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corrupt and dishonest employment of the school funds. 1

In 1737 a Corporation order was voted that 10 should be
taken from the school-chest towards the establishment of
Mr. Ryder's claims. In 1738 another resolution was passed
that proceedings should be taken against Mr. Lloyd, the
duly elected official, at the expense of the school revenue.
And in 1739 there is a third order on record that 10 more
should be taken for the same purpose. Mr. Blakeway states
that these sums were actually expended by the School
Bailiff, Mr. Michael Brickdale, by order of the Corporation,
and there is no doubt that the Head Master protested
formally sometime during the year 1737 against this mis-
application of school funds by the Corporation. In the
course of the year 1739 the controversy came to an end, Mr.
John Morton, the counsel for whose opinion a case had
been submitted by the Corporation, having advised that that
body was wholly in the wrong. 2 But four years later the
struggle was recommenced in a new form, only this time
the Corporation had the support of the Mayor, Mr. William
Turner, jun., a draper of Shrewsbury. Mr. John Lloyd, a
former fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, and nephew
of Mr. Richard Lloyd, sometime Head Master, who had

1 See Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 21,024.

2 The account given in the text of the dispute about the office of official at St.
Mary's is taken, partly from the Hotchkis MSS., and partly from the MSS. in the
British Museum before quoted.



LEONARD HOTCHKIS 225

been curate of St. Mary's since June, 1715, died on May i6th,
1743. The Mayor and the Head Master were unable to
agree in their choice of his successor. The Mayor advocated
the claims of the Rev. Benjamin Wingfield, who had been
appointed public preacher by the Corporation, but had never
been allowed by the late curate of St. Mary's to enter the
pulpit. The Head Master urged that Mr. Wingfield did not
possess the statutable qualification of having been educated
at Shrewsbury School, but expressed his willingness to join
the Mayor in nominating the most worthy among several old
Shrewsbury boys who were duly qualified in accordance with
the school ordinances. As a matter of fact, Mr. Wingfield had
been at Shrewsbury School for rather more than a year, some
time between 1715 and 1723, but he had been removed to
Wem Grammar School when still quite young on account of
the unsatisfactory condition of Shrewsbury School at that
time. The Mayor, supported by the Corporation generally,
insisted on nominating Mr. Wingfield, and the Head Master
followed suit by nominating, with the same formality, Mr.
Lloyd, 1 a graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge, whose
legal qualifications were undisputed. Mr. Hotchkis submitted
a case for the opinion of counsel, putting three questions
for consideration :

(1) Was Wingfield qualified as a scholar of Shrewsbury,
having left that school some years before his school educa-
tion was complete ?

(2) Would the Head Master's nomination of Lloyd
hold good in the event of Wingfield being pronounced
unqualified ?

(3) What was the best course to take under the circum-
stances ?

The opinion of the counsel consulted was that Mr.
Wingfield was not qualified in accordance with the school
ordinances, and that, the two electors having disagreed in
their choice, the Courts would probably hold that the election
had lapsed to the Crown.

1 This may possibly have been Mr. Moses Lloyd, who was elected fellow of
St. John's College on March 29th, 1726, and was a Shropshire man.

Q



226 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

Mr. Lloyd subsequently took proceedings in the Court of
Chancery with the view of getting his claim established. But
the Lord Chancellor held, as counsel had thought probable,
that the right of presentation had lapsed to the Crown, and
about January, i/4f, he nominated the Rev. Benjamin Wing-
field. The relations between the Head Master and the
Corporation had been strained from the first.

Up to the time of the consecration of the school chapel
in 1617, a regular stipend had been paid to the curate of
St. Mary's for catechising the boys. But as soon as the
school possessed a chapel of its own the curate ceased to
perform this duty, and the Rev. John Foorde was appointed
catechist at a salary of 20 per annum. 1 The Head Master
at this time was, we must bear in mind, a layman. The first
Head Master who filled the office of catechist was Chaloner,
and all his successors, down to Hotchkis, had received the
stipend of catechist as a matter of course. But soon after
Hotchkis became Head Master a few days before the
November audit of 1736 a resolution was passed by the
Corporation that 20 should be allowed to Mr. Hotchkis,
the chief schoolmaster, for catechising and reading prayers. 2
The motive for the resolution in question was palpable
enough to the Head Master. He held, and no doubt
correctly, that the catechist was a recognized school official
with a fixed stipend of 20 a year. He also considered,
and not unnaturally, that he had a prescriptive right to the
post, which had been occupied by all his predecessors for
one hundred years. On that supposition Mr. Hotchkis had,
from the time of his becoming Head Master, said prayers
in chapel morning and evening, and catechised the boys
every Saturday after school. But the municipal authorities
thought that by paying the Head Master for catechising
the boys, and not as catechist, they would hold in terrorem
over him the power of allowing or disallowing each year

