elected Mr. Humphrey Johnson, 4 one
of their own graduates, as third master. His father, Mr.
Joshua Johnson, had been accidence master at Shrewsbury
from 1706 to 1713. Dr. Phillips died on October nth, 1735.

1 Robert Phillips was son of Mr. James Phillips, of Frankwell, mercer, and
grandson of Mr. Robert Phillips, of Cruckmeole, gentleman. He graduated at
Christ Church, Oxford ; B.A. on January igth, 169?; M.A. on March 6th, 169!;
and B.D. and D.D. on April I3th, 1700. In 1696 he was presented to the
Vicarage of Kinlet by Thomas Childe, Esq. , whose widow, Sarah, daughter of Sir
Edward Acton, of Aldenham, Bart., he afterwards married as his second wife.
On September i6th, 1717, Dr. Phillips was appointed official of St. Mary's. He
resigned Kinlet on his appointment to Shrewsbury School, but retained his post
at St. Mary's. While living in Shrewsbury Dr. Phillips built the house on St.
John's Hill, which was subsequently occupied by Roger Kynaston, Esq.
(BZakeway MSS.)

3 See Hotchkis MSS.

3 Rice Jones > eldest son of John JoneSj Esq., of Blaenau, Merionethshire, was
born in 1713, and educated first at Dolgelley and afterwards at Shrewsbury. He
was intended for the legal profession, but gave up the idea on the death of his
father, and settled down at Blaenau as a country gentleman. He died in 1801.
His poems were published in 1811. (WiLLlAMs's Eminent Welshmen,}

4 Humphrey Johnson graduated B.A. in 1727 and M.A. in 1731.




LEONARD HOTCHKIS

HEAD MASTER 1735 1754



CHAPTER XI.

Leonard Hotchkis, M.A., Head Master, 1735-1754.

WHEN Dr. Phillips died, on October nth, 1735,
Leonard Hotchkis was at once made Head Master.
As we have seen in a former chapter, he had returned,
shortly after taking his degree at St. John's College, Cam-
bridge, to be accidence master in his old school. From that
post he had risen in succession to be third master and
second master. And now, after twenty- two years' work, he
succeeds to the highest place. The Deputy Mayor, William
Tourneur, Esq., 1 cannot have lost much time in obtaining
the consent of the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry to his
promotion, for, on October i/th, in less than a week after
the death of Dr. Phillips, Leonard Hotchkis was formally
put in possession of the Head Master's room. His work
began under somewhat gloomy conditions. He found only
eighteen boys in the highest school, and in the school he
had left there were but thirty-three ; the third school had
only twenty-five, and the accidence school only nine. On
the day that Mr. Hotchkis was admitted Mr. Johnson, the
third master, " withdrew himself from the school," and, nine
or ten days later, he sent in his formal resignation by letter. 2

1 The Mayor was Sir Richard Corbett, of Longnor, Bart., who probably did
not reside in Shrewsbury.

2 Leonard Hotchkis was the son of Mr. Richard Hotchkis, of Chirbury. He
was born on August 3oth, 1691 (Blakeway MSS.}, and was admitted sizar of St.
John's College, Cambridge, on June 9th, 1709, aged eighteen. He graduated
B.A. in 1712 and M.A. in 1716. His brother, the Rev. Richard Hotchkis,
Rector of St. George's, Barbados, whose wife was buried at St. Mary's in 1742,
is mentioned in a correspondence between Mr. Richard Gough and the Rev.
J. B. Blakeway towards the end of the eighteenth century. Richard Hotchkis

221



222 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

Disappointment that the Mayor and Head Master, instead
of promoting him to the second -mastership, had sent notice
of the vacancy to St. John's College, was probably the cause
of his resignation. The master and seniors selected, as their
first choice for the second school, the Rev. John Mall, 1 one
of their fellows, and Head Master of the Grammar School at
Bishop's Stortford. But he, after some months' hesitation,
determined to stay on at Bishop's Stortford, and the college
then elected the Rev. Mansfield Price, 2 M.A., another of their
fellows, and a former scholar of Shrewsbury.