1 The payment of 20 a year for catechising the boys, and, inferentially, the
office of catechist, received the sanction of the Court of Chancery in a decree of
1623. (Hotchkis MSS. )

2 This resolution was passed on November nth, 1736. (Hotchkis MSS.)



LEONARD HOTCHKIS 227

no less than one-fourth part of his income. The matter does
not seem to have been discussed at the annual audit on
November i6th, 1736. But when the School Bailiff paid
him the full stipend of 80 Mr. Hotchkis took the pre-
caution of giving separate receipts for 60 as Head Master
and 20 as catechist A year later an occurrence took
place which shows how correctly he had gauged the object
which the Corporation had in view. Some time before the
November audit of 1737 he had thought it his duty, as
Head Master and joint trustee of the school property, to
protest formally against the employment of school funds
by Mr. Michael Brickdale, the School Bailiff, by direction
of the Corporation, in order, if possible, to oust Mr. Lloyd
from his office as official of St. Mary's, to which he had
been duly elected, in 1736, by the Mayor and Head Master. 1
The result was that, when the audit took place on November
1 6th, 1737, the Mayor stopped the payment of 20 out of
the Head Master's stipend. Hotchkis, however, refused to
accept the reduced sum of 60 which was tendered him by
the School Bailiff at the Mayor's orders. A few days after-
wards the Head Master received a copy of a resolution
passed by the Corporation on November 22nd, to the effect
that the 20 should be paid him for the past year on con-
dition that he disclaimed in writing all claim to the stipend
for the future, until he had been formally admitted to the
office of catechist. This proposition was fair enough, and, as
Hotchkis does not again refer to the subject, it is probable
that he complied with the suggestion of the Corporation,
and that his formal appointment as catechist was subsequently
made out. It is only fair to add that for our knowledge of
these matters we are almost entirely dependent on Hotchkis's
own records, and although the line taken by the Corporation
was manifestly illegal, and the conduct of the Mayor at
the audit of 1737 shows plainly enough the chief motives
which influenced its members, we must bear in mind that
Dr. Phillips, the immediate predecessor of Mr. Hotchkis
as Head Master, does not appear either to have said the

1 See Hotchkis MSS. and Blakeway MSS.



228 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

daily prayers in chapel or to have catechised the boys, 1
and that the Mayor and others may have been partly
actuated by a desire to prevent, if possible, the recurrence
of such a scandal. 2

It has been mentioned that Mr. Humphrey Johnson, the
third master, resigned his office in the latter part of October,
1735. On the 24th of the following month the Rev. John
Brickdale, B.A., of St. John's College, was nominated by the
master and seniors to fill his place.

Mr. Mansfield Price did not long retain the second-master-
ship. On October 8th, 1737, he attended school for the last
time, and on November 8th the Rev. Humphrey Parry, 3 M.A.,
fellow of St. John's College, was admitted in his room.

The three senior masters had shown their interest in the
school in 1736 by a joint present to the library of g $s., a
large sum, comparatively speaking, in those days. But the
number of scholars continued small, and the constant inter-
ference of the Corporation in school matters must have been
very troublesome. Masters, at any rate, showed no inclination
to remain long at their posts. On November 2ist, 1737,
Hotchkis notes, Mr. Brickdale came to school to say that
" he would teach no more." The college, however, soon found
a successor, and on November 2ist Mr. Arthur Vaughan, B.A.,
another member of the college, was admitted as third master. 4

Although the school registers in Hotchkis's time, and,
indeed, for the whole of the eighteenth century, are lost,
it so happens that Hotchkis copied out in one of his MSS.

1 See Hotchkis MSS.

* This cannot have been their only reason. When the Mayor stopped the
catechist's stipend, on November i6th, 1737, it certainly was not on account of the
Head Master's neglect of the duties of that office, which Hotchkis had regularly
performed from the day of his admittance. (Hotchkis MSS. )

3 Mr. Humphrey Parry was a native of Montgomeryshire.

4 Mr. Vaughan resigned on September 3Oth, 1740, and was succeeded by Mr.
John Brooke, B.A., of St. John's College, who was nominated by the master and
seniors on October 8th, and formally admitted to the third room on October 1 5th
by Edward Twiss, Esq., the Mayor of Shrewsbury. In 1754 Mr. Brooke was
promoted to the second-mastership. He was in holy orders and held the rectory
of Upton Parva together with his mastership, retaining both offices till his death
on November 29th, 1763. He was buried at St. Mary's, where there is a
monument to his memory.






LEONARD HOTCHKIS 229

the names of the boys whom he admitted at Shrewsbury
from 1734 to 1745, and the schools in which they were
respectively placed. In the dearth of information as to the
inner history of the school at this time the number of names
as entered in each of these years is worth recording.

Year. Entries. First School. Second School. Third School.

1734 . . 22 o 7 15

1735 28 3 i 24

1736 . . 23 ... O ... 2 ... 21

1737 . 31 6 ... 12 ... 13

1738 . . 33 ... 7 ... 7 ... 19

1739 29 8 9 12

1740 . . 16 ... 4 ... i ... ii

1741 . . 27 ... 8 ... 6 ... 13

1742 . . 29 5 4 ... 20

1743 14 2 4 ... 8

1744 12 ... 2 ... 2 ... 8

1745 14 5 ... 2 ... 7

This table tells its own tale. The school numbers, which in
the days of Ashton and Lawrence and Chaloner had often
exceeded 400, and had sometimes risen to 6OO, 1 were now
fallen to 100 or less, and towards the latter part of the time
covered by these lists it is evident that they were still
further dwindling. Five years later we have Hotchkis's own
evidence that by that time matters had become nearly as bad
as they could be.

Writing on August 1st, 1750, he says, " I have had but two
or three boys a year from Mr. Parry for some years past, and
I do not see more than seven or eight in his school now who
ought to be in mine. It is a melancholy state to be in, and
I wish to get out of it." 2

Four years later Mr. Hotchkis resigned, though he con-
tinued to reside within sight of the school gardens till his

1 Mr. Collins quotes from MARMADUKE RAWDON's/^rwa/, published by the
Camden Society, a description of Shrewsbury as " a fair free schoole in which are
four masters, and there are sometimes 600 scholars, and a handsome library
thereto belonging." This was written in 1665. (COLLINS'S Public Schools.}

3 See COLLINS'S Public Schools.



230 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

death. 1 For many years he had been on intimate terms of
friendship with " Demosthenes Taylor." Both of them had
been at Shrewsbury School under Andrew Taylor, though not
at the same time, Taylor being the younger by thirteen years.

It was at Taylor's instigation that Leonard Hotchkis
undertook a new edition of Hephcestion? a work of which
Professor Gaisford spoke highly in 1810, acknowledging that
he had borrowed many things from it. Hotchkis published
in London, while still third master, a book of extracts,
Excerpta miscellanea ex probatissimis lingua Romance autori-
bus. In usum S choice Salopiensis. But it is evident enough
that the Head Master's chief delight lay in antiquarian
pursuits. He left to the school library four volumes of
MSS., consisting chiefly of transcripts or abstracts of im-
portant documents relating to school affairs which, in his
days, were still in the school-chest, but many of which have
now disappeared.

We learn from Archdeacon Owen that in 1808 these four
volumes of Hotchkis MSS. were "unfortunately missing,"
although three of them had been in the possession of the
Rev. J. B. Blakeway in i8o2. 3 The fourth volume, from
which Mr. Blakeway had made extracts some time pre-
viously, had already disappeared by that time. Within the
last few years all four volumes have been unexpectedly
discovered in Shrewsbury, 4 and they are now happily

1 He resigned on July 2nd, 1754, and died on November I2th, 1771, at the age
of eighty. Blakeway says that he was appointed Incumbent of Battlefield, near
Shrewsbury, in 1749. This cure he seems to have retained till his death,

2 Mr. Hotchkis made a complete transcript of Heph(zstion t with various read-
ings, a Latin version, and numerous notes. It was to have been printed at
Oxford in 1768 under the care of Mr. Barclay of Balliol College. But Mr.
Barclay died, and the manuscript disappeared until, many years afterwards, it was
found by Dr. Charles Burney at an obscure bookshop in London. It was on this
volume that Professor Gaisford based his edition of Hcphcssiion. (See letter from
Mr. Gaisford to Dr. S. Butler in Add. MSS. British Museum, No. 34,583.)

3 On June iQth, 1802, Mr. Blakeway, writing to Mr. Richard Gough, mentioned
that he had at the time three of these volumes in his possession, but that the
fourth volume, from which he had made extracts, was missing, although he hoped
it was not lost. (NlCHOL's Literary Ilfastrations, vol. v.)