Before the vacancy was filled up a difference had occurred
between the Head Master and the Deputy Mayor, who, in
conjunction with Mr. Brickdale, 3 brought into the school on
January 24th, to act as temporary master till the second-
mastership should be filled up, a certain Mr. Podmore,
contrary to the Head Master's wishes, and against his
consent. Hotchkis naturally thought that the Head Master
ought to have some voice in the selection of temporary
substitutes when a mastership happened to be vacant. But
he gave way on this occasion, noting, however, in his diary
his resolve never to do so again. Almost immediately after-
wards a fresh difference, and one of more serious character,
arose between the Head Master and the Corporation. By
the death of Dr. Phillips the office of official of St. Mary's
Church, which he had held for eighteen years, had become
vacant. For many years after the foundation of the school
this office had always gone with the curacy of St. Mary's,
to which the Head Master and Bailiffs up to 1634, and
the Head Master and Mayor after that date, had the legal

was then living in London, and was, as Gough believed, connected with the
Charterhouse. Probably he was one of the "old codds." (See NICHOL'S Literary
Illustrations, vol. v.) Richard Hotchkis was a benefactor to the school library in

1757-

1 Mr. Mall was a Shropshire man, and had been, we may safely assume,
educated at Shrewsbury.

2 Mr. Mansfield Price was nominated by the college on February 6th, 173!,
and was admitted to the second room on March nth by the Deputy Mayor.

3 Mr. Brickdale was a leading member of the Corporation, who had been
Mayor in 1721-22, and was now School Bailiff. He had been the chief actor in
the Hugh Owen business.



LEONARD HOTCHKIS 223

right to appoint. The first official, who was not also curate
of St. Mary's, was Mr. Pigott, the puritan Head Master, who
was appointed in 1651. Since that time the office had been
sometimes held by clergymen, and sometimes by laymen,
but never again by the curate of St. Mary's. In 1717 the
members of the Corporation set up an absurd claim to
appoint the official without any reference either to the
Mayor or to the Head Master, and formally elected the
Rev. Lawrence Gardner. But they do not seem to have
continued the struggle any longer after Dr. Phillips had
been duly appointed by the legal electors. 1 On his death,
however, when the post again became vacant, the claims
of the Corporation were asserted in a much more objection-
able fashion. On March 3Oth, 1736, Mr. Brickdale 2 and
Mr. Baskerville brought to the Head Master the draft of
a lease of the official's place, which the Corporation proposed
to grant to Mr. Ryder for the term of twenty-one years
at the annual rent of 40^., and asked for his signature ;
but they refused to leave it for his further consideration.
It is impossible to regard this proposed lease of the official's
place as anything but barefaced jobbery. 8 Whether Mr.
Hotchkis looked at the matter in this light or not is not
apparent. His assigned reason for refusing to join in
executing the lease was that his immediate predecessor
had been the official. He evidently was of opinion that
there was no good reason why he should not hold the
office just as it had been held before by Mr. Pigott and

1 On the occasion of Dr. Phillips's election the Mayor was William Kynaston,
Esq., a graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge, and a barrister-at-law, a man
unlikely to be influenced by those motives which seem unhappily so often to have
swayed the ordinary members of the Shrewsbury Corporation. His father was
William Kynaston, Esq., of Ryton, Salop. He had been at Shrewsbury School
in Mr. Lloyd's time, and was admitted at St, John's College on June i6th, 1698,
aged seventeen, graduating subsequently, B.A. in 1703 and M.A. in 1707.

2 Mr. Michael Brickdale, no doubt.

3 To seek the Plead Master's signature for the lease was practically to acknow-
ledge his legal rights with regard to the appointment of officials, and it is hardly
possible to suppose that the men, who were prepared to squander the school
money in hopeless efforts to maintain the untenable claims of the Corporation,
proposed to lease the office for the pecuniary benefit of the school.



224 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

Dr. Phillips. But, on finding that the Corporation was
determined on carrying out its scheme of jobbery by
leasing the place to Mr. Ryder, the Head Master, feeling
doubtless that his position would be stronger if he made
it impossible for it to be alleged that his conduct was
influenced by any mercenary motives, joined with Sir
Richard Corbett, the Mayor, in electing Mr. John Lloyd,
barrister-at-law, son of a former Head Master, as official
of St. Mary's. The Corporation, acting without the Mayor,
went through the form of electing Mr. Ryder, and resolu-
tions passed by that body during the next three years show
the lengths some of its members were prepared to go in their



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