4 Three volumes were found in the Town Hall, and the fourth was bought at a
sale by Mr. Adnitt, of Shrewsbury, who presented it to the Reference Library.
A replica of one of these four volumes has also been found.



LEONARD HOTCHKIS 231

located in the public Reference Library in the old school
buildings.

Hotchkis also left behind him a wonderful commonplace
book, which is said to contain 100,000 references on the most
miscellaneous subjects. Industrious, conscientious, scholarly,
and, like Meighen, a staunch defender of the school ordi-
nances as well as its revenues, Hotchkis certainly was. But,
as Head Master, he did not succeed in raising Shrewsbury
from the low estate to which it had fallen in the time of his
immediate predecessors.

Whether he failed as a teacher and disciplinarian, or
whether his want of success was due more to external
causes than to any fault of his, it is impossible now to
say. His affection for Shrewsbury School is beyond a doubt.
As boy and master he was connected with it for more than
fifty years, and the sense of his failure as Head Master
to revive its past glories must have embittered the closing
years of his life. 1

As to his various disputes with the Corporation of Shrews-
bury we may say with confidence that in every case Mr.
Hotchkis was both legally and morally in the right. Certainly
the protest, which he made in 1737 against the iniquitous
system which had been so long practised by the Corporation,
of paying out of school funds the legal expenses of the many
futile attempts its members had made to get the complete
management of school affairs into their hands, was honest

1 Some reminiscences of " Demosthenes Taylor," signed F. F., but which were
manifestly written by the Rev. George Ashby, are given in NICHOL'S Literary
Anecdotes, vol. iv. Mr. Ashby says that he had dined once or twice at Dr.
Taylor's house in Ave Maria Lane, and speaks of the "hospitality and generosity"
of his entertainments as " munificent." But he adds that his table was "too open
to all comers, some of whom were the dullest companions possible," and that one
of these, whom he thought to have been a schoolmaster, " was of all men I ever
met with the stupidest." Considering the intimate relations which existed between
Leonard Hotchkis and Taylor it is highly probable that Mr. Collins is right in
identifying the former with this " schoolmaster." But he goes on to suggest that
"perhaps those interminable manuscripts had muddled his faculties." Surely it
is more reasonable to suppose that disappointed hopes and a keen sense of failure
had depressed his spirits, and made him silent in company and little inclined to
draw upon his vast stores of general information for the entertainment of his
companions.



232 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

and courageous. Even Meighen, after the costly and ex-
asperating defeat which he sustained in 1613, in his attempt
to uphold the school ordinances and defend its revenues from
wasteful or corrupt expenditure, by the decision of the Court
of Chancery, did not again venture to resist such glaring
misappropriations of school funds as those which took place
in 1616-17 and I6I8-I9. 1 The last incident in Hotchkis's
time of which we have any record occurred in 1748. The
endowments of Shrewsbury School were mainly composed
of the tithes originally belonging to the parishes of St. Mary,
St. Chad, and Chirbury, and the chapelries of Astley and
Clive.

Mention has already been made of the prolonged struggles
on the part of the inhabitants of Chirbury and Clive to
obtain a larger income for their ministers out of the school
endowments. And now came St. Mary's turn, although the
fact that the well-endowed public preachership had for many
years been attached to the cure of St. Mary's made the
claims of that parish on the school revenues less pressing
than those of the other parishes and chapelries with which
the school was connected. In January, 1758, Mr. Benjamin
Wingfield, the curate of St. Mary's, presented a petition to
the Court of Chancery, asking for an increase of his stipend
out of the school funds. His application was opposed by
the Head Master, who pleaded in answer that Mr. John
Okell, alderman of Shrewsbury, had given in 1591 about
500 for the maintenance of a public preachership, to which
the Corporation had subsequently added 100, which was
obtained by the creation of twenty-two new burgesses, and
that from the rent -charge which was purchased with this
600 the curate of St. Mary's had enjoyed, as public preacher,
an annual stipend of 53 i6s. 8d. To this stipend a further



1 See Chapter V. In the extracts which Hotchkis gives from the school account-
book he notes that Mr. George Wright and Mr. Owen George, the Bailiffs of
1632-33, retained in their possession ^105 oj. 6^/., of which they gave no
account when they left office. Two years later, when called upon to explain this
expenditure, they "plainly made it appear" that the money had been laid out in
reparations, travelling, riding, lawsuits, etc.



LEONARD HOTCHKIS 233

addition of 20 per annum had been made in 1620, arising
out of the rent of lands purchased with Mr. Richard Wyn's
bequest of 300. Up to 1735, as Mr. Hotchkis alleged, the
whole of this income had been paid to the curate of St.
Mary's, in addition to the stipend of 20 which he received
from the school trustees. In that year, however, Mr. John
Lloyd, who then held the curacy of St. Mary's, was appointed
Rector of Berrington by the University of Cambridge. The
town authorities, considering his necessary residence at
Berrington to be incompatible with the regular residence in
Shrewsbury which was expected from the public preacher,
withheld from Mr. Lloyd 20 of the income attached to his
office. But they went much further in 1739, and, on the
ground that Mr. Lloyd had forfeited all claim to his office,
appointed the Rev. Benjamin Wingfield to be public preacher,
paying him 20 per annum, and keeping the remaining
53 i6s. %d. in their own hands. The Head Master's final
plea was that Mr. Wingfield was in collusion with the
Corporation to relieve funds administered by that body at
the expense of the school. If this account be correct, and
there seems no reason to doubt it, the charge made by
Hotchkis against Mr. Wingfield and the Corporation was
amply justified. 1 But Mr. Wingfield's petition was success-
ful, 2 and, as usual, the school funds suffered largely. In the
accounts for 1752-53 there is an entry of 316 14^. as "paid
to several persons " for " costs of Mr. Wingfield's petition by
order of Chancery," a sum which must have been enormously
in excess of the real costs. It is important too to notice that

1 As Mr. Lloyd does not seem to have taken any steps to compel the Corpora-
tion to pay him the stipend attached to the office of public preacher after 1739, it
may be assumed that that body had the legal power of depriving him. Sir
Richard Wilbraham too had given the opinion that the whole income of
,73 i6s. Set. was attached to the public preachership. (Add. MSS. Brit. Mus.,
21,024.) The gravamen of Hotchkis's charge was that since Mr. Wingfield's
appointment the Corporation had kept in its own hands a portion of the income
which belonged to the public preachership.

2 The first mention of the increased stipend of the curate of St. Mary's occurs
in 1752. In that year ^40 additional was paid him, 20 of which was to count
as arrears of the increase of stipend for the previous year. Hitherto, from 1578,
the curate had received 20 a year from the school trustees.



234 SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

in the accounts for the previous year there appears an item
of no less a sum than 549 is. $d. as having been paid for
"necessary expenses and business of the school/' no particulars
being given. 1

So far as can be judged from the names of the boys in
Hotchkis's list of entries from 1734 to 1745, and the matricu-
lation entries of such of them as proceeded to Oxford and
Cambridge, the large majority of his pupils were natives of
Shrewsbury or Shropshire. Few among them appear to
have attained high distinction in after life. The most
eminent of them all probably was Edward Waring, M.D.,
F.R.S., a native of Fitz, a village in Shropshire, who graduated
at Magdalene College, Cambridge, in 1757, and was appointed
two years afterwards to the Lucasian professorship of mathe-
matics, a post which he retained for thirty -eight years.
Waring's degree was considered so brilliant that the whole
body of his fellow- wranglers called on him in his rooms to
offer him their congratulations. Waring invited them all to
tea, and his entertainment was the origin of the society
known at Cambridge as "The Hyson Club." 2

Mr. John Maddox, K.C., a Chancery barrister of considerable
repute, who sat in Parliament for the borough of Westbury
from 1786 to 1790, was admitted at Shrewsbury School in 1735.

1 The "bill of particulars" is said in the accounts to "remain" in the school-
chest. This form of entry had now been in use for many years. But the
amounts entered under the head of " necessary expenses " in previous years had
been for the most part comparatively small. The largest among them, which
occurs in the accounts for 1729, is ^132 17*. 6d. The entry of such an enormous
sum as ^549 without any particulars is a most suspicious circumstance, especially
as it cannot include "repairs to houses, etc.," which always appear under a
different head in the annual accounts.

2 Edward Waring, eldest son of Mr. John Waring, was born in 1734, and
went up to Magdalene College, Cambridge, in 1754, with a Millington exhibi-
tion. He took his M.D. degree in 1767, and in 1771 his name appears in the
list of physicians to Addenbrooke's Hospital at Cambridge. About this time he
was in practice as a physician at St. Ives. In 1776 he married Mary, daughter
of Mr. William Oswell, a draper of Shrewsbury, who was Mayor in 1769.



